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José Coll y Cuchí

José Coll y Cuchí (January 12 running pack, 1877 – July 2, 1960) was a lawyer, writer and the founder of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. He was a member of a Puerto Rican family of politicians, educators and writers.

Coll y Cuchí was born in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. His father was Cayetano Coll y Toste, a historian who in 1913 was named the “Official Historian of Puerto Rico” and his mother Adela, was the daughter of José Cuchí y Arnau former mayor of Arecibo. His family sent him to private schools for his primary and secondary education. In 1896, Coll y Cuchí’s family sent him to Spain where he earned his degree in law from the University of Barcelona. During his stay in Spain, he became interested in politics and became involved with the Puerto Rico’s independence movement.

When Coll y Cuchí returned to Puerto Rico, he found himself with a totally different political situation. The island, which once belonged to the Spanish Crown, was now a territory of the United States. This came about as part of the Treaty of Paris as a consequence of the outcome of the Spanish–American War.

In 1904, he joined the Puerto Rican Republican Party and was elected to the Puerto Rican Chamber of Delegates. Believing that Puerto Rico’s identity as a nation was threaten by the Foraker Law, he decided to join the Puerto Rican Union Party headed by Antonio R. Barceló and was re-elected to the Chamber of Delegates in 1908. As member of the Chamber, he led the fight against the Foraker Law, also known as the Organic Act of 1900, which established a civilian government in the island. The new government had an American governor and executive council appointed by the President of the United States.

By 1919, Coll y Cuchí felt that the Union Party wasn’t doing enough for the cause of Puerto Rico and together with some followers departed from the party and formed the Nationalist Association of Puerto Rico in San Juan. By the 1920s there were two other pro-independence organizations in the Island: the Nationalist Youth and the Independence Association. The Independence Association was founded by José S. Alegría, Eugenio Font Suárez and Dr. Leopoldo Figueroa in 1920. Under Coll y Cuchi’s presidency, the party was able to convince the Puerto Rican Legislature Assembly to approve an act that would permit the transfer of the mortal remains of Puerto Rican patriot Ramón Emeterio Betances from Paris, France to Puerto Rico. Betances’ remains arrived in San Juan, Puerto Rico on August 5 where can i buy water in glass bottles, 1920 and a funeral caravan organized by the Nationalist Association transferred the remains from the capital to the town of Cabo Rojo where his ashes were interred by his monument.

On September 17, 1922, the three political organizations joined forces and formed the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. Coll y Cuchí was elected president, José S. Alegría (father of Ricardo Alegría) vice-president and Antonio Vélez Alvarado “The Father of the Puerto Rican Flag” to the party’s Supreme Counsel. In 1924 Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos joined the party and was named vice-president.

In 1927, Coll y Cuchí was invited to Columbia University to give a conference. At that conference the governor of New York Al Smith was present and congratulated Coll y Cuchí. When Smith ran for President of the U.S. in 1928, under the democratic ticket, he invited Coll y Cuchí to come to the U.S. and campaign for him among the Hispanic communities, which he did. The Nationalist Party did poorly in the 1928 elections, they only received 399 votes out of a total of 253,520 votes football shirt printing.

Despite the fact that he was a leader in the independence movement, Coll y Cuchí displayed respect and admiration towards the Americans. Albizu Campos did not like what he considered was Coll y Cuchí’s attitude of fraternal solidarity with the enemy. By 1930, there were more disagreements between Coll y Cuchí and Albizu Campos as to how the party should be run. As a result, Coll y Cuchí abandoned the party and some of his followers returned to the Union Party. On May 11, 1930, Albizu Campos was elected president of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party. In 1931, when President Herbert Hoover visited Puerto Rico, Coll y Cuchí urged the islanders to greet him with a warm welcome.

Coll y Cuchí came from a family of Puerto Rican educators, politicians and writers. His father Dr. Cayetano Coll y Toste (1850–1930), was a historian and writer. His brother Cayetano Coll y Cuchí, was a President of Puerto Rico House of Representatives. His niece Edna Coll was an educator and author who founded the Academy of Fine Arts in Puerto Rico and his niece Isabel Cuchí Coll, another niece, was a journalist, author and the Director of the “Sociedad de Autores Puertorriqueños” (Society of Puerto Rican Authors). His nephew (Edna’s son) Jose “Fufi” Santori Coll is a former BSN basketball player, coach and television sportscaster. His grandson, attorney at law Eduardo Morales Coll, was President of the Puerto Rican Atheneum for 30 consecutive years, also President of the Institute of Puerto Rican Literature for 20 consecutive years, is an Academic of the Puerto Rican Academy of the Spanish language, also an Academic of the Puerto Rican Academy of Arts and Sciences, among other cultural institutions.

Coll y Cuchí was director of Puerto Rican Athaeneum’s Political Sciences Section. He is the only Puerto Rican to have received the Medal of Honor from Spain’s “Royal Academy of the Spanish Language” for the best book published during a five-year span. Coll y Cuchí never abandoned his pro-independence ideals and continued to be active in the independence cause. José Coll y Cuchí died in Santurce, Puerto Rico on July 2, 1960.

Among his written works are the following:

Sony Interactive Entertainment

Sony Interactive Entertainment, LLC. (abbreviated as SIE and formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. (SCE) and Sony Network Entertainment) is a multinational video game developer, product manufacturer and research and development company, and is an owned subsidiary and part of the Consumer Products and Services Group of Sony.

The company was founded and established on November 16, 1993 as Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. to handle Sony’s venture into video game development. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has since been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding upon North America and other countries, the company soon became Sony’s main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies.

Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development, production, and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. Alongside, it is also a developer and publisher of video game titles and is composed of several subsidiaries of Sony’s largest markets: North America, Europe and Asia. As of September 30, 2016, the company has overall sold more than 486 million PlayStation consoles worldwide.

Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. (SCEI) was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company’s ventures into the video game hardware market. The original PlayStation console was released on December 3, 1994, in Japan.

The company’s North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America (SCEA), were originally established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, California, the North American office was originally headed by Steve Race.

In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All videogame marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica, California, to Foster City. On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995.

As part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA (currently Sony Interactive Entertainment America) was re-established as a wholly owned subsidiary of SCEI.

The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, and the U.S. on October 26, 2000.

On July 1, 2002, Chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as Chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were also promoted to Senior Vice Presidents of SCE.

The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was SCEI’s first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE’s E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005.

On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SCE WWS), a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI. It became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced exclusively for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, who was serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008.

On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006 video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.

In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 (PS3) system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, Japan, tentatively named “PlayStation Network Platform” and eventually called just PlayStation Network (PSN). Sony also stated that the service would always be connected, free, and include multiplayer support.

The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, U.S., on May 8, 2006. The PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, and the U.S. date was November 17 team football jerseys wholesale, 2006. The PSN was also launched in November 2006.

On November 30, 2006 President of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as Chairman of SCEI, while Hirai, then President of SCEA, was promoted to President of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as Chairman of SCEI and Group CEO, passing on his duties to the recently appointed President of SCE, Hirai.

On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and BigBig Studios, developers of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.

On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, President and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post. He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as Chairman of SCEE in 2003, and then President in 2005. His role of President and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990. The PSP Go was released on October 1, 2009, for North America and Europe, and on November 1, 2009, for Japan.

On April 1, 2010, SCEI was restructured to bring together Sony’s mobile electronics and personal computers divisions. The main Japanese division of SCEI was temporarily renamed “SNE Platform Inc.” (SNEP) on April 1, 2010, and was split into two divisions that focused on different aspects: “Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc.”, consisting of 1,300 employees who focused on the console business, and the network service business consisting of 60 to 70 employees. The network service business of SCEI was absorbed into Sony Corp’s Network Products & Service Group (NPSG), which had already been headed by Hirai since April 2009. The original SCEI was then dissolved after the restructure.

The North American and European branches of SCEI were affected by the restructure, and remained as SCEA and SCEE. Hirai, by that time SCEI CEO and Sony Corporation EVP, led both departments.

On March 2, 2010, video game developer Media Molecule, developers of the PlayStation 3 (PS3) game LittleBigPlanet, was acquired by SCEI as part of its SCE WWS. On August 23, 2010, the headquarters of the company moved from Minami-Aoyama to the Sony City (Sony Corporation’s headquarters) in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

On April 20, 2011, SCEI was the victim of an attack on its PlayStation Network system, which also affected its online division, Sony Online Entertainment. On August 1, 2011, video game developer Sucker Punch Productions fabric battery, developers of the Sly Cooper and Infamous series, was also acquired.

On January 2012, BigBig Studios was closed and Cambridge Studio—renamed Guerrilla Cambridge—becoming a sister studio of Guerrilla Games. On March 2012, Zipper Interactive, developers of the SOCOM series, MAG and Unit 13, was closed. On June 25, 2012 football shirt printing, Hirai retired as chairman of Sony Computer Entertainment; however, he remains on the board of directors.

On July 2, 2012, Sony Computer Entertainment acquired Gaikai, a cloud-based gaming service. On August 2012, Sony Liverpool developer of the Wipeout and Formula One series was closed.

A press release was published on August 20, 2013, announcing the release date of the PlayStation 4 (PS4) console. On that date, SCEI introduced the CUH-1000A series system, and announced the launch date as November 15, 2013, for North American markets and November 29, 2013, for European, Australian, New Zealand Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and Peru markets.

Following a January 2014 announcement by the Chinese government that the country’s 14-year game console ban would be lifted, the PS4 is scheduled to be the first Sony video game console to be officially and legally released in China since the PlayStation 2—the ban was enacted in 2000 to protect the mental health of young people.

On March 6, 2014, Sony Computer Entertainment of America President and CEO, Tretton, announced he was resigning from his position at the end of the month, citing a mutual agreement between himself and SCEA for the cessation of his contract. Tretton had worked at SCEA since 1995, and was a founding member of the company’s executive team. He was involved in the launch of all PlayStation platforms in North America, including the original PlayStation, PS2, PSP, PS3, PSN, PS Vita, and PS4. Tretton was replaced by Shawn Layden, who was the vice-president and chief operating officer (COO) of Sony Network Entertainment International, effective April 1, 2014. On April 2, 2015, it was announced that Sony Computer Entertainment had acquired the intellectual property of the cloud gaming service OnLive, and that its services would cease by the end of the month.

The beta version of Sony’s first-ever cloud-based television service, PlayStation Vue (PSVue), was launched in the U.S. in November 2014. It was only offered on an invite-only basis for PS3 and PS4 users, prior to its official launch in early 2015. Sony signed deals with major networks, including CBS, Discovery, Fox and Viacom, so that users can view live streaming video, as well as catch up and on-demand content, from more than 75 channels, such as Comedy Central and Nickelodeon. Although pricing and release dates for other regions was not publicized, Sony confirmed that PSVue will eventually be available on iPad, followed by other Sony and non-Sony devices.

On January 26, 2016, Sony announced that effective April 1, 2016, Sony Computer Entertainment and Sony Network Entertainment International would be re-organized and combined into a new company, Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. Unlike SCE, Sony Interactive Entertainment is based in San Mateo, California, and represents the entire PlayStation brand, regional subsidiaries, and its content operations.

On March 24, 2016, Sony announced the formation of ForwardWorks, a new company that is aimed to deploy new services toward the ever-expanding smart device market.

The President, and Group CEO of SIE is currently Andrew House, replacing Kaz Hirai, who himself had replaced longtime CEO Ken Kutaragi, also known as “The Father of the PlayStation”. Kutaragi officially retired from his executive position at SIE on June 19, 2007, and now holds the title of Honorary Chairman at the company. Shawn Layden and Jim Ryan currently serve as Chairman of SIE Worldwide Studios and Head of Global Sales and Marketing, respectively.

SIE currently has three main headquarters around the world: San Mateo, California, US (Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. & Sony Interactive Entertainment America); Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo, Japan (Sony Interactive Entertainment Japan Asia) which control operations in Asia and was also formerly the headquarters for Sony Computer Entertainment; and London, United Kingdom (Sony Interactive Entertainment Europe) which controls operations in Europe and Oceania. SIE also has smaller offices and distribution centers in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, San Diego, California US; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Melbourne, Australia; and Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea and Liverpool, UK.

SIE evaluates and approves games for its consoles. The process is more strict than for the Nintendo Seal of Quality, and developers submit game concepts to Sony early in the design process. Each SIE unit has its own evaluation process; SIEE, for example, approved Billy the Wizard for its consumers but SIEA did not. The company sometimes imposes additional restrictions fabric bobble remover, such as when it prohibited PS and PS2 games from being ported to the PSP without 30% of content being new to the Sony console.

SCEI produces the PlayStation line of video game hardware that consists of consoles and handhelds. Sony’s first wide home console release, the PlayStation (codenamed “PSX” during development,), was initially designed to be a CD-ROM drive add-on for Nintendo’s Super NES (a.k.a. “Super Famicom” in Japan) video game console, in response to add-ons for competing platforms such as the TurboGrafx-CD and the Sega CD (sold as the PC Engine CD-ROM² System and Mega CD in Japan respectively). When the prospect of releasing the system as an add-on dissolved, Sony redesigned the machine into a standalone unit.

The PlayStation was released in Japan on December 3, 1994 and later in North America on September 9, 1995. By the end of the PS console’s 12-year production cycle, Sony registered sales of 102 million units.

SCE’s second home console, the PlayStation 2 (PS2) was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, and later in North America and Europe in October and November 2000, respectively. The PS2 is powered by a proprietary central processing unit, the Emotion Engine, and was the first video game console to have DVD playback functionality included out of the box.

The PS2 consisted of a DVD drive and retailed in the U.S. for US$299. SCEI received heavy criticism after the launch of the PS2 due to the games released as part of the launch, difficulties that it presented for video game designers, and users who struggled to port Sega Dreamcast games to the system. However, despite these complaints, the PlayStation 2 received widespread support from third party developers throughout its lifespan on the market.

On December 28, 2012, Sony confirmed that it would cease production of the PS2 through a gradual process that started in Japan—the continuing popularity of the console in markets like Brazil and India meant that PS2 products would still be shipped, while games for the console were released in March 2013. The PS2 stands as the best-selling home video game console in history, with a total of 155 million consoles sold.

Writing for the ExtremeTech website at the end of 2012, James Plafke described the PS2 as revolutionary and proclaimed that the console “turn[ed] the gaming industry on its head”:

Aside from being the “first” next-gen console, as well as providing many, many people with their first DVD player, the PlayStation 2 launched in something of a Golden Age of the non-PC gaming industry. Gaming tech was becoming extremely sophisticated … Sony seemingly knew the exact route toward popularity, turning the console with the least powerful hardware of that generation into a juggernaut of success.

The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was SCEI’s first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE’s E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. The console has since seen two major redesigns, with new features including a smaller size, more internal memory, a better quality LCD screen and a lighter weight.

The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, U.S., on May 8, 2006.The PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, and the U.S. date was November 17, 2006. Technology journalists observed that Sony had followed what Microsoft did with the Xbox 360, and produced the PS3 in two versions: one with a 20GB hard drive and the other with a 60GB hard drive.

The PS3 utilizes a unique processing architecture, the Cell microprocessor, a proprietary technology developed by Sony in conjunction with Toshiba and IBM. The graphics processing unit, the RSX ‘Reality Synthesizer’, was co-developed by Nvidia and Sony. Several variations of the PS3 have been released, each with slight hardware and software differences, and each denoted by the varying size of the included hard disk drive.

The PS Vita is the successor to the PlayStation Portable. It was released in Japan and other parts of Asia on December 17, 2011, and then in Europe, Australia and North America on February 22, 2012.

Internally, the Vita features a 4-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a 4-core SGX543MP4+ graphics processing unit, as well as LiveArea software as its main user interface, which succeeds the XrossMediaBar.

The PS4 was announced as the successor to the PS3 and was launched in North America on November 15, 2013, in Europe on November 29, 2013 and in Japan on February 23, 2014.

Described by Sony as a “next generation” console, the PS4 included features such as enhanced social capabilities, second-screen options involving devices like the handheld PlayStation Vita, a membership service and compatibility with the Twitch live streaming platform.

Following a January 2014 announcement by the Chinese government that the country’s 14-year game console ban would be lifted, the PS4 is scheduled to be the first Sony video game console to be officially and legally released in China since the PlayStation 2—the ban was enacted in 2000 to protect the mental health of young people. Around 70 game developers, including Ubisoft and Koei, will service Chinese PlayStation users.

The Chinese release dates and price details were announced in early December, with January 11, 2015, confirmed by SCEI. The makers announced that both the PS4 and Vita consoles will be released in China, and the former’s package will also consist of a 500GB hard drive and controller.

The 20th anniversary of the original PS console was celebrated on December 6, 2014, with the release of a limited-edition, anniversary-edition PS4 with an aesthetic design that recalled the original 1994 PlayStation.

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