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Germain Boffrand

Germain Boffrand, né à Nantes le 16 mai 1667, mort à Paris le 19 mars 1754, est un architecte français.

Petit-fils de Mathurin Boffrand, peintre et maître sculpteur à Machecoul en Bretagne, fils de Jean Boffrand maître sculpteur et architecte à Nantes, Germain Boffrand est le deuxième garçon d’une fratrie de douze enfants. Durant son enfance il participa aux chantiers de son père qui était un retablier renommé de la région nantaise.

Adolescent, il suivit des études supérieures à l’université de Nantes, pour devenir maître ès arts comme son frère aîné Guillaume what tenderises meat.

Il vint à Paris accompagné de sa mère, sœur du poète Quinault, après 1682. La première mention attestée de Boffrand à Paris date du 19 septembre 1685 où il assista avec sa mère au mariage de la fille aînée de Philippe Quinault avec Charles Le Brun, neveu et filleul du grand peintre.

C’est seulement l’année suivante, en 1686 qu’il apparaît dans les comptes des bâtiments du roi où il est occupé au dessin de la place Vendôme auprès de Jules Hardouin-Mansart.

Collaborateur de Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Germain Boffrand fut l’un des architectes majeurs du style Régence qu’il contribua à créer. Il contribua à introduire en France le style rocaille en l’intégrant à l’architecture classique de la fin du règne de Louis XIV. Soucieux de conserver la monumentalité classique, il chercha à confiner l’ornementation rocaille dans les appartements intérieurs, où il l’utilisa avec une très grande maîtrise. Auteur d’un traité, Le livre d’architecture (1745), dans lequel sont gravées ses principales constructions, ses travaux popularisèrent le goût français en Europe.

Introduit par son oncle, Philippe Quinault, dans les cercles de la Cour et de la Ville, il fut, dès 1690, associé à des commandes royales comme l’orangerie du château de Versailles et travailla à la place Vendôme. Il quitta les Bâtiments du Roi en 1699 et se mit à travailler pour une clientèle privée essentiellement parisienne. En 1709, il fut chargé de la décoration intérieure des appartements de l’hôtel de Soubise (travaux commencés en 1732) puis rebâti dans le Duché de Lorraine, le Château d’Aulnois pour la famille des Armoises.

De manière générale, Boffrand ne travailla quasiment pas pour le roi mais pour une clientèle privée, éclairée et fortunée, disposée à accepter des audaces architecturales impensables dans des bâtiments officiels.

Il avait été reçu à l’Académie royale d’architecture dès 1709. En 1710, il participa à l’agrandissement du Palais Bourbon. En 1732, il fut nommé inspecteur général des ponts et chaussées et donna des projets pour restructurer et assainir le quartier des Halles. Il participa au concours pour la place Louis XV. Nommé architecte en chef de l’hôpital général en 1724, il construisit dans l’île de la Cité le nouvel hôpital des Enfants-Trouvés (1748, détruit) fabric battery. Il travailla également dans les Hôpitaux, à la Salpêtrière, à Bicêtre, à l’Hôtel-Dieu.

En 1742, à la mort de Jacques Gabriel, il le remplace comme Premier ingénieur du roi. Il est nommé inspecteur général des Ponts et Chaussées en 1743. Il a relevé les arches du pont de Joigny en 1728, reconstruit le pont de Bray-sur-Saône vers 1730, des arches du pont de Pont-sur-Yonne en 1738, du pont de Sens en 1742, de Villeneuve-sur-Yonne. Malheureusement la plupart des ponts qu’il a construits ou reconstruits ont été détruits. Pour le pont de Villeneuve-sur-Yonne, des arches qu’il a reconstruites, il reste peut-être l’arche centrale, les autres ont été reconstruites au XIXe siècle.

À l’étranger, Boffrand participa à la construction du Château des ducs de Lorraine à Lunéville à partir de 1709 puis fut nommé « Premier Architecte » du duc Léopold Ier en 1711. Dans le même temps, il fit construire pour le marquis des Armoises, gouverneur des enfants du duc, le Château d’Aulnois à Aulnois sur Seille. Il construisit également une fontaine et un pavillon de chasse dans les jardins d’un château de l’électeur de Bavière Maximilien II Emmanuel et travailla avec Balthasar Neumann en 1724 au Résidence de Würzburg (1719–1744) .

Boffrand devint membre de la Royal Society le 10 janvier 1745.

Il a eu pour élèves François Dominique Barreau de Chefdeville, Charles-Louis Clérisseau et Emmanuel Héré, l’architecte de la Place Stanislas à Nancy.

Il mourut à Paris à près de 87 ans.

Il publia plusieurs ouvrages sur son art, entre autres le Livre d’architecture, 1745, in-folio.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Sony Interactive Entertainment

Sony Interactive Entertainment, LLC. (abbreviated as SIE and formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. (SCE) and Sony Network Entertainment) is a multinational video game developer, product manufacturer and research and development company, and is an owned subsidiary and part of the Consumer Products and Services Group of Sony.

The company was founded and established on November 16, 1993 as Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. to handle Sony’s venture into video game development. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has since been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding upon North America and other countries, the company soon became Sony’s main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies.

Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development, production, and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. Alongside, it is also a developer and publisher of video game titles and is composed of several subsidiaries of Sony’s largest markets: North America, Europe and Asia. As of September 30, 2016, the company has overall sold more than 486 million PlayStation consoles worldwide.

Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. (SCEI) was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company’s ventures into the video game hardware market. The original PlayStation console was released on December 3, 1994, in Japan.

The company’s North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America (SCEA), were originally established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, California, the North American office was originally headed by Steve Race.

In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All videogame marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica, California, to Foster City. On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995.

As part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA (currently Sony Interactive Entertainment America) was re-established as a wholly owned subsidiary of SCEI.

The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, and the U.S. on October 26, 2000.

On July 1, 2002, Chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as Chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were also promoted to Senior Vice Presidents of SCE.

The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was SCEI’s first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE’s E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005.

On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SCE WWS), a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI. It became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced exclusively for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, who was serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008.

On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006 video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.

In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 (PS3) system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, Japan, tentatively named “PlayStation Network Platform” and eventually called just PlayStation Network (PSN). Sony also stated that the service would always be connected, free, and include multiplayer support.

The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, U.S., on May 8, 2006. The PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, and the U.S. date was November 17 team football jerseys wholesale, 2006. The PSN was also launched in November 2006.

On November 30, 2006 President of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as Chairman of SCEI, while Hirai, then President of SCEA, was promoted to President of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as Chairman of SCEI and Group CEO, passing on his duties to the recently appointed President of SCE, Hirai.

On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and BigBig Studios, developers of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS.

On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, President and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post. He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as Chairman of SCEE in 2003, and then President in 2005. His role of President and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990. The PSP Go was released on October 1, 2009, for North America and Europe, and on November 1, 2009, for Japan.

On April 1, 2010, SCEI was restructured to bring together Sony’s mobile electronics and personal computers divisions. The main Japanese division of SCEI was temporarily renamed “SNE Platform Inc.” (SNEP) on April 1, 2010, and was split into two divisions that focused on different aspects: “Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc.”, consisting of 1,300 employees who focused on the console business, and the network service business consisting of 60 to 70 employees. The network service business of SCEI was absorbed into Sony Corp’s Network Products & Service Group (NPSG), which had already been headed by Hirai since April 2009. The original SCEI was then dissolved after the restructure.

The North American and European branches of SCEI were affected by the restructure, and remained as SCEA and SCEE. Hirai, by that time SCEI CEO and Sony Corporation EVP, led both departments.

On March 2, 2010, video game developer Media Molecule, developers of the PlayStation 3 (PS3) game LittleBigPlanet, was acquired by SCEI as part of its SCE WWS. On August 23, 2010, the headquarters of the company moved from Minami-Aoyama to the Sony City (Sony Corporation’s headquarters) in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

On April 20, 2011, SCEI was the victim of an attack on its PlayStation Network system, which also affected its online division, Sony Online Entertainment. On August 1, 2011, video game developer Sucker Punch Productions fabric battery, developers of the Sly Cooper and Infamous series, was also acquired.

On January 2012, BigBig Studios was closed and Cambridge Studio—renamed Guerrilla Cambridge—becoming a sister studio of Guerrilla Games. On March 2012, Zipper Interactive, developers of the SOCOM series, MAG and Unit 13, was closed. On June 25, 2012 football shirt printing, Hirai retired as chairman of Sony Computer Entertainment; however, he remains on the board of directors.

On July 2, 2012, Sony Computer Entertainment acquired Gaikai, a cloud-based gaming service. On August 2012, Sony Liverpool developer of the Wipeout and Formula One series was closed.

A press release was published on August 20, 2013, announcing the release date of the PlayStation 4 (PS4) console. On that date, SCEI introduced the CUH-1000A series system, and announced the launch date as November 15, 2013, for North American markets and November 29, 2013, for European, Australian, New Zealand Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama and Peru markets.

Following a January 2014 announcement by the Chinese government that the country’s 14-year game console ban would be lifted, the PS4 is scheduled to be the first Sony video game console to be officially and legally released in China since the PlayStation 2—the ban was enacted in 2000 to protect the mental health of young people.

On March 6, 2014, Sony Computer Entertainment of America President and CEO, Tretton, announced he was resigning from his position at the end of the month, citing a mutual agreement between himself and SCEA for the cessation of his contract. Tretton had worked at SCEA since 1995, and was a founding member of the company’s executive team. He was involved in the launch of all PlayStation platforms in North America, including the original PlayStation, PS2, PSP, PS3, PSN, PS Vita, and PS4. Tretton was replaced by Shawn Layden, who was the vice-president and chief operating officer (COO) of Sony Network Entertainment International, effective April 1, 2014. On April 2, 2015, it was announced that Sony Computer Entertainment had acquired the intellectual property of the cloud gaming service OnLive, and that its services would cease by the end of the month.

The beta version of Sony’s first-ever cloud-based television service, PlayStation Vue (PSVue), was launched in the U.S. in November 2014. It was only offered on an invite-only basis for PS3 and PS4 users, prior to its official launch in early 2015. Sony signed deals with major networks, including CBS, Discovery, Fox and Viacom, so that users can view live streaming video, as well as catch up and on-demand content, from more than 75 channels, such as Comedy Central and Nickelodeon. Although pricing and release dates for other regions was not publicized, Sony confirmed that PSVue will eventually be available on iPad, followed by other Sony and non-Sony devices.

On January 26, 2016, Sony announced that effective April 1, 2016, Sony Computer Entertainment and Sony Network Entertainment International would be re-organized and combined into a new company, Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. Unlike SCE, Sony Interactive Entertainment is based in San Mateo, California, and represents the entire PlayStation brand, regional subsidiaries, and its content operations.

On March 24, 2016, Sony announced the formation of ForwardWorks, a new company that is aimed to deploy new services toward the ever-expanding smart device market.

The President, and Group CEO of SIE is currently Andrew House, replacing Kaz Hirai, who himself had replaced longtime CEO Ken Kutaragi, also known as “The Father of the PlayStation”. Kutaragi officially retired from his executive position at SIE on June 19, 2007, and now holds the title of Honorary Chairman at the company. Shawn Layden and Jim Ryan currently serve as Chairman of SIE Worldwide Studios and Head of Global Sales and Marketing, respectively.

SIE currently has three main headquarters around the world: San Mateo, California, US (Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. & Sony Interactive Entertainment America); Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo, Japan (Sony Interactive Entertainment Japan Asia) which control operations in Asia and was also formerly the headquarters for Sony Computer Entertainment; and London, United Kingdom (Sony Interactive Entertainment Europe) which controls operations in Europe and Oceania. SIE also has smaller offices and distribution centers in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, San Diego, California US; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Melbourne, Australia; and Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea and Liverpool, UK.

SIE evaluates and approves games for its consoles. The process is more strict than for the Nintendo Seal of Quality, and developers submit game concepts to Sony early in the design process. Each SIE unit has its own evaluation process; SIEE, for example, approved Billy the Wizard for its consumers but SIEA did not. The company sometimes imposes additional restrictions fabric bobble remover, such as when it prohibited PS and PS2 games from being ported to the PSP without 30% of content being new to the Sony console.

SCEI produces the PlayStation line of video game hardware that consists of consoles and handhelds. Sony’s first wide home console release, the PlayStation (codenamed “PSX” during development,), was initially designed to be a CD-ROM drive add-on for Nintendo’s Super NES (a.k.a. “Super Famicom” in Japan) video game console, in response to add-ons for competing platforms such as the TurboGrafx-CD and the Sega CD (sold as the PC Engine CD-ROM² System and Mega CD in Japan respectively). When the prospect of releasing the system as an add-on dissolved, Sony redesigned the machine into a standalone unit.

The PlayStation was released in Japan on December 3, 1994 and later in North America on September 9, 1995. By the end of the PS console’s 12-year production cycle, Sony registered sales of 102 million units.

SCE’s second home console, the PlayStation 2 (PS2) was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, and later in North America and Europe in October and November 2000, respectively. The PS2 is powered by a proprietary central processing unit, the Emotion Engine, and was the first video game console to have DVD playback functionality included out of the box.

The PS2 consisted of a DVD drive and retailed in the U.S. for US$299. SCEI received heavy criticism after the launch of the PS2 due to the games released as part of the launch, difficulties that it presented for video game designers, and users who struggled to port Sega Dreamcast games to the system. However, despite these complaints, the PlayStation 2 received widespread support from third party developers throughout its lifespan on the market.

On December 28, 2012, Sony confirmed that it would cease production of the PS2 through a gradual process that started in Japan—the continuing popularity of the console in markets like Brazil and India meant that PS2 products would still be shipped, while games for the console were released in March 2013. The PS2 stands as the best-selling home video game console in history, with a total of 155 million consoles sold.

Writing for the ExtremeTech website at the end of 2012, James Plafke described the PS2 as revolutionary and proclaimed that the console “turn[ed] the gaming industry on its head”:

Aside from being the “first” next-gen console, as well as providing many, many people with their first DVD player, the PlayStation 2 launched in something of a Golden Age of the non-PC gaming industry. Gaming tech was becoming extremely sophisticated … Sony seemingly knew the exact route toward popularity, turning the console with the least powerful hardware of that generation into a juggernaut of success.

The PlayStation Portable (PSP) was SCEI’s first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE’s E3 conference in 2003, and it was officially unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004. The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, and in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. The console has since seen two major redesigns, with new features including a smaller size, more internal memory, a better quality LCD screen and a lighter weight.

The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, U.S., on May 8, 2006.The PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, and the U.S. date was November 17, 2006. Technology journalists observed that Sony had followed what Microsoft did with the Xbox 360, and produced the PS3 in two versions: one with a 20GB hard drive and the other with a 60GB hard drive.

The PS3 utilizes a unique processing architecture, the Cell microprocessor, a proprietary technology developed by Sony in conjunction with Toshiba and IBM. The graphics processing unit, the RSX ‘Reality Synthesizer’, was co-developed by Nvidia and Sony. Several variations of the PS3 have been released, each with slight hardware and software differences, and each denoted by the varying size of the included hard disk drive.

The PS Vita is the successor to the PlayStation Portable. It was released in Japan and other parts of Asia on December 17, 2011, and then in Europe, Australia and North America on February 22, 2012.

Internally, the Vita features a 4-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor and a 4-core SGX543MP4+ graphics processing unit, as well as LiveArea software as its main user interface, which succeeds the XrossMediaBar.

The PS4 was announced as the successor to the PS3 and was launched in North America on November 15, 2013, in Europe on November 29, 2013 and in Japan on February 23, 2014.

Described by Sony as a “next generation” console, the PS4 included features such as enhanced social capabilities, second-screen options involving devices like the handheld PlayStation Vita, a membership service and compatibility with the Twitch live streaming platform.

Following a January 2014 announcement by the Chinese government that the country’s 14-year game console ban would be lifted, the PS4 is scheduled to be the first Sony video game console to be officially and legally released in China since the PlayStation 2—the ban was enacted in 2000 to protect the mental health of young people. Around 70 game developers, including Ubisoft and Koei, will service Chinese PlayStation users.

The Chinese release dates and price details were announced in early December, with January 11, 2015, confirmed by SCEI. The makers announced that both the PS4 and Vita consoles will be released in China, and the former’s package will also consist of a 500GB hard drive and controller.

The 20th anniversary of the original PS console was celebrated on December 6, 2014, with the release of a limited-edition, anniversary-edition PS4 with an aesthetic design that recalled the original 1994 PlayStation.

Second party studios

Estoril Open 2011/Damen

Die Estoril Open 2011 waren ein Damen-Tennisturnier in Oeiras. Das Sandplatzturnier der Kategorie International war Teil der WTA Tour 2011 und fand vom 25. April bis 1. Mai 2011 statt.

Titelverteidigerinnen waren war die Lettin Anastasija Sevastova im Einzel sowie Sorana Cîrstea (Rumänien) und Anabel Medina Garrigues (Spanien) im Doppel. Cîrstea ging in diesem Jahr nicht an den Start.

 Perth  | Brisbane | Auckland | Hobart |  Sydney  |  Australian Open  | Pattaya |  Paris  | Memphis |  Dubai  | Bogotá |  Doha  | Acapulco | Monterrey | Kuala Lumpur |  Indian Wells&nbsp fabric battery; |  Miami  | Marbella |  Charleston  |  Stuttgart  | Fès | Oeiras | Barcelona |  Madrid  |  Rom  |  Brüssel  | Straßburg |  French Open  | Kopenhagen | Birmingham |  Eastbourne  | ’s-Hertogenbosch&nbsp water bottle design;|  Wimbledon Championships  | Båstad | Budapest | Palermo | Bad Gastein | Baku |  Stanford  | College Park |  San Diego  |  Toronto  |  Cincinnati  |  New Haven  | Dallas |  US Open  | Taschkent | Québec (Stadt) | Seoul | Guangzhou |  Tokio  |  Peking  | Linz | Ōsaka |  Moskau  | Luxemburg (Stadt) |  WTA Championships  |  Tournament of Champions 

Klassifikation:   Grand Slam  |  Jahresendveranstaltung   Premier Mandatory  |  Premier 5  |  Premier  |  International 

sonstige:   Hopman Cup 

1989 | 1990 | 1991 – 1998 | 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014

Beaverhead Rock

Beaverhead Rock, also known as Point of Rocks, is a rock formation in Montana fabric battery. It is located on Montana State Highway 41, 14 miles (23&nbsp where to buy football shirts;km) south of Twin Bridges of Madison County.

The rock formation is protected within Beaverhead Rock State Park, and is located above the Beaverhead River.

Beaverhead Rock is a rock feature identified in 1805 by Sacagawea, during the Lewis and Clark Expedition, as a landmark not distant from the summer retreat of her nation. According to the Journal of Lewis:

the Indian woman recognized the point of a high plain to our right which she informed us was not very distant from the summer retreat of her nation on a river beyond the mountains which runs to the west. This hill she says her nation calls the Beaver’s Head, from a conceived resemblance of its figure to the head of that animal…as it is now all important with us to meet with those people as soon as possible I determined to proceed tomorrow with a small party…and pass the mountains to the Columbia; and down that river until I found the Indians. drinking glass bottle..without horses we shall be obliged to leave a great part of our stores…

Aeneas Coffey

Aeneas Coffey (1780–1852) was an Irish inventor and distiller.

Coffey was born in Calais, France in 1780 to Irish parents and was educated at Trinity College tenderizing steak, Dublin. He entered the excise service around 1799–1800 as a gauger. He married Susanna Logie in 1808, and they had a son, also named Aeneas, who may have been their only child.

According to British customs and excise records, he was appointed sub-commissioner of Inland Excise and Taxes for the district of Drogheda in 1813, and was eventually promoted to Inspector General of Excise in Ireland. He resigned from the service at his own request in 1824.

He patented a single column still in 1830, enhancing the original design for the column still by Robert Stein in 1826. His column still became widely popular and is known as the “Coffey still” or “Patent Still”. Early Coffey stills produced spirits of about 60% or somewhat higher alcohol by volume concentration. Modern versions can achieve much higher alcohol concentrations – approaching 95.6% alcohol. As alcohol forms an azeotrope with water at this concentration fabric battery, it is impossible to achieve higher purity alcohol by distillation alone.

On his retirement from service, Coffey went into the distilling business and for a short time ran the Dock Distillery in Grand Canal Street, Dublin. The development of the Coffey still made distillation for beverage and other purposes much more economical.