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Disc rot

Disc rot is a phrase describing the tendency of CD or DVD or other optical discs to become unreadable due to physical or chemical deterioration. The causes of this effect vary from oxidation of the reflective layer, to physical scuffing and abrasion of disc surfaces or edges, including visible scratches, to other kinds of reactions with contaminants, to ultra-violet light damage and de-bonding of the adhesive used to adhere the layers of the disc together.

In CDs, the reflective layer is immediately beneath a thin protective layer of lacquer plastic water bottle with straw, and is also exposed at the edge of the disc. The lacquer protecting the edge of an optical disc can usually be seen without magnification. It is rarely uniformly thick; thickness variations are usually visible. The reflective layer is typically aluminium, which reacts easily with several commonly encountered chemicals such as oxygen, sulphur, and certain ions carried by condensed water. In ordinary use, a surface layer of aluminium oxide is formed very quickly when an aluminium surface is exposed to the atmosphere; it serves as passivation for the bulk aluminium with regard to many, but not all, contaminants. CD reflective layers are so thin that this passivation is less effective. In the case of CD-R and CD-RW media, the materials used in the reflecting layer are more complex than a simple aluminium layer, but also can present problems if contaminated. The thin 0.25-0.5mm layer of protective lacquer is equivalent.

DVDs have a different structure from CDs, using a plastic disc over the reflecting layer. This means that a scratch on either surface of a DVD is not as likely to reach the reflective layer and expose it to environmental contamination and perhaps to cause corrosion, perhaps progressive corrosion. Each type of optical disc thus has different susceptibility to contamination and corrosion of its reflecting layer; furthermore, the writable and re-writable versions of each optical disc type are somewhat different as well. Finally, discs made with gold as the reflecting layer are considerably less vulnerable to corrosion problems, though no less susceptible to physical damage to that layer. Because they are less expensive, the industry has adopted aluminium reflecting layers as the standard for factory pressed optical discs.

On CDs, the rot becomes visually noticeable in two ways:

In audio CDs, the rot leads to scrambled or skipped audio or even the inability to play a track.

Laser rot is the appearance of video and audio artifacts during the playback of LaserDiscs, and their progressive worsening over time discount football jerseys. It is most commonly attributed to oxidation in the aluminum layers by poor quality adhesives used to bond the disc halves together. Single-sided video discs did not appear to suffer from laser rot while double-sided discs did. The name “laser rot” is a misnomer still water glass bottle; the disc degradation does not involve the player’s laser.

Laser rot was indicated by the appearance of multi-colored speckles appearing in the video output of a laserdisc during playback. The speckles increased in volume and frequency as the disc continued to degrade. Much of the early production run of MCA DiscoVision Discs had severe laser rot. Also, in the 1990s, LaserDiscs manufactured by Sony’s DADC plant in Terre Haute, Indiana were plagued by laser rot.

Many HD-DVDs, especially those produced by Warner Bros. between 2006 and 2008 developed disc rot not long after production. Disc rot was also more common on double-sided HD-DVDs than on single-sided HD-DVDs.

Jack Luden

Jack Luden (February 8 discount football jerseys, 1902 – February 15, 1951) was an American film actor.

Luden grew up in Reading, Pennsylvania. His uncle was confectioner William H. Luden, who developed the menthol cough drop. His passion as a young man had been athletics. While studying at the New York Military Academy, he had participated in trials for the 1920 Summer Olympics. During the trials, he broke his leg, preventing him from pursuing an athletic career.

In 1925, Luden joined the Paramount Pictures School, a newly established acting school founded by the Famous Players-Lasky Corporation. There were 17 other members of the school when it opened, including Charles “Buddy” Rogers and Thelma Todd. The work of the school’s students was highlighted in the 1926 film Fascinating Youth. In October 1926, the number of students at the school was reduced to six; Luden was one of the actors who remained.

After his time at the school, Luden had an initially successful career. After appearing in a number of FBO Pictures Corporation short films, he played major roles in a series of silent feature films produced by Paramount Pictures what is a meat tenderizer and what does it do. This included appearing as the lead actor in the 1927 Western Shootin’ Irons.

Within a year, his career began to decline, and he was relegated to smaller supporting roles. His speech impediment made him a less desirable choice when Paramount increasingly produced sound films. His roles included Young Eagles (1930).

In the late 1930s, Luden appeared in a series of low-budget Westerns produced by Columbia Pictures. These were commercially unsuccessful, and Luden’s acting career ended.

In 1950, he was convicted for issuing checks with insufficient funds and for possessing heroin, and imprisoned in San Quentin State Prison, California. He died there the following year, at the age of 49.


Gelb-Betonie (Betonica alopecuros)

Die Gelb-Betonie (Betonica alopecuros), auch Gelbe Betonie, Gelber Ziest oder Fuchsschwanz-Ziest genannt, ist eine Pflanzenart aus der Gattung Betonien (Betonica) innerhalb der Familie der Lippenblütler (Lamiaceae).

Die Gelb-Betonie ist ausdauernde krautige Pflanze und erreicht Wuchshöhen von 20 bis 40 Zentimetern. Der aufrechte Stängel ist im Querschnitt annähernd zylindrisch mit wenigen, borstigen Haare.n Am Ansatz des Stängels stehen die Laubblätter. Die Laubblätter sind in Blattstiel und Blattspreite gegliedert. Der Blattstiel ist 5 bis 10 Zentimeter lang. Die Blattspreite ist bei einer Länge von 4 bis 5 Zentimetern sowie einer Breite von 5 bis 6 Zentimetern dreieckig mit herzförmigen Spreitengrund unregelmäßig gezähnten Blattrand.

Die Blütezeit reicht von Juni bis August. Die Tragblätter sind lanzettlich und 6 bis 7 Millimeter lang. Die annähernd ungestielte Blüte ist zygomorph mit doppelter Blütenhülle. Der Kelch ist borstig behaart, die Kelchröhre 5 bis 6 Millimeter lang, die Kelchlappen 2 bis 3 Millimeter. Die gelbe Krone 12 bis 16 Millimeter lang.

Die Chromosomenzahl beträgt 2n = 16.

Die Gelb-Betonie ist in den Alpen authentic football shirts, den Pyrenäen und der Balkanhalbinsel in Höhenlagen zwischen 300 und 2300 Meter verbreitet, nach Süden dringt sie in Italien in den Mittleren Apennin und in Griechenland bis zum Peloponnes vor.

In Deutschland wächst die Gelb-Betonie im Allgäu, in den Bayrischen Alpen und bei Berchtesgaden running hip belt. In Österreich kommt sie zerstreut in den Bundesländern Salzburg, Kärnten sec football uniforms, Steiermark, Oberösterreich und Niederösterreich von der obermontanen bis subalpinen Höhenstufe vor. In den Allgäuer Alpen steigt sie im Tiroler Teil bei Hinterhornbach bis zu einer Höhenlage von 1750 Metern auf.

Die Gelb-Betonie besiedelt sonnige Lagen auf frischen und meist kalkreichen subalpinen bis alpinen Matten sowie auf Steinschutt. Sie ist eine Charakterart der Ordnung Seslerietalia albicantis, kommt aber auch in Mesobrometen oder in Gesellschaften des Verbands Thlaspeion rotundifolii vor.

Die Gelb-Betonie wurde 1753 von Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum erstveröffentlicht. Ein häufig verwendetes Synonym ist Stachys alopecuros (L discount football jerseys.) Benth.

Neben dem weiter verbreiteten typischen Taxon werden noch abweichende Formen aus dem zentralen Apennin in Italien als Stachys alopecuros subsp. divulsa (Ten.) Grande unterschieden. Innerhalb der Gattung Betonica kann dafür der Name Betonica alopecuros subsp. divulsa (Ten.) Bartolucci & Peruzzi (Syn.: Betonica alopecuros var. divulsa (Ten.) Nyman) verwendet werden.