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Junkers Ju 52

Junkers Ju 52 (med øgenavnene Tante Ju – og Iron Annie var et transport- og bombefly, som blev fremstillet fra 1932-1945 af Junkers-flyfabrikken. Den blev både anvendt til både civil og militær brug i 1930’erne og 1940’erne.

Den blev civilt brugt af over et dusin luftfartselskaber, herunder Swissair og Lufthansa som passager- og fragtfly.

Militært fløj den i Luftwaffe som troppetransport- og fragtfly, men kunne også anvendes som et mellemstort bombefly. Ju 52 blev brugt efter 2. Verdenskrig af både militære og civile brugere et stykke ind i 1980’erne.

Ju 52 lignede fabrikkens tidligere Junkers W33, men var større. I 1930 designede Ernst Zindel og hans hold Ju 52 på Junkers-fabrikken i Dessau. Flyets usædvanlige riflede overflade gav den et karakteristisk, kasseagtigt udseende.

I sin oprindelige udførelse Ju 52/1m var Ju 52 et én-motors fly, som enten havde en BMW eller en Junkers vandkølet motor. I 1936 modtog James A meat tenderizer bromelain. Richardsons Canadian Airways (Werknummer 4006) CF-ARM den sjette Ju 52, der var bygget. Flyet, med motoren udskiftet med en Rolls-Royce Buzzard og med øgenavnet “Flying Boxcar” i Canada,, kunne løfte omkring 3 tons og havde en maksimumvægt på 8 tons. Det blev brugt til at forsyne miner og andre steder i fjerne områder med udstyr, som var for stort eller tungt til, at andre fly kunne fragte det discount soccer socks. Ju 52/1m kunne lande på hjul, ski eller pontoner.

En-motor udgaven havde for lille motorkraft, og efter at der var blevet bygget 7 prototyper, blev alle Ju 52’ere bygget med tre motorer med betegnelsen Ju 52/3m. De første blev udstyret med tre Pratt & Whitney Hornet stjernemotorer, men senere modeller brugte fortrinsvis BMW 132-motorer, en forbedring af Pratt & Whitney-modellen. Eksportmodeller blev også bygget med Pratt & Whitney Wasp og Bristol Pegasus-motorer. Opgraderingen forbedrede yde- og lasteevnen. Som passagerfly for Lufthansa kunne Ju 52 have 17 passagerer og flyve fra Berlin til Rom på 8 timer.

Ju 52 blev først anvendt til militært brug under den Spanske borgerkrig, både som bombefly og som transportfly. Som bombefly deltog den i bombningen af Guernica. Det blev igen brugt som bombefly ved bombningen af Warszawa under invasion af Polen i september 1939. Luftwaffe benyttede i stor stil Ju 52 ved transport under 2. Verdenskrig, herunder til nedkastning af faldskærmsjægere. Den er kendt i forbindelse med Slaget om Kreta i maj 1941 og ved Invasionen af Danmark i 1940. Med en let bevæbning og en topfart på kun 265 km/h – var Ju 52 meget sårbar for angreb fra jagere, der fløj dobbelt så hurtigt, og det var altid nødvendigt med en eskorte, når en Ju 52 fløj ind i et kampområde. Mange Ju 52’ere blev skudt ned af antiluftskyts, mens de transporterede forsyninger, især under de desperate forsøg på at holde den omringede 6. arme forsynet i de sidste faser af Slaget om Stalingrad i 1943.

I den afsluttende fase af Felttoget i Nordafrika blev 24 Ju 52’ere skudt ned i den berygtede “Palmesøndag Massakre” den 18. april 1943. Yderligere 35 humpede tilbage til Sicilien og nødlandede. Transportflyenes eskorte JG 27 formåede kun at nedskyde én fjendtlig jager.

En række Junkers Ju 52’ere forblev i militær og civil brug efter 2. verdenskrig. I 1956 anvendte det portugisiske luftvåben, som allerede brugte Ju 52’ere til transport, flyet til faldskærmsudspring for dens nyligt etablerede elitefaldskærmsstyrker, som senere blev kendt som Batalhão de Caçadores Páraquedistas. Faldskærmstropperne brugte Ju 52 i adskillige operationer i Angola og andre afrikanske kolonier glass and rubber water bottle, indtil flyene gradvist blev udfaset i 1960’erne.

Det schweiziske luftvåben brugte også Ju52, og 3 maskiner forblev i tjeneste til begyndelsen af 1980’erne.

En Ju-52 og en DC-3 var de sidste fly, som startede fra lufthavnen Tempelhof i Berlin, inden den blev lukket i 2008.

I 2008 er en Ju 52 (CASA 352) stadig i drift og udbyder veteranflyvninger fra Dübendorf lufthavn.

Udover standardversionen med fast understel var der en version, som var udstyret med 2 store pontoner. Denne model blev anvendt ved angrebet på Norge i 1940 og senere i Middelhavet. Nogle af disse fly blev også brugt som minestrygere, udstyret med en stor afmagnetiseringsring under skroget.

De fleste Ju 5’ere blev ødelagt efter krigen, men et mindre antal blev fremstillet efter 1945. I Frankrig blev flyet fremstillet af Amiot med modelbetegnelsene Amiot AAC 1 Toucan og i Spanien, fortsatte Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA produktionen under betegnelsen CASA 352. Der er adskillige Ju 52’ere, som stadig kan flyve og fortsat anvendes i dag.

Freddy Pharkas: Frontier Pharmacist

Freddy Pharkas: Frontier Pharmacist is a comic Old West adventure computer game created by Al Lowe (of Leisure Suit Larry fame) and Josh Mandel (of Callahan’s Crosstime Saloon fame) and published by Sierra On-Line in 1993. It was dubbed “the Blazing Saddles of computer games” by Computer Gaming World.

The game uses Sierra’s SCI1 discount soccer socks.1 engine, and features 256-color hand-drawn art, scaling sprites, and a point-and-click interface. Freddy Pharkas ran under both DOS and Windows 3.1. It was released in both floppy disk and CD-ROM versions, the latter having full voiceover speech for all characters. The game’s manual is entitled The Modern Day Book of Health and Hygiene, a parody of 19th century medical texts. It contains information necessary for solving prescription puzzles.

In the game, the player takes the role of Freddy Pharkas, an 1880s-era pharmacist in the town of Coarsegold, California which was the location of Sierra’s headquarters in 1993. Freddy was once a gunslinger, but sought a new career after his last gunfight, in which “Kenny the Kid” (a reference to the infamous outlaw Billy the Kid) shot off one of his ears. Throughout the town, businesses are either being bought or proprietors are being scared out of town. Someone is obviously trying to take over the entire area, but who? And why? The slimy sheriff, Checkum P. Shift doesn’t seem eager to help, so it’s up to Freddy to find out the details. The cast includes the town’s eccentric old man and story narrator Whittlin’ Willy, Srini (Freddy’s “Injun” sidekick – actually East Indian), Doc “Dizzy” Gillespie the drunken town doctor, the cafe owner Helen Back, otherwise known as Mom and her stereotypical Chinese chef Hopalong Singh (a reference to Hop Sing, the cook on Bonanza), the crooked banker Phineas (P.H.) Balance, town schoolmarm (and Freddy’s love interest) Penelope Primm, and Madame Ovaree, who runs the local brothel goalie shirt soccer. The villain “Kenny the Kid” is a cartoonish version of Sierra’s then-president Ken Williams. Madame Ovaree’s name is an obvious parody of Madame Bovary and (as evidenced by her occupation) ovaries. Also, there are some anachronisms in the game, such as Srini mentioning him being on Pakistani time, but Pakistan did not exist at the time the game is set, as the region where the country was still a part of India at that time, and Pakistan did not become a country until 1947, 67 years after the game’s setting.

Freddy must take part in numerous tasks such as mixing the right amount of chemicals to create the requested prescription remedy and lab equipment. He also must deal with various dilemmas taking part in town such as a gas leak aka all the town’s horses with explosive flatulence, a snail stampede, a diarrhea epidemic and an abandoned building fire that might spread through the entire town. He must use found objects and pharmaceutical skills to solve these problems.

On at least one box containing the CD-ROM version of the game, it states “Meet the Great-Great Grandpappy of Leisure Suit Larry!”, referring to Zircon Jim Laffer who makes a (belated) appearance in the game. However, the game’s original intent may have instead been to portray Zircon Jim as Leisure Suit Larry’s great-great-great uncle.

Al Lowe has said that he considers Freddy Pharkas one of his funniest games. He gives a good deal of credit to Josh Mandel, who co-wrote the game, as well as some of the songs including the opening and closing ballads. (Mandel was a humorous collaborator on several Sierra games, including the Space Quest series and The Dagger of Amon Ra.)

Mandel had explained in a commentary the reason why there were so many more jokes in the Floppy Disk version as compared to the CD-ROM version of the game, “I had co-designed, directed, produced, and written the floppy version; there were no plans at all, at the time, to produce a CD version. When sales of the floppy version justified a CD version, I was no longer available to produce and direct it, having by then started on SQ6 phone bag. Al Lowe was then tapped to do the casting and recording of the CD version, but the game already had so much text in it that, when it came time to record the inventory text, Al just stopped—he was, he said, tired of sitting in the sound studio. As I had written the vast majority of the game’s text and dialogue, I pointed out to him that, in the process of cutting roughly 15% of the game’s text from the recording, he’d not only left out many jokes, but many clues and hints as well”.

Lowe admitted that his goal was to make a comic western game in the vein of Blazing Saddles. Freddy Pharkas definitely contains its share of scatological humor: it may very well hold the distinction of the only computer game in which the player must capture a horse’s flatulence in a paper bag.

Charles Ardai praised the game in Computer Gaming World in 1993, stating that “Freddy Pharkas is the Blazing Saddles of computer games”, with better humor and puzzles than the Leisure Suit Larry series and which “can make a jaded player laugh out loud frequently”. He wrote that although “satirizing the Wild West is by no means a new idea”, the developers “manage to find new jokes to crack and new ways to crack old ones … never runs out of material”, including satires of other computer games, both Sierra’s and others’. Game Informer in September 2006 called it one of the best adventure games of all time, and gave it a Retro Review score of 9.0.

Occasionally, Cedric from King’s Quest V can be seen perched atop a cactus.

As a form of copy protection, the recipes for each prescription can only be found in the manual.