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Voile de Manoppello

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Le voile de Manoppello est une image de Jésus-Christ imprimée sur un byssus, un voile de 17,5 x 24 cm, à l’origine plus grand. Cette relique d’origine inconnue est arrivée à Manoppello en 1506, apportée par un pèlerin inconnu, qui a disparu sans laisser de traces immédiatement après la livraison au père Giacomo Antonio Leonelli. Il est conservé au sanctuaire de Manoppello (Pescara) dans les Abruzzes, à 90 km de Rome. Cette image aurait servi de modèle pour les représentations ultérieures de la Sainte Face. Benoît XVI a rendu visite au sanctuaire le 1er septembre 2006.

En 1999, le jésuite Heinrich Pfeiffer déclara avoir découvert dans un monastère capucin le voile de Véronique, au lieu dit Manoppello, en Italie. Dans une conférence de presse à Rome, il déclara également que cet objet était gardé secrètement dans ce monastère en question depuis 1660, mais en réalité Pfeiffer avait déjà mentionné le voile bien avant la date de sa découverte supposée en 1999.

La tradition veut qu’en 1508, le docteur Leonelli obtint le voile d’un pèlerin anonyme, puis qu’il devint une possession de famille jusqu’en 1608, date à laquelle une héritière le vendit au notaire Donnantonino De Fabritiis pour payer la caution de son mari jeté en prison. En 1638, le Signor De Fabritiis cède le voile au monastère des capucins à Manoppello qui le placent dans un cadre et l’exposer à la vénération des foules. Cette tradition a été documentée en partie dans la « Relatione historica » du père Donato da Bomba, composée entre 1640 et 1646, probablement pour légitimer a posteriori la présence de la relique dans le monastère et justifier la disparition au Vatican de la relique.

Heinrich Pfeiffer propose sa théorie personnelle : le voile de Manoppello et celui dit de Véronique (appelé « veronica ») ne seraient qu’un et unique objet. Apparu à Jérusalem, il aurait transité par Éphèse, Camulia (en) puis la translation de la relique aurait eu lieu jusqu’à la chapelle du palais du Latran enfin dans la chapelle Véronique de la basilique Saint-Pierre de Rome. Volé au Vatican en 1506 ou lors du sac de Rome en 1527, le voile aurait été rapporté à Manoppello par Fernando de Alarcón. Selon André Chastel, elle a été vendue dans une taverne de Rome par les pillards luthériens. Pfeiffer déclare également que le voile daterait du temps de Jésus et qu’il aurait été placé directement sur le corps de ce dernier, l’image ayant été formée sur le tissu, toujours selon Pfeiffer, par des phénomènes paranormaux. Pfeiffer propose également toute une liste de divers lieux de transit au Moyen Orient et en Europe jusqu’aux dates avancées par la tradition populaire de l’acquisition du voile. Nombre d’historiens contestent fermement ces déclarations en soulignant que le voile de Manoppello n’aurait aucun lien avec Rome et ne daterait pas du Ier siècle ap. J.-C.., mais serait vraisemblablement produit au XVIe siècle.

Le vendredi 1er septembre 2006, le Saint Père Benoît XVI s’est rendu dans les Abbruzes, au sanctuaire de la Sainte Face. Le pape a réalisé ce pèlerinage pour le cinquième centenaire de l’arrivée du voile à Manoppello.

Le voile mesure 17,5 x 24 cm. Le textile serait tissé en fibre de byssus (ou soie marine)

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, un matériau fort prisé depuis l’antiquité et toujours aujourd’hui puisque le mollusque bivalve produisant ces fibres, la grande nacre, est en voie de disparition en Méditerranée, où il est endémique. C’est un filament opalescent très fin, brun doré.

Le professeur Giulio Fanti, de l’université de Padoue, qui a étudié le voile en 2001, a révélé que « la microscopie montre des substances colorées de remplissage dans divers détails anatomiques ».

D’autres sont enclins à penser que l’image serait acheiropoïète — non fabriquée par la main de l’homme —, hypothèse supposant une origine divine. Saverio Gaeta, auteur d’un livre sur le voile, affirme que ce qui semble être des pigments et ceci uniquement dans les petites zones du voile, peut-être dû à « une retouche faite par une personne au Moyen Âge, afin d’accroître l’intensité de l’aspect ». Selon le professeur Don Vittori de l’université de Bari, ayant réalisé en 1997 un examen avec ultraviolet, les fibres du voile ne présentent aucun type de couleur, les observations microscopiques montrant que cette relique n’est ni peinte ni tissée avec des fibres colorées. Avec des techniques photographiques du zoom numérique, l’image serait identique des deux côtés du voile.

Roberto Falcinelli, dans un article de Héra (septembre 2005), a écrit qu’il est « incroyable comment nous continuons à dire et à écrire que sur le voile il ne se trouve aucune trace de pigment lorsque, au lieu de cela kelme soccer cleats, une simple observation microscopique, montre clairement le contraire&nbsp

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;». Son avis est qu’il s’agit d’une œuvre picturale du début du XVIe siècle.

La description de l’image montre sur les deux côtés du voile le visage d’un homme encadré de cheveux avec du sang. Le visage a les yeux ouverts et représente une personne vivante. Le visage est tracé avec précision dans les traits des cheveux et dans les détails. La coloration est intense avec des nuances sur le brun. Les lèvres sont légèrement rosées.

Le front est haut, encadré de cheveux tombant sur les épaules avec des boucles. Les yeux sont bruns et regardent intensément de côté et vers le haut, laissant entrevoir le blanc de l’iris. L’homme porte une moustache clairsemée et une barbe divisée en deux parties.

Le visage est asymétrique, contusionné, avec un côté enflé. Le front et les lèvres sont mouchetés de rose, évoquant autant de plaies. La joue droite paraît enflée. Le nez est tuméfié est semble cassé. Les narines sont inégales. La barbe est partiellement arrachée par endroits.

Des taches se distinguent et pourraient être interprétées comme du sang, en particulier près de la bouche et du nez.

Sur le linceul de Turin et le voile de Manoppello sont inscrites les plaies du visage contusionné, le front et les lèvres mouchetés de rose évoquant autant de plaies, l’enflure de la joue droite, le nez semblant cassé au niveau du cartilage, la barbe partiellement arrachée par endroits, les minuscules taches de sang dues aux épines. Le nez mesure dans les deux cas environ huit centimètres. La barbe se divise en deux petites pointes, la partie gauche est plus fournie que la droite.

Le prêtre Enrico Sammarco et sœur Blandina Paschalis Schlömer ont émis l’hypothèse selon laquelle le visage du suaire de Turin et celui du voile de Manoppello seraient identiques, chose hautement contestée par la majorité des experts en la matière.

Selon la tradition, l’image du visage du Christ se serait aussi imprimée durant son chemin de croix sur le voile de sainte Véronique. Cette légende pourrait prendre sa source lorsque le voile était exposé à la dévotion des pèlerins à Rome. Le voile était appelé la veronica (c’est-à-dire la vraie icône). La légende de Véronique permettait d’expliquer la formation de l’image.

Une autre légende rapporte que le roi Abgar d’Édesse fit faire le portrait de Jésus, ce qui est rapporté par saint Jean Damascène : ce qui est appelé l’« Image d’Édesse » ou Mandylion :

«  Un récit nous est parvenu par une ancienne tradition, je veux parler d’Abgar, souverain d’Édesse. Enflammé d’amour divin par la renommée du Seigneur, il envoya des messagers pour demander sa visite. Au cas où il s’y refuserait, il ordonna à un peintre d’exécuter son portrait. Sachant cela, celui qui connaît tout et peut tout, prit le tissu et le posa sur son visage ; il y imprima sa propre physionomie. Tout cela est conservé jusqu’à maintenant. »

«  Abgar régnait sur la ville d’Édesse ; il envoya un peintre pour tracer l’image ressemblante du Seigneur ; comme le peintre ne le pouvait pas en raison de l’éclat resplendissant du visage, le Seigneur lui-même appliqua un vêtement à son propre visage divin et vivifiant, il y imprima sa représentation, et il l’envoya à Abgar qui la désirait. »

— Jean Damascène, Traité des images (750)

Cette légende prend sa source dans la conversion du roi d’Édesse, Abgar IX, surnommé Abgar le Grand, entre l’an 180 et 192. Septimius Severus devient empereur de Rome en l’an 193. Avec l’intensification des persécutions romaines contre les chrétiens, la discipline du secret est utilisée. Elle consiste à utiliser un langage codé pour les initiés.

Le saint voile et le linceul de Turin superposés

sainte Véronique

Hans Memling, sainte Véronique

Le Volto Santo de Lucques, lui, est le visage de bois sculpté (par un ange) du Crucifix de Lucques attribué à saint Nicodème.

Paula Ann Gallant

Paula Ann Gallant (December 5, 1969 – December 27, 2005) was a Canadian school teacher that was murdered by asphyxiation due to strangulation On December 27, 2005

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, Gallant and her husband, Jason MacRae were in their basement arguing about a debt from online gambling. After MacRae walked back down to the basement where Gallant was siting at the computer, he hit her in the back of her head with a two-by-four wood board kelme soccer cleats. He then proceeded to strangle her to the floor until she stopped moving and then wrapped her head with Saran Wrap to make sure she was dead.

Gallant was a grade three teacher at Beechville Lakeside Timberlea School. Gallant was actively involved in her school and community, and art was one of her passions. She was pursuing her Certificate in Visual Arts at NSCAD kelme shoes india.
On December 27, 2005, Shortly after 7:00PM her husband had contacted his wife’s sister Lana Kenny to see if she know of her whereabouts. At their house 45mins later MacRae contacted the Halifax Regional Police reporting that Gallant had not returned from Costco, since 2:00PM.
Family and friends search the community and called friends and neighbors trying to locate Gallant. At around 12:30 December 28, 2005, Gallant’s car was located at the Beachville-Lakeside-Timberlea School where she teaches a Grade 3 art class. The car was locked and her body was found in the trunk of her green 1997 Chevrolet Cavalier. She was wrapped in a blanket in a fetal position.
Gallant’s murder was covered locally and nationally throughout Canada. The family and MacRae were interviewed and profiled by the The National and The Fifth Estate, in 2006. Her death was one of Nova Scotia’s most high-profile unsolved homicides.

Southwest Ranches, Florida

Southwest Ranches is an affluent town in Broward County, Florida. It is located on the eastern edge of the Everglades, 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Fort Lauderdale. It became the county’s 30th incorporated place in 2000 to avoid annexation into Pembroke Pines and to preserve its semi-rural lifestyle kelme soccer cleats. Because the area has many horse ranches and is located in the southwestern part of Broward County, residents chose “Southwest Ranches” over many other potential town names.
The population at the 2010 census was 7

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,345. The town includes the 2000 census-designated places of Country Estates, Green Meadow, Rolling Oaks, and Sunshine Ranches (as well as sub-neighborhoods Landmark Ranch Estates and Sterling Ranch Estates), all of which are now Southwest Ranches neighborhoods. To support its rural-equestrian lifestyle, the town has developed miles of multi-use trails.

In 1996, Pembroke Pines proposed a bill to the Broward County Legislative Delegation to annex all the unincorporated areas between Griffin Road, Sheridan Street, Flamingo Road, and SR 25 into Pembroke Pines. Hundreds of citizens from the unincorporated area of Southwest Ranches packed the delegation hearing in November 1996 at Pembroke Pines City Hall to protest this takeover and to call for the right to form their own city. As a result of this grassroots effort, the State Legislature passed a bill in the 1997 session which called for a vote of Southwest Ranches’ citizens in March 2000; they could be annexed into either Pembroke Pines or Davie or become a new city.
Southwest Ranches Homeowners Association was an umbrella group composed of individual homeowners associations in the Southwest Ranches area. Anyone belonging to an individual homeowners association was also automatically a member of the group, with full voting rights. In 1997, its members agreed to actively promote incorporation of a new city for the area and formed a political committee to explore this option. A feasibility committee was appointed to determine if a new city would be viable. They would have to know if revenues would be adequate to cover the costs of running a city. Dr. Milan Dluhy of Florida International University was contacted and asked to complete a formal feasibility study; Dluhy had produced many such studies for groups which subsequently became successful cities. The committee also contacted Moyer and Associates, the company which provides contract services to Weston.
The feasibility committee determined that a contract city would be the best option. Contracting would allow the city access to experienced professionals without having to hire these individuals on a full-time basis. This would save taxpayers money and avoid many costly capital expenses. Moyer and Associates provided the feasibility committee and Dr. Dluhy with financial information on which to base estimates of both income and expenses. The committee also considered the figures provided by the PMG study. PMG is the company which was hired by Broward County to conduct a study comparing the costs of Pembroke Pines and Davie to the costs of being incorporated into a new city.
On July 3, 1999, the Southwest Ranches Homeowners Association sponsored a parade and picnic to declare the area’s independence. Speakers at the event included then-Senator Howard Forman, state Representative Debbie Wasserman Schultz, County Commissioner Lori Parrish, Sheriff Ken Jenne, and Weston Mayor Harry Rosen. The bill passed in 1997 authorized the vote in 2000 to determine if residents wanted to form their own city. If the vote was for a new city, a charter was to be drawn up and an election forming the city held in 2001. Leaders realized, however, that if a charter could be drawn up sooner, it could be approved in 2000 and the city formed a year earlier, which would be financially beneficial to the residents.
A charter committee was formed to draw up a charter. The committee met almost weekly during July and August 1999, and formulated a new charter, using the Weston charter as a template. A contest was held to name the town, with 122 different names submitted. A vote was held on October 12, 1999 to select one of the top five names, which Southwest Ranches won. Southwest Ranches Homeowners Association members voted to move forward and request a local bill to allow incorporation in 2000 instead of 2001, which was approved. On March 14, 2000, residents voted overwhelmingly to form a new town rather than be annexed.
The most contentious issue during charter committee meetings was whether or not to have districts. The majority of members felt that council members should be elected at large, meaning that any qualified candidate could run for a seat, no matter where that individual lived, but some felt that candidates should only be able to run if they lived in one of four districts. When the election to approve the charter was held on June 6, 2000, the issue was put to a vote, and the majority of voters selected districts. Council members were elected on July 25, 2000, and the town was officially established.
The area is primarily residential, with most lots consisting of 1 acre (0.40 ha) or more. There are some small farms and equestrian ranches. The town has laws that keep homes from being built on lots of less than 1 acre (0.40 ha). In order to conserve the town’s rural lifestyle, the laws also generally stop streetlights and sidewalks from being constructed.
From the time of its founding until 2012, the town conducted its business from a modular office at the South Broward Drainage District headquarters. In 2012, the town, under the leadership of Vice Mayor Doug McKay, renovated a former church to create Southwest Ranches’ first permanent town hall. Police and emergency services are provided by the nearby town of Davie.
To support its rural-equestrian lifestyle, the town has developed miles of multi-use trails. People can be often be seen riding horses or bicycles or walking the trails that spread throughout the town. Since incorporation, the town has also acquired seven open-space parks, only one of which has been developed so far. This park includes a schooling ring, a show ring, and the Equestrian Oasis, an art installation primarily used to provide drinking water for horses.
As of 2010, there were 2,389 households out of which 6.2% were vacant. As of 2000, before annexation to Southwest Ranches, the Country Estates neighborhood had speakers of English as a first language accounted for 78.46% of all residents, while Spanish as a mother tongue made up 21.53% of the population.
As of 2000, before being annexed to Southwest Ranches, the Green Meadow neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 82.09% of all residents, while Spanish as a mother tongue made up 17.90% of the population.
As of 2000, before being annexed to Southwest Ranches, the Rolling Oaks neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 70.42% of all residents, while Spanish as a mother tongue made up 29.57%% of the population.
As of 2000, before being annexed to Southwest Ranches, the Sunshine Ranches neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 76.22% of all residents, while Spanish as a mother tongue accounted for 22.16%, and Italian made up 1.61% of the population.
The Florida Department of Corrections operates the Region IV Correctional Facility Office on the grounds of Broward Correctional Institution in the former Country Estates CDP and in Southwest Ranches. The Broward prison formerly housed the female death row, which was moved to the Lowell Correctional Institution in February 2003.
Southwest Ranches’ charter defines the governing body as a council with one mayor and four council members. Both the mayor and the council members are elected at large from the electorate of the town, but the council members represent districts in which they must reside. The mayoral role is largely ceremonial with no more power than any council member. Other charter positions serving Southwest Ranches include the town administrator, financial administrator, and town clerk.
The town’s first council consisted of Mayor Mecca Fink, Vice Mayor Johnny Dollar, Forrest Blanton, Freddy Fisikelli, and Astor Knight.

Black Legion (political movement)

The Black Legion was a secret vigilante white supremacist organization in the Midwest of the United States that splintered from the Ku Klux Klan and operated during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The white paramilitary group was founded in the 1920s by William Shepard in east central Ohio in the Appalachian region, as a security force known as the Black Guard to protect Ku Klux Klan officers. The Legion became active in chapters throughout Ohio. One of its self-described leaders, Virgil “Bert” Effinger, lived and worked in Lima.
In 1931 a chapter was formed in Highland Park, Michigan, expanding to an estimated total membership in the state estimated between 20,000 and 30,000 by the mid-1930s during the Great Depression. Its members were generally native-born Protestant men, many who had migrated from the South. One third of the members lived in Detroit, which had also been a strong center of KKK activity in the 1920s. In May 1936 Charles A. Poole, a Works Progress Administration organizer, was kidnapped from home by a gang of the Black Legion and murdered in southwest Detroit. Authorities arrested and prosecuted a gang of twelve men affiliated with the Legion. Dayton Dean pleaded guilty and testified against numerous other members; ten others were convicted of the murder. Dean and the others were all sentenced to life in prison. One man was acquitted.
At the time of Poole’s murder, the Associated Press described the organization as
a group of loosely federated night-riding bands operating in several States without central discipline or common purpose beyond the enforcement by lash and pistol of individual leaders’ notions of ‘Americanism’.[citation needed]
Dean’s testimony and other evidence stimulated investigations and indictments into a series of other murders and attempted murders during the previous three years. Another 37 men of the Legion were prosecuted for related crimes, convicted and sentenced to prison terms. The trials revealed the wide network of Black Legion members in local governments, particularly in Highland Park, Michigan. Members included a former mayor, chief of police, and city councilman, in addition to persons in civil service jobs. Following the convictions, membership in the Legion dropped quickly; its reign of terror ended in the Detroit area.

The Black Legion was founded in the 1920s as a security force known as the Black Guard for Ku Klux Klan officers in eastern Ohio, and expanded to other areas. In 1931 a unit was founded in Michigan by Arthur F. Lupp, Sr. of Highland Park, Michigan, who styled himself as its major general. The Michigan Legion was organized along military lines, with 5 brigades, 16 regiments, 64 battalions, and 256 companies. Its members boasted of one million Legionnaires in Michigan, but observers estimated it had between 20,000 and 30,000 members in the state in the 1930s. One third were located in Detroit, with many in Highland Park.
Like the KKK, the Black Legion was made up largely of native-born white men in the Midwest, many originally from the South, who had few skills to deal with the industrial society and felt dispossessed. They resented having to compete with white immigrants and black migrants for jobs and housing in major cities such as Detroit. Their enemies list “included all immigrants, Catholics, Jews and blacks, nontraditional Protestant faiths, labor unions, farm cooperatives and various fraternal groups.” Membership was concentrated in Michigan and Ohio. In the early 20th century, the Ku Klux Klan had undergone revival, with extensive membership in the Midwest urban areas by the 1920s, including Detroit, Cleveland and Indianapolis.
Black Legion members created a network for jobs and influence. In addition, as a secret vigilante group, the Black Legion members operated in gangs to enforce their view of society, sometimes attacking immigrants to intimidate them at work, for instance, or to enforce their idea of moral behavior. They generally opposed socialism and union organizing, and had a reputation for frequent violence against alleged enemies, whether political or social. From 1933 to 1936, they were rumored to be responsible for some unsolved deaths attributed to suicide or unknown perpetrators.
On May 12, 1936, Charles A. Poole, a Works Progress Administration organizer, was kidnapped by a gang of the Black Legion, to be punished as an alleged wife beater. An ethnic French Catholic married to a Protestant woman, he was shot and killed that night by Dayton Dean. Wayne County Prosecutor Duncan McRae vowed to bring the killers of Poole to justice.
McRae prosecuted twelve men on charges of murdering Poole; Dean pleaded guilty and testified against his comrades. Ten other men were convicted, nine by a jury and one in a bench trial. One man was acquitted. Dean and the others convicted were sentenced to life in prison. Dean provided considerable testimony to authorities about other activities of the Black Legion. He and others never learned that Becky Poole, a blue-eyed blonde, had a great-grandfather who was African American.
Dean’s testimony led the Prosecutor’s Office to additional investigations, revealing numerous incidents of murder, violence and intimidation over a three-year period, and the far-reaching network of Black Legion members in local governments (for instance, N. Ray Markland was a former mayor of Highland Park), businesses and public organizations, including law enforcement. The Prosecutor indicted Black Legion members for the murder of Silas Coleman of Detroit, a black man killed outside Putnam Township, Michigan on May 26, 1935, before Poole.
Members were also indicted for a conspiracy to murder Arthur Kingsley, a Highland Park publisher of a community paper and candidate for mayor of the suburb in 1934. They planned to shoot him in 1933 because he ran against Markland, a legionnaire politician. Sixteen Black Legion members were indicted in his case, including “two factory policemen, a police officer, and several Highland Park city employees. At the time of his arrest Markland was employed as an investigator in the office of Wayne County Prosecutor McCrea.” Nine members were convicted in this case, including Markland and Arthur F. Lupp, Sr., then a milk inspector for the Detroit Board of Health, and founder of the Legion in Michigan. According to testimony kelme soccer cleats, the extensive network of Black Legion members in Highland Park included the chief of police and a city councilman.
Similarly Mayor William Voisine of Ecorse, Michigan was a target; he angered the organization by hiring blacks for city jobs. McRae prosecuted and gained convictions of 37 Legion members on these and related charges, beyond those charged in the Poole case. All received prison terms, markedly reducing the power of the Black Legion in Detroit and Michigan.
Other murders linked to the Black Legion were of labor organizers:
The “arson squad” of the Black Legion confessed to the burning of the farm of William Mollenhauer, a labor sympathizer, in Oakland County (Pontiac) in August 1934. Members also described numerous plans for disruption of political meetings and similar activities.
The cases received international media coverage. For instance, an article in The Sydney Morning Herald on May 25, 1936, reported that the Black Legion were a secret society whose members practiced ritual murder:
A secret society that practices ritual murder, and is known as the Black Legion, has been discovered in Detroit. A number of its members are to be charged with murder. It ls believed by the police to be an offshoot of the Ku Klux Klan, and to have more than 10,000 members. Its aim is to oppose negroes, Roman Catholics, and Jews.
Hollywood, radio and the press responded to the lurid nature of the Legion with works that referred to it.

National Lighthouse Museum

The National Lighthouse Museum, located in the St. George neighborhood of Staten Island New York City, USA, is a newly-created museum dedicated to the history of Lighthouses and their keepers. Officially opened in 2015, the museum stands on the former site of the United States Lighthouse Service General Depot.

Beginning in 1799, the present site of the National Lighthouse Museum was the location of the New York Marine Hospital, also known as The Quarantine. Long before the construction of the famous processing center on Ellis Island, immigrants found to be in poor or questionable health were segregated from other immigrants and from the local population in the hospital.[citation needed] The Quarantine was New York’s first line of defense against immigrant-borne infectious diseases like Smallpox, Cholera, Typhus and Yellow fever. As many as 1500 individuals could have been accommodated there at one time.
After a series of epidemics in the 1850s, a riotous mob of locals burned the twenty buildings of the hospital complex to the ground. The Staten Island Lighthouse Depot was constructed on the former hospital site in 1862 by the United States Lighthouse Service (USLHS). It was the key manufacturing, storage, supply and maintenance center for the US Lighthouse Service’s 3rd District, an area which extended from Sandy Hook to the South, Albany to the North and the Massachusetts border to the East.
Growing steadily in both size and capability during the late 1800s and early 1900s the Staten Island Depot reached its peak size during and after the First World War. Two shops were constructed to handle the construction and maintenance of Lighthouse and Museum Site 4 Lightship lenses, most of which weighed thousands of pounds and were several feet tall. Subterranean storage areas, called ‘The Vaults’ were built to store fuels and other combustible materials for lighthouses, and an entire machine shop and foundry where anchors, sinkers, chains, buoys, and lighthouse structural members were fabricated were all in full operation by the 1920s.
Advancing technology saw many lighthouses automated during the 1920s and 1930s and replaced with more reliable electronic beacons, something which heavily altered the scope of the Depot’s mission as much of the upkeep, maintenance and lighthouse keeper supply work it performed was severely curtailed. This tail-off of work was checked by the massive increase in the use of Floating Aids-to-Navigation, or buoys. The Staten Island Depot’s foundry became one of the key manufacturing and maintenance point for many of the buoys used along the US East Coast, its quayside spaces became a forest of ocean buoys, channel markers, ice buoys, day-marks and their chains, anchors and sinkers.
With the US Lighthouse Service’s merger into the US Coast Guard in 1939, the Staten Island Depot continued its work, but during the Second world war it became more of a ship repair and outfitting space as many USCG Cutters, buoy tenders and harbor patrol craft called the Depot for wartime repainting, arming and voyage repairs. Following the war, the depot continued this work in addition to its maintenance and fabrication work and by 1950 it was one of the US Coast Guard’s major supply depots in the Northeast.
Advancing technology again caught up with the Depot by the 1960s as all lighthouses had been automated with low-maintenance beacons, only two lightships were in service, and the amount of Buoy Tenders in USCG service began to drop as each ship became more operationally capable. Budget cuts and Consolidation in the late 1960s saw much of the Staten Island Depot’s workload sent to the USCG Yard at Curtis Bay, MD and by 1965 the Staten Island Depot was closed. Following a period of inactivity, the land was formally donated by the US Coast Guard to the City of New York in 1978, and several of the pier side buildings were razed to make room for a Staten Island Ferry maintenance facility, which utilized the former depot’s piers.
Today, Building 11 has been renovated and is the home of the National Lighthouse Museum Educational Resource Center. Several of the original buildings including the lamp shops, barracks and administration building still stand onsite, but are in a near-ruin state. The present owner of the site, the New York City Economic Development Corporation has awarded the development of the entire land tract to Triangle Equities. Plans for the Lighthouse Point development project include residential and commercial space with renovation and reuse of several of the site’s historic structures. The National Lighthouse Museum, the cultural component of the site development, plans to expand into Building 10 within the next five years.
The National Lighthouse Museum concept was born out of the need to educate and preserve the navigational history of lighthouses, which is being lost due to modern technology such as GPS’s, Solar panels, etc.[citation needed] As these structures become obsolete, their desirable locations drew developers eager to build on the magnificent sites.
In the 1940s, the Shinnecock Light, on the south shore of Long Island, became unstable and U.S. Coast Guard safety concerns initiated the process of having it removed. Despite the desire of local residents to preserve the lighthouse, the iconic structure was demolished and eventually replaced by a golf course.
A similar fate seemed inevitable for the famous Fire Island Light in the 1990s, when it too was targeted for destruction and development. The local community came to the rescue and the Fire Island Light Preservation Society saved the iconic structure from the wrecking ball.
The threat of destruction of many of these fabled landmarks created a groundswell of public support for the preservation of lighthouses. The rescue of the Fire Island Light, and similar efforts around the country, inspired the creation of an American Lighthouse Coordinating Committee, whose purpose was to find a site for a prestigious national museum that would be entrusted to preserve such history for generations to come.
In 1998 kelme soccer cleats, the ALCC issued a nationwide Request for Proposals (RFP) for a National Lighthouse Center and Museum. Seventeen proposals were submitted from groups around the USA. After a series of presentations and deliberations, the former site of the U.S. Lighthouse Service (USLHS) General Depot at St. George, Staten Island, was selected as the winner.
The site was selected from the many deserving entries considered because of its historic significance and because of its high profile location in one of the busiest harbors in the country. The USLHS General Depot was established on the site in 1864. The Depot served as the central lighthouse technology and operations center for the entire country. In its heyday, the Depot consisted of eighteen buildings and a series of piers designed to design, fabricate and repair the components of the powerful lights that served to keep ships from harm’s way. This activity included experimentation on lamps, illuminants, and the all important Fresnel lenses.
The site’s location adjacent to the Staten Island Ferry Terminal was also a primary consideration in the selection. Millions of tourists automatically became potential museum visitors due to the location’s close proximity to the terminal.
The opportunity to have a national level museum on Staten Island and the cultural and economic opportunities of luring tourists off the Staten Island Ferry inspired the support of New York Governor George Pataki, New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, and Staten Island Borough President Guy Molinari, who provided over $7 million dollars to begin the renovation of the site.
The National Lighthouse Center and Museum was issued its Museum Charter by the New York State Board of Regents on November 9, 2001.
The mission of the museum is:[citation needed]
Coordinates: 40°38′27″N 74°04′30″W / 40.64071°N 74.07499°W / 40.64071; -74.07499