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Đồng Nai Province

Đồng Nai (Vietnamese: [ɗə̂wŋm naːj] ( listen)) is a province in the Southeast region of Vietnam, located east and northeast of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon). The largest city in Đồng Nai is Biên Hòa. Prior to Vietnamese colonization, the area was dominated by the Funan, Chenla, Khmer empire and subsequent influences until 1627. The area was known as Kâmpéâp Srâkatrey (កំពាប់ [កំពប់] ស្រកាត្រី) in Khmer.

Đồng Nai is situated in southeastern Vietnam and bordered by: Bình Thuận, Lâm Đồng, Bình Dương and Bình Phước, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu, and Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon). Đồng Nai province has an advanced traffic system with many backbone national roads crossing, such as: National route 1A, national route 20, National route 51, North–South railway lines; Located adjacent to the Saigon Port and Tan Son Nhat International Airport, it offers many advantages to economic activities in the area. Its location is very important for the development of the Southern economic main hub and a junction of the South Eastern and Tây Nguyên Highland.

Đồng Nai Province is based essentially on the system of lakes, dams and rivers, of which Trị An Lake with 323 km² and over 60 rivers, rivulets and canals are very favorable for the development of a number of aquatic products: raft bred fish and shrimp. The seasonal tropical forests are protected in Cát Tiên National Park, located on the north of Đồng Nai and the adjacent Vĩnh Cửu Nature Reserve; the former has been recognized internationally as a significant biosphere reserve. From the mountainous area, Đồng Nai River, Vietnam’s largest internal waterway, flows southeast through Biên Hòa City, Ho Chi Minh City, and villages along its way. This river plays an important role on supplying fresh water for the whole area.

Đồng Nai lies in the monsoon tropical zone and is affected by the north-east and south-west monsoon. It is also under the influence of Pacific Ocean tropic atmosphere between April and October. Climate is divided in two distinct seasons. The rainy season lasts from March or April to November and the dry season from December to March or April of the following year. Average temperature is between 23.9 and 29 glass bottles with lids for drinking.0 °C, much lower than standard level of the tropical regions (26-30 °C). Its annual rainfall is quite high with 1,500 – 2,700 mm.

On average, the weather is sunny for 4.0-9.5 hours a day and does not exceed 11.5 hours per day, even on the hottest and sunniest days. Total rainy days within a year are between 120 and 170 days (standard level of tropical region is 150–160 days) with total rainfall of some 1,500 – 2,750 mm. The average humidity is around 80 – 82% and humidity in the dry season is 10-12%, lower than that of the rainy season; humidity varies considerably between areas.

Đồng Nai Province’s weather with regular sunshine, rain, and high humidity, equally found in the localities, facilitates agricultural production and development of industry and cultural and tourism activities.

Đồng Nai is plentiful with forest resources, granite mines, construction stone, clay, kaolin, pozzolan, sand, gravel, etc.

Đồng Nai is one of Vietnam’s most populous provinces (ranked 5) with a population of 2,838,600 in 2014. Its population has been growing rapidly in recent years, mainly driven by migrant workers coming to the province to work in factories. Population growth was 1.95% in 2005, between 2.5% from 2008 to 2010 and 3.5% in 2011. Net migration contributed 2.2% to this figure. Đồng Nai is second only to Bình Dương Province in both population growth and net migration.

The population of Đồng Nai is primarily the dominant Kinh (Viet) ethnicity, although there are residents of the Chinese, Stieng, Mạ, Nùng, Tay, and Cham minorities.

Đồng Nai has made significant progress in upgrading its transport infrastructure, especially roads. National highways in the province have a total length of 244.5 km and have been improved and widened up to level 1 and 2 standards (National Highway No 5 and 6) or up to third grade like National Highway No 20 to Da Lat. The total roads system in the province is 3.339 kilometers long, of which almost 700 kilometers are tar roads. All communes and wards are connected to the road network.

Under scheme in the near future, highways to Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province and Ho Chi Minh City, a railway connecting Biên Hòa to Vũng Tàu, upgraded provincial roads No 726 and connecting national highway No 20 and No 1 with national highway No 51 will create a complete system, promoting socioeconomic development in the province and region.

A new airport, Long Thanh International Airport, is planned for construction in Long Thanh district, Đồng Nai, approximately 40 km northeast of Ho Chi Minh City. Upon completion, it will handle international flights in place of Tan Son Nhat International Airport, which will serve domestic flights footbal jersey.

Đồng Nai is subdivided into 11 district-level sub-divisions:

They are further subdivided into 8 commune-level towns (or townlets), 136 communes, and 29 wards.

Đồng Nai is one of Vietnam’s main manufacturing centers and one of the most developed provinces.

Despite its strong focus on industrial development, Đồng Nai still has a substantial agricultural sector. Agricultural land accounts for 47% of the province’s area as of 2011, a total of 277,600ha. This is lower than in other provinces in the Southeast region, except for Ho Chi Minh City. Cereals were grown on 118,600ha in 2011, an area that has been decreasing gradually in recent years, from 139,300ha in 2005. Output of rice has however remained stable and was at 335,200t in 2011. The province also produced 305,300t of maize, making it the largest producer of maize outside the country’s mountainous regions and contributing 6.3% to the national maize output. Đồng Nai also produced 619,700t of sugar cane (3.5% of the national output), sweet potatoes and cassava.

Đồng Nai is the largest livestock producer among Vietnam’s provinces and plans to further invest in the sector. The government reserved 15,000ha for livestock farming in 2012, mostly for poultry and pigs. In 2011 there were 1.33 million pigs and 10.655 million poultry. Despite not being located along the coast, Đồng Nai produced 41,600t of fishery products in 2011. Over 90% of this was produced in 33,500ha of aquaculture farms. This makes Đồng Nai the largest aquaculture producer outside the Mekong Delta.

Đồng Nai is one of Vietnam’s main manufacturing centers. It has attracted 9.1% of FDI into Vietnam by 2011, an accumulated US$18.2 billion, the fourth largest after Ho Chi Minh City, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province and Hanoi. Industrial gross output in 2011 was VND 314 trillion, 10.6% of the national value. It has received a broad range of FDI projects, including a Bosch auto component plant, a Toshiba motor plant, a PepsiCo beverage factory, a Posco steel plant, and a Nestlé coffee factory.

As defined by a 2008 World Bank survey, the province is one of the 5 most polluted in Vietnam.

Thomas Pelham-Holles

Thomas Pelham-Holles (Londres, 21 juillet 1693 – idem, 17 novembre 1768), 1er comte de Clare (1714), puis 1er duc de Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1715) et enfin 1er duc de Newcastle-under-Lyne (1765), était un homme d’État britannique du parti Whig. Avec son frère, Henry Pelham, ils tinrent le pouvoir pendant dix ans. Après la mort de Henry, il poursuivit le mandat de Premier ministre du Royaume-Uni de ce dernier pendant six ans, lors de deux périodes distinctes (1754-1756 puis 1757-1762). Alors que son gouvernement ne fut pas vraiment notable, il initia la guerre de Sept Ans, qui conduira d’ailleurs à sa démission. Après son second mandat de Premier ministre, il fut brièvement membre du gouvernement de Charles Watson-Wentworth, avant de se retirer de la vie publique.

Thomas Pelham est le fils aîné de Thomas Pelham, 1er baron Pelham, et de sa seconde épouse, Lady Grace Holles, la plus jeune sœur de John Holles, 1er duc de Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Son oncle meurt en 1711, puis son père l’année suivante, tous deux lui laissant en héritage de très importantes propriétés. À sa majorité en 1714, Lord Pelham est l’un des plus grands propriétaires terriens du royaume. Il étudie à la Westminster School puis au Clare College de Cambridge.

À la mort de la reine Anne, Pelham soutient vigoureusement les Whigs, puis use de son influence pour faire accepter par les Londoniens le nouveau roi George Ier. En reconnaissance de ses services, il est fait comte de Clare en 1714, puis duc de Newcastle-upon-Tyne en 1715. Il est aussi nommé Lord-lieutenant des comtés de Middlesex et Nottingham, et chevalier de l’ordre de la Jarretière en 1718. Cette même année, il épouse Henrietta Pelham-Holles.

En 1717 il obtient son premier mandat politique comme Lord Chamberlain of the Household, puis en 1724 il est nommé Secretary of State for the Southern Department par Sir Robert Walpole en remplacement de Lord Carteret. Il occupera cette fonction sans discontinuer pendant trente ans, de 1724 à 1754, un poste qu’il n’échangera que contre celui de Premier ministre à la mort de son frère. Sa longévité politique fut attribuée à ses liens étroits avec les Whigs et à son immense richesse, mais il faut aussi louer son activité inépuisable et son grand talent de débatteur et de tacticien parlementaire.

En 1731, à Houghton Hall, propriété de Sir Robert Walpole dans le Norfolk, le duc et François Ier du Saint-Empire sont fait maîtres maçons par le Grand-maître Lord Lovell lemon press machine. En 1739, lors de la création du Foundling Hospital de Londres, il est l’un des gouverneurs de la fondation.

John Hervey, dans son Memoirs, le compare avec Walpole en 1735, et écrit, « Nous avons un ministre qui fait tout glass bottles with lids for drinking, en apparence, avec aisance et calme comme si ce n’était rien [;] nous en avons un autre qui ne fait rien avec la même précipitation et agitation que s’il faisait tout ». Il poursuit son mandat après la chute de Walpole en 1742, et devient plus influent encore lorsque son plus jeune frère devient Premier ministre en 1743. À la mort de Henry Pelham en mars 1754, Newcastle lui succède comme Premier ministre. Cependant, il est critiqué pour le peu de réussite de la Grande-Bretagne lors des opérations en Amérique du Nord de la guerre de Sept Ans, puis en novembre 1756 il cède sa place au duc de Devonshire. Pour ses longues années passées au service du pays, il est fait duc de Newcastle-under-Lyne.

En juillet 1757 il est à nouveau Premier ministre. Sous son gouvernement de coalition, la Grande-Bretagne est respectée à l’étranger, mais il irrite peu à peu le nouveau roi, George III et c’est Lord Bute, qui remplace Newcastle au poste de Premier ministre en mai 1762. Après une période passée dans l’opposition, en 1765, il devient Lord du sceau privé, durant quelques mois, dans le gouvernement de Lord Rockingham, mais sa santé décline rapidement et il meurt en novembre 1768.

En 1718, il épouse Henrietta Godolphin. Elle est la petite fille de Lord Godolphin et du duc de Marlborough clothes shaver electric. Comme son mari, elle soutient le parti Whig et milite en faveur de l’Acte d’établissement. Elle se marie en . Durant les années 1720, le couple est réputé pour donner des fêtes somptueuses, une tradition suivie sur plusieurs décennies, même par leurs opposants politiques. Elle est morte en 1776.