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Output (economics)

Output in economics is the “quantity of goods or services produced in a given time period, by a firm, industry, or country”, whether consumed or used for further production. The concept of national output is essential in the field of macroeconomics. It is national output that makes a country rich, not large amounts of money.

The result of an economic process that has used inputs to produce a product or service that is available for sale or use somewhere else.

Net output, sometimes called netput is a quantity, in the context of production, that is positive if the quantity is output by the production process and negative if it is an input to the production process.

Several different methods of measuring output are utilized.

Calculating GDP (gross domestic product) is the most popular measure of national output. The main challenge in using this method is how to avoid counting the same product more than once. Logically, the total output should be equal to the value of all goods and services produced in a country, but in counting every good and service, one actually ends up counting the same output again and again, at multiple stages of production. One way of tackling the problem of over counting is to, consider only value addition, i.e., the new output created at each stage of production.

To illustrate, we can take a dressmaker who purchased a dress material for 500 rupees, then stitched and put final touches on the dress. She then sold the dress for 800 rupees (her costs of finishing the dress were 150 rupees). We can then say that she added 150 rupees worth of output to the dress, as opposed to saying that she produced 800 rupees worth of output. So value addition is equal to the sales price of a good or service, minus all the non-labour costs used to produce it.

To avoid the issue of over-counting, one can also focus entirely on final sales, where, though not directly but implicitly, all prior stage of output creation are accounted for.

Even though both methods are widely acknowledged to be accurate, the second method is known as the expenditure method and is used more widely, and is the standard method of calculation of GDP in most countries. The logic behind using the expenditure method is that if all the expenditures on final goods are added up, the sum should total the total production because the every produced good is eventually produced in some form or the other.

In both these methods, one has to be wary of the fact that consumption includes all spending by households, but business investment does not include all spending by firms, because if it did this would result in massive double counting because many of the things firms buy are processed and resold to consumers. As a result, investment only includes expenditures on output that is not expected to be used up in the short run.

Another possible way in which one may over count is if imports are involved. If a foreign individual or firm bought a product from some other country, i.e., if an American firm bought a Cambodian manufactured good cheap waterproof bags, then this expenditure cannot be counted in the consumer expenditures in American GDP since the output being purchased is foreign. To correct this issue, imports are eliminated from GDP.

Taking all this into account, we see that

A third way to calculate national output is to focus on income. In this method, we look at income which is paid to factors of production and labour for their services in producing the output. This is usually paid in the form of wages and salaries; it can also be paid in the form of royalties, rent, dividends, etc cornstarch meat tenderizer. Because income is a payment for output, it is assumed that total income should eventually be equal to total output.

The output condition for producers is the level of set so that the price of each goods equals the marginal cost of that goods, i.e.,

MC1\MC2 = P1\P2

From the equation we can see that the ratio of the marginal costs of the final goods is equal to their price ratio. One may also deduce the ratio of marginal costs as the slope of the production–possibility frontier, which would give the rate at which society can transform one good into another.

Exchange of output between two countries is a very common occurrence, as there is always trade taking place between different nations of the world. For example, Japan may trade its electronics with Germany for German-made cars. If the value of the trades being made by both the countries is equal at that point of time, then their trade accounts would be balanced: the exports would be exactly equal to imports in both the countries.

In macroeconomics, the question of why national output fluctuates is a very critical one. And though no one answer has been come up with running with a fanny pack, there are some factors which economists agree which make output go up and down. If we take growth into consideration, then most economists agree that there are three basic sources for economic growth such as increases in labour, increase in capital and increase in efficiency of the factors of production. Just like increases in inputs of factors of production can cause output to go up, anything that causes labour, capital or efficiency to go down will cause a decline in output or at least a decline in its rate of growth.

Grizzly Man

Grizzly Man is a 2005 American documentary film by German director Werner Herzog. It chronicles the life and death of bear enthusiast Timothy Treadwell. The film includes some of Treadwell’s own footage of his interactions with grizzly bears before 2003, and of interviews with people who knew, or were involved with Treadwell, as well as professionals dealing with wild bears.

He and his girlfriend Amie Huguenard were killed and eaten by a grizzly bear in 2003. Treadwell’s footage was found after his death. The bear that killed Treadwell and Huguenard was later encountered and killed by the group retrieving the remains of the victims. The final film was co-produced by Discovery Docs, the Discovery Channel’s theatrical documentary unit, and Lions Gate Entertainment. The film’s soundtrack is by British singer-songwriter and guitarist Richard Thompson.

Herzog used sequences extracted from more than 100 hours of video footage shot by Treadwell during the last five years of his life. He also conducted and filmed interviews with Treadwell’s family and friends, and bear and nature experts. Park rangers and bear experts commented on statements and actions by Treadwell, such as his repeated claims that he was defending the bears from poachers. Park rangers noted that there had never been a recorded incident of poaching at this national park.

As another example, Treadwell claimed he had “gained the trust” of certain bears, sufficient to approach and pet them. Park rangers pointed out that bears are wild and potentially dangerous animals; given that, Treadwell was lucky to have survived so long as he did without being mauled running with a fanny pack. One park ranger suggested that the bears were so confused by Treadwell’s direct, casual contact that they weren’t sure how to react to him. Other park rangers point out that the bears were not threatened by poachers custom youth football jerseys cheap, but Treadwell’s actions put them at real risk of harm and death. By familiarizing them with human contact, he increased the likelihood that they would approach human habitation seeking food, and cause a confrontation in which humans would kill them.

In 2003, Treadwell was camping in Katmai National Park with his girlfriend, Amie Huguenard. Treadwell usually left the park at the end of summer but that year stayed into early October. This put him and Huguenard at greater risk, as in this period, bears are aggressive about searching for food to store up calories for hibernation during the winter. Herzog speculates that their staying later in the season ultimately resulted in the deaths of Treadwell and Huguenard.

In addition to presenting views from friends and professionals, Herzog narrates and offers his own interpretations of events. He concluded that Treadwell had a sentimental view of nature, thinking he could tame the wild bears. Herzog notes that nature is cold and harsh. Treadwell’s view clouded his thinking and led him to underestimate danger, resulting in his death and that of his girlfriend.

Treadwell’s video camera captured an audio record of the bear attack. Herzog refrained from making this a part of the film alabama wholesale socks, but he is shown listening to it, clearly disturbed. The director advised Palovak (the owner of the tape) to destroy it rather than listen to it. He later repudiated his own advice, saying it was

“Stupid… silly advice born out of the immediate shock of hearing—I mean, it’s the most terrifying thing I’ve ever heard in my life. Being shocked like that, I told her, ‘You should never listen to it, and you should rather destroy it. It should not be sitting on your shelf in your living room all the time.’ [But] she slept over it and decided to do something much wiser. She did not destroy it but separated herself from the tape, and she put it in a bank vault.”

The coroner gave Palovak Treadwell’s wristwatch, which had been retrieved from his left arm, one of the few remains found. Willy Fulton, the pilot who discovered the remains of Treadwell and his girlfriend, had noted seeing the lone arm with the wristwatch and not being able to keep the image out of his mind.

Treadwell spent 13 summers in Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Over time, he believed the bears grew to trust him; they allowed him to approach them and he had even touched them. He gained some national notoriety for his work with the bears and founded Grizzly People with his friend Jewel Palovak. They worked to protect bears in national parks by raising awareness.

Park officials repeatedly warned him that his interaction with the bears was unsafe to both him and to the bears. “At best, he’s misguided,” Deb Liggett, superintendent at Katmai and Lake Clark national parks, told the Anchorage Daily News in 2001. “At worst, he’s dangerous. If Timothy models unsafe behavior, that ultimately puts bears and other visitors at risk.” Treadwell filmed his exploits, and used the films to raise public awareness of the problems faced by bears in North America. In 2003, at the end of his 13th visit, he and his girlfriend Amie Huguenard were attacked, killed, and partially eaten by a bear. The events that led to the attack are unknown.

Jewel Palovak, co-founder of Grizzly People and a close friend of Treadwell’s, had to give her approval for the film to be produced, as she controlled his video archives. The filmmakers had to deal with logistical as well as sentimental factors related to Treadwell’s footage of his bear interactions. Grizzly People is a “grassroots organization” concerned with the treatment of bears in the United States. After her friend’s death, Palovak was left with control of Grizzly People and Treadwell’s 100 hours of archival footage. As his close friend, former girlfriend, and confidante, she had a large emotional stake in the production. She had known Treadwell since 1985 and felt a deep sense of responsibility to her late friend and his legacy.

She said that he had often discussed his video archives with her. “Timothy was very dramatic,” she once said. She quoted Treadwell as saying, “‘If I die, if something happens to me, make that movie. You make it. You show ’em.’ I thought that Werner Herzog could definitely do that.”

Grizzly Man premiered at the 2005 Sundance Film Festival and its limited US theatrical release began on August 12, 2005. It was later released on DVD in the United States on December 26, 2005. The Discovery Channel aired Grizzly Man on television on February 3, 2006; its three-hour presentation of the film included a 30-minute companion special that delved deeper into Treadwell’s relationship with the bears and addressed controversies related to the film.

The DVD release lacks an interview with Treadwell by David Letterman, which was shown in the original theatrical release. Letterman had joked that Treadwell would be eaten by a bear. The versions televised on the Discovery Channel and Animal Planet both retain this scene.

Grizzly Man opened on August 12, 2005 in 29 North America venues. It grossed US$269,131 ($9,280 per screen) in its opening weekend, ranking number 26 in the box office. At its widest point, it played at 105 theatres, and made US$3,178,403 in North America during its run, with $882,902 overseas for a worldwide total of $4,061,305.

Upon its North American theatrical release, Grizzly Man was acclaimed by critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 93% “Certified Fresh” score based on 136 reviews, with an average rating of 8/10. The site’s consensus states: “Whatever opinion you come to have of the obsessive Treadwell, Herzog has once again found a fascinating subject.” Metacritic reports an 87 out of 100 rating based on 35 critics, indicating “universal acclaim”.

David Denby of The New Yorker said:

“Narrating in his extraordinary German-accented English, Herzog is fair-minded and properly respectful of Treadwell’s manic self-invention. He even praises Treadwell as a good filmmaker: as Treadwell stands talking in the foreground of the frame, the bears play behind him or scoop up salmon in sparkling water; in other shots, a couple of foxes leap across the grass in the middle of a Treadwell monologue. The footage is full of stunning incidental beauties.”

Film critic Roger Ebert, a longtime supporter of Herzog’s work, awarded the film four out of four stars.

“‘I will protect these bears with my last breath’, Treadwell says. After he and Amie become the first and only people to be killed by bears in the park, the bear that is guilty is shot dead. Treadwell’s watch, still ticking, is found on his severed arm. I have a certain admiration for his courage, recklessness, idealism, whatever you want to call it, but here is a man who managed to get himself and his girlfriend eaten, and you know what? He deserves Werner Herzog.”

Charlie Russell, a naturalist who studied bears for many years, lived near them and raised them for a decade in Kamchatka. He corresponded with Treadwell and wrote about the film:

“Herzog is a skillful filmmaker so a large percentage of those who watch the movie Grizzly Man, overlook Timothy’s amazing way with animals even though to me this stands out very strongly. The fact that Timothy spent an incredible 35,000 hours, spanning 13 years, living with the bears in Katmai National Park, without any previous mishap, escapes people completely. Even with his city-kid background, I found myself mesmerized by what he could do with animals.”

The film placed at No. 94 on Slant Magazine’s best 100 films of the 2000s.

Commander Keen in Keen Dreams

Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) (voir l’aide à la rédaction).

Commander Keen in Keen Dreams (ou The Lost Episode) est un jeu vidéo de plate-forme sorti en 1991 et fonctionne sur DOS, il est un épisode additionnel de la série Commander Keen wholesale spa socks. Développé par Id Software et édité par Apogee Software et Activision, le jeu a été conçu par John Carmack et Tom Hall cool soccer socks. Il a été distribué en partagiciel.

Après avoir refusé de manger ses légumes, Billy (Commander Keen), est envoyé au lit par ses parents, il s’endort pour ne se réveiller que dans un univers de végétaux dirigé par le maléfique roi des pommes de terre : Boobus Tuber, qui a emprisonné de nombreux autres enfants. Billy ne pourra pas compter sur ses armes habituelles pour venir à bout de Boobus Tuber, et ne disposera que de l’engrais Flower Power qui lui permet de transformer temporairement, en fleur, ses ennemis running with a fanny pack.

Gerardo Morán

Gerardo Morán (2 de diciembre de 1968, San Pablo de Pita, Ecuador) es un cantante de tecnocumbia ecuatoriano, también conocido como El más querido.

Gerardo Morán nació el 2 de diciembre de 1968 en San Pablo de Pita, cantón Caluma, provincia de Bolívar running with a fanny pack, Ecuador. Aprendió a temprana edad a tocar la guitarra e inició en el canto en concursos de aficionados a la edad de 8 años, tanto dentro y fuera de la provincia. Más tarde radica en la ciudad de Sangolquí.

Su carrera profesional inicia en 1985 a los 17 años cuando saca su primer disco con temas como 17 años y Hay que saber amar con gran aceptación.

Su producción discográfica de 1987 la realizó con el género musical de rocola, sin embargo no tuvo tanto éxito.

En el año 2000 lanza su segunda producción discográfica con la que logra posicionarse en el mercado con su tema símbolo, En vida, teniendo gran éxito entre sus presentaciones, y con el cual es conocido por todos como El más querido rolling meat tenderizer.

En 2011 sacó nuevos temas como Ahora soy feliz, La verbenita, El casorio y Despedida, la cual es interpretada en compañía de la orquesta The Franklin Band.

En 2013 canta junto a Jesús Fichamba en un evento de inauguración de la Plaza Colón de la ciudad de Machala.

En 2014 lanzó sus temas Linda Guambra, Adiós y Negra del Alma thermos hydration bottle with straw, y compartió escenario con Romeo Santos y Américo.

Gerardo Morán fue electo asambleista por Bolivar en el periodo 2009-2013.

Gerardo Morán está casado y tiene dos hijas, Jéssica Dayana y Kerly Estefanía, y dos hijos football socks free delivery, Jahir Gerardo y Joshua Gerardo, que son gemelos.

En 2015 estuvo envuelto en una polémica legal con la cantante Jenny Paoly Romero quien aseguraba que fue amante de Gerardo y que producto de dicho romance tuvo gemelas de las cuales una de sus hijas falleció al nacer.

En 2016 se estrenó en Ecuavisa una miniserie llamada El más Querido, la cual trataba de la vida de Gerardo Morán, sus inicios en la música y sus amores, siendo protagonizada por el actor Santiago Carpio.

Zaha Hadid

Dame Zaha Hadid (in arabo: زها حديد‎; Baghdad, 31 ottobre 1950 – Miami, 31 marzo 2016) è stata un’architetta e designer irachena naturalizzata britannica.

Ha ricevuto il Premio Pritzker nel 2004 (prima donna a ottenerlo) e il Premio Stirling nel 2010 e nel 2011 sweater ball remover. È stata una delle capofila e massime esponenti della corrente decostruttivista. Nel 2010 il TIME la include nell’elenco delle 100 personalità più influenti al mondo. Nel 2013, lo studio Zaha Hadid Architects con 246 architetti dipendenti, si colloca al 45º posto nell’elenco dei più importanti studi di architettura del mondo secondo BD Insurance Bureau.

Nata a Baghdad, in Iraq, da una famiglia benestante (il padre era un ricco industriale e un importante politico), è cresciuta in uno dei primi edifici bauhaus di ispirazione a Baghdad durante un’epoca in cui “modernismo” significava glamour e pensiero progressista” in Medio Oriente.

Ha conseguito una laurea in matematica alla American University di Beirut prima di trasferirsi a Londra, nel 1972, per studiare alla Architectural Association, dove ha incontrato Rem Koolhaas, Elia Zenghelis e Bernard Tschumi. Dopo aver conseguito il titolo ha lavorato con i suoi ex professori, Koolhaas e Zenghelis, presso l’Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA), a Rotterdam, nei Paesi Bassi, diventando socia nel 1977. Attraverso la sua associazione con Koolhaas, ha incontrato Peter Rice, l’ingegnere che le ha dato sostegno e l’ha incoraggiata nella fase iniziale, in un momento in cui il suo lavoro sembrava difficile. Nel 1994 ha insegnato alla Graduate School of Design dell’Università di Harvard, occupando la cattedra che fu di Kenzo Tange. Nel 1980 fonda il suo studio, con sede a Londra. Dagli anni ottanta insegna alla Architectural Association.

È scomparsa nel 2016 all’età di 65 anni, a seguito di un attacco cardiaco mentre era in ospedale a Miami, dove era stata ricoverata per una bronchite.

Zaha Hadid ha insegnato in prestigiose università di tutto il mondo, tra cui la Harvard Graduate School of Design, dove è stato alla cattedra Kenzo Tange e presso la Facoltà di Architettura all’University of Illinois di Chicago, dove ha insegnato il presidente Sullivan. Ha anche lavorato come docente ospite presso la Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg di Amburgo, la Scuola di Architettura Knowlton all’Università statale dell’Ohio, la Masters Studio alla Columbia University e la Scuola Eero Saarinen di Progettazione Architettonica presso la Yale School of Architecture running with a fanny pack. Dal 2000 Zaha Hadid è stata professore ospite presso l’Università di Arti Applicate di Vienna, nel Zaha Hadid Master Class Vertical-Studio.

È stata nominata membro onorario dell’American Academy of Arts and Letters e dell’American Institute of Architects. È anche stata nel Consiglio di fondazione di The Architecture Foundation.

Vincitrice di molte competizioni internazionali, diversi dei suoi vincenti progetti non furono mai costruiti, come ad esempio il Peak Club in Hong Kong (1983) e il Cardiff Bay Opera House in Galles (1994). Nel 1999 è la progettista per il palcoscenico e la scenografia del Nightlife Tour dei Pet Shop Boys, evento di forte impatto visivo, e nel 2002 Hadid vinse la competizione internazionale per disegnare il masterplan dell’one-north di Singapore. Nel 2005, il suo progetto vinse la competizione per il nuovo Casinò della città di Basilea in Svizzera.

Nel 2004 Hadid è diventata la prima donna e la prima SIKH a vincere il Premio Pritzker di Architettura, che in architettura equivale a un Premio Nobel. È membro del comitato di redazione della Enciclopedia Britannica. Nel 2006, è stata onorata con una retrospettiva che attraversa tutta la sua opera al Museo Guggenheim di New York, anche quest’anno ha ricevuto una laurea honoris causa presso l’Università americana di Beirut. Fonda il suo studio di progettazione architettonica, Zaha Hadid Architects, che impiega più di 400 persone e ha sede in un ex edificio scolastico vittoriano a Clerkenwell, Londra.

Nel 2008, è stata classificata 69ª nella rivista Forbes delle 100 donne più potenti del mondo”. Il 2 gennaio 2009, è stata la guest editor del programma della mattina della BBC, Today.

Nel 2010, è stata nominata dal TIME come un pensatore influente nel numero TIME 100. Nel settembre 2010, la rivista britannica New Statesman ha posizionato Zaha Hadid al 42esimo posto nella loro indagine annuale delle “50 figure più influenti al mondo del 2010”. Lei è stata indicata come una delle 50 meglio vestite oltre 50 anni da The Guardian nel marzo 2013.

Ha vinto il Premio Stirling per due anni consecutivi: nel 2010, per una delle sue opere più celebri, il MAXXI, il nuovo centro per le arti contemporanee, a Roma, nel 2011 per la Evelyn Grace Academy, una scuola con forme a Z a Brixton, Londra.

Hadid è stata il progettista del Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park a Seul, Corea del Sud, che dovrebbe essere il fulcro dei festeggiamenti per la designazione della città come Capitale Mondiale del Design del 2010.

Hadid è stata nominata Commendatore dell’Ordine dell’Impero Britannico nel 2002 e Dama di Commenda dell’Ordine dell’Impero Britannico nel 2012, al compleanno con onorificenze per i servizi all’architettura.

Ha anche intrapreso un lavoro di alto profilo d’interni, tra cui la Zona Mente e la Zona Piedi al Millennium Dome di Londra, così come le installazioni di mobili fluidi nei dintorni georgiani del club privato Home House a Marylebone, e la macchina a idrogeno Z.CAR, un’automobile a tre ruote.

Nel 2007 Hadid ha progettato il divano Moon System per B&B Italia, il principale produttore di mobili in italia. Nel 2008 ha disegnato una collezione di scarpe per Lacoste. Nello stesso anno, ha anche collaborato con la rubinetteria produttore Triflow concetti per produrre due nuovi progetti a sua firma parametrico stile architettonico. Nel 2010 su commissione dell’amico Karl Lagerfeld progetta il Mobile Art Pavilion per Chanel.

Nel 2010 a Zaha Hadid è stato commissionata, dal governo iracheno, la progettazione del nuovo edificio per la Banca centrale irachena, questo sarà il suo primo progetto nel suo paese d’origine, l’Iraq. Un altro lavoro include Pierres Vives, il nuovo edificio dipartimentale record (ospita tre istituzioni riddell football jerseys, vale a dire, l’archivio, la biblioteca e il reparto sportivo), per il dipartimento francese Hérault, a Montpellier.

Nel 2008, il progetto per la Vilnius Guggenheim Hermitage Museum è stato nominato come il migliore. Inoltre, ha progettato la Innovation Tower per l’University del Politecnico di Hong Kong], che verrà completata nel 2013; la Chanel Mobile Art Pavilion, visualizzata a Hong Kong nel 2008. Nel 2010 ha completato un nuovo edificio: l’Evelyn Grace Academy di Londra.

Fra le sue attività ci sono anche molti progetti inerenti al mondo del disegno industriale e non solo a quello architettonico. Nel 2008, per esempio, la designer irachena ha realizzato, per l’azienda italiana Serralunga, Flow: un particolare vaso in polietilene una scultura a tutto tondo che mostra un profilo diverso da ogni angolazione lo si guardi. Il fascino del vaso è dato non solo dalla particolare forma quasi organica che si contrappone alla pulizia della superficie laccata running waist bag, ma anche dalle generose dimensioni, difatti è stato realizzato in due grandezze, la più grande è di 2 metri di altezza, la più piccola di 1,20 m. Flow è realizzato tramite il sistema produttivo a stampaggio rotazionale.

Altri progetti


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Kaleo est un groupe Islandais de folk et rock, formé en 2012. Ses membres actuels sont Jökull Júlíusson (voix et guitare), Davíð Antonsson (percussions et voix), Daníel Ægir Kristjánsson (basse), et Rubin Pollock (guitare and voix).

Kaleo a sorti deux albums studio, Kaleo (2013) et A/B (2016), ainsi qu’un EP, Glasshouse (2013).

La première apparition publique majeure du groupe était au festival Iceland Airwaves Music en novembre 2012. Ils ont gagné en popularité après que leur chanson “Vor í Vaglaskógi” a été largement diffusée par la radio islandaise Rás 2 et est apparue dans la liste top 10 de la station press art lemon squeezer. Cette chanson est également apparue dans le premier épisode de la série télévisée Trapped.

En 2014, le groupe attire l’attention quand leur single “All the Pretty Girls” dépasse les 23 millions d’écoutes sur Spotify thermos sports bottle.

Début 2015, Kaleo signe avec Atlantic Records and s’installe à Austin, TX. Pendant l’année 2015, Kaleo attire l’attention aux États-Unis. Leur performance au South by Southwest (SXSW) en 2015 recueille les critiques positives de la presse. Ils apparaissent notamment dans la liste des “40 groupes à écouter” de Esquire‘. “All the Pretty Girls” a atteint la neuvième place du classement des Chansons Adultes Alternatives de Billboard running with a fanny pack.

En août 2015, Kaleo sort le single “Way Down We Go”. La chanson apparait dans la série Blindspot, dans la bande originale de FIFA 16, dans l’épisode final de la saison 5 finale de Suits, ainsi que dans la bande annonce de la saison 4 de la série Orange Is the New Black. Aux États-Unis, la chanson atteint la 8e place du classement des Chansons Adultes Alternatives, et la 9e place des Hot Rock Songs.

Kaleo est influencé par la musique folk, blues, et les classiques rock.

Le groupe est constitué de:

Cet article est issu de l’article en anglais de Kaleo.