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National Guard (France)

The National Guard (French: la Garde nationale) was originally a French militia which existed from 1789 until 1872, including a period of official disbandment from 1827 to 1830. It was separate from the French Army and existed both for policing and as a military reserve. For most of its history the National Guard, particularly its officers, were widely viewed as loyal to middle-class interests bpa free water bottle brands. However, from 1792 to 1795, the National Guard was perceived as revolutionary and the lower ranks were identified with sans-culottes, and soon after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, the National Guard in Paris became viewed as dangerously revolutionary, contributing to its dissolution.

In 2016 fabric stores, France announced the reestablishment of the National Guard in response to terrorist attacks.

The raising of a “Bourgeois Guard” (“garde bourgeoise”) for Paris was discussed by the National Assembly on 11 July 1789 in response to the King’s sudden and alarming replacement of prime minister Jacques Necker with the Baron de Breteuil on that day. The replacement caused rapidly spread anger and violence throughout Paris. The National Assembly declared the formation of a “Bourgeois Militia” (“milice bourgeoise”) on 13 July. In the early morning of the next day, the search for weapons for this new militia led to the storming of the Hotel des Invalides and then the storming of the Bastille.

Lafayette was elected to the post of commander in chief of the Bourgeois Militia on 15 July, and it was renamed the “National Guard”. Similar bodies were spontaneously created in the towns and rural districts of France in response to widespread fears of chaos or counter-revolution. When the French Guards mutinied and were disbanded during the same month, the majority of this former royal regiment’s rank and file became the full-time cadre of the Paris National Guard.

Initially each city, town and village maintained its own National Guard, until they were united on 14 July 1790 under Lafayette, who was appointed “Commandant General of all the National Guards of the Kingdom”.

The officers of the National Guard were elected. Under the law of 14 October 1791, all active citizens and their children over 18 years were obliged to join the National Guard. Their role was the maintenance of law and order and, if necessary, the defence of the territory. Following a nationwide scheme decided on in September 1791, the National Guard was organised on the basis of district or canton companies. Five of these neighbourhood units (designated as fusiliers or grenadiers) made up a battalion gray football uniforms. Eight to ten battalions comprised a legion. Districts might also provide companies of veterans and young citizens, respectively drawn from volunteers of over 60 or under 18. Where possible, there was provision for mounted detachments and artillerymen.

The citizens kept their weapons and their uniforms at home, and set forth with them when required. The initially multi-coloured uniforms of the various provincial National Guard units were standardised in 1791, using as a model the dark blue coats with red collars, white lapels and cuffs worn by the Paris National Guard since its creation. This combination of colours matched those of the revolutionary tricolour.

The former Guet royal had held responsibility for the maintenance of law and order in Paris from 1254 to 1791, when the National Guard took over this role. In fact, the last commander of the Guet royal (Chevalier du Guet), de La Rothière, was elected to head the National Guard in 1791. In the summer of 1792, the fundamental character of the guard changed. The fédérés were admitted to the guard and the subsequent takeover of the guard by Antoine Joseph Santerre when Mandat was murdered in the first hours of the insurrection of 10 August placed a radical revolutionary at the head of the Guard. After the abolition of the monarchy (21 September 1792), the National Guard fought for the Revolution and it had an important role in forcing the wishes of the capital on the French National Assembly which was obliged to give way in front of the force of the “patriotic” bayonets.

After 9 Thermidor, year II (27 July 1794), the new government of the Thermidorian Reaction placed the National Guard under the control of more conservative leadership. Part of the National Guard then attempted to overthrow the Directory during the royalist insurrection on the 13 Vendémiaire, year IV (5 October 1795), but were defeated by forces led by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Battle of 13 Vendémiaire. The Paris National Guard thereafter ceased to play a significant political role.

Napoleon did not believe that the middle-class National Guard would be able to maintain order and suppress riots. Therefore, he created a Municipal Guard of Paris, a full-time gendarmerie which was strongly militarised. However, he did not abolish the National Guard, but was content to partially disarm it. He kept the force in reserve and mobilised it for the defence of French territory in 1809 and 1814. In Paris during this period the National Guard comprised twelve thousand bourgeois property owners, serving part-time and equipped at their own expense, whose prime function was to guard public buildings on a roster basis. Between 1811 and 1812 the National Guard, was organized in “cohorts” to distinguish it from the regular army, and for home defence only. By a skilful appeal to patriotism, and judicious pressure applied through the prefects, it became a useful reservoir of half-trained men for new battalions of the active army.

With the invasion of France by allied Austrian, Prussian, Russian and British armies in 1814, the National Guard was suddenly called on to provide support for regular Imperial forces. Existing National Guard units, such as those of Paris, were deployed as defence corps in their areas of recruitment. Mass conscription was extended to age groups previously exempt from military service, to provide more manpower for the expanded National Guard. Students and volunteers from gamekeepers and other professional groups formed separate units within the National Guard. Clothing and equipment was often in short supply and even the Paris National Guard was obliged to provide pikes as substitute weapons for some of its new recruits.

Six thousand national guardsmen took part in the Battle of Paris in 1814. Following the occupation of the city by the allied armies, the National Guard was expanded to 35,000 men and became the primary force for maintaining order.

Under the Restoration in 1814, the National Guard was maintained by Louis XVIII. Initially the Guard, purged of its Napoleonic leadership, maintained good relations with the restored monarchy. The future Charles X served as its Colonel-General, reviewed the force regularly and intervened to veto its proposed disbandment on the grounds of economy by the Conseil Municipal of Paris. However, by 1827, the middle-class men who still composed the Guard had come to feel a degree of hostility towards the reactionary monarchy. Following hostile cries at a review on 29 April Charles X dissolved the Guard the following day, on the grounds of offensive behaviour towards the crown. He neglected to disarm the disbanded force, and its muskets resurfaced in 1830 during the July Revolution.

A new National Guard was established in 1831 following the July Revolution in 1830. It played a major role in suppressing the Paris June Rebellion of 1832 against the government of King Louis-Phillipe. However, the same National Guard fought in the Revolution of 1848 in favour of the republicans. This change in allegiance reflected a general erosion in the popularity of Louis-Phillipe and his “Bourgeois Monarchy”, rather than any fundamental change in the make up of the National Guard, which remained a middle-class body.

Napoleon III confined the National Guard during the Second Empire to subordinate tasks to reduce its liberal and republican influence. During the Franco-Prussian War the Government of National Defense of 1870 called on the Guard to undertake a major role in defending Paris against the invading Prussian army. During the uprising of the Paris Commune, from March to May 1871, the National Guard in Paris was expanded to include all able-bodied citizens capable of carrying weapons. Following the Commune’s defeat by the regular French Army, the National Guard was officially abolished and its units disbanded. Also disbanded was the Mobile National Guard (Garde Nationale Mobile) raised in 1866 to provide personnel and officers for rapid deployment operations nationwide, as well as to provide reserve personnel for the armed forces.

Despite its major role in the Franco-Prussian War, the National Guard was disbanded soon after the establishment of the Third Republic. Having been converted from a volunteer reserve into a much larger force composed mainly of conscripts, the National Guard had lost its identity and raison d’être. It also faced opposition from the army which was opposed to such a large armed force outside its direct control. The role of the Paris units of the National Guard in the uprising of the Paris Commune led to a great degree of hostility towards the National Guard, especially from the army.

Perceived as an embodiment of the revolutionary republican “nation in arms” at the time of the Revolution of 1789, the National Guard was formally disbanded on 14 March 1872 as a threat to the security and order of the new Third Republic.

The National Guard was superseded by the creation of territorial regiments, made up of older men who had completed their period of full-time military service. These reserve units were embodied only in times of general mobilisation but remained an integral part of the regular army.

After wave of terror attacks in France, which intensified significantly starting in 2014 and 2015, French President François Hollande declared the total establishment of a new National Guard. By his words, the Guard will be formed using military reserve forces. Hollande expected to start parliamentary consultations on September 2016 about this matter.

On October 12, 2016, during a weekly meeting of the Cabinet, the National Guard was officially reconstituted after 145 years as the fifth service branch of the French Armed Forces under the Ministry of Defence. The revitalized Guard will also reinforce elements of the National Gendarmerie and the National Police in securing major events nationwide while performing its historical responsibility as a national military and police reserve service.

It is expected that the new Guard will grow to a 72,500-member force in 2017 and grow to a 86,000-member national reserve in 2018. The formation of the revived Guard will be assisted with a dedicated 311 million euro budget and its personnel will now come from the reserves, members from the private sector and active personnel seconded to the service.

Lawncrest, Philadelphia

Lawncrest is a neighborhood in the “Near” (lower) Northeast Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The name is an amalgram of Lawndale and Crescentville, the two primary communities that make up the neighborhood.

The community can trace its roots back to the 19th century as a small German community known to some as Marburg. Parts of Crescentville were known as “Grubbtown” during the Civil War. The main artery of the community, Rising Sun Avenue, was originally a toll road known as the Kensington & Oxford Turnpike. A sole remaining marker of this toll road once stood in front of the Engine 64 Firehouse at Rising Sun and Benner, near the bus stop. Today, only its base remains after it was destroyed in the 1960s by an auto accident.

The area of Lawncrest extends from Godfrey Avenue to Longshore Avenue. Adjacent neighborhoods include: Burholme to the north, Oxford Circle/Castor Gardens to the east, and Olney to the south. To the West is Cheltenham Township, Montgomery County. The Newtown Branch/New York Short Line of the Reading Railroad (now SEPTA/CSX) separates Lawncrest from Montgomery County. Tookany/Tacony Creek also skirts through a portion of the Community.

The community has excellent public transportation. Two SEPTA Fox Chase Line Regional Rail stations serve the community: Lawndale Station at Robbins and Newtown Aves and Cheltenham Station at Martins Mill Road and Hasbrook Ave. These two small community stations see an average daily ridership of over 1000 people, mostly from the Lawncrest Community. Oddly enough, due to the way the county lines are drawn, Lawndale Station actually is located within Cheltenham Township/Montgomery County, while Cheltenham Station is actually within Lawndale/Philadelphia County.

Crescentville Station, closed in the 1970s, was located at the bottom of Godfrey Ave, behind Bond Bread and was nothing more than a dirt/gravel platform. A second Crescentville Station, which served the Frankford Branch of the Reading RR, was located directly behind the Bond Bread building on the south side of the railroad right of way. It was closed when passenger service ended on that branch in the 1930s.

Several bus lines also serve the community. The route 18 bus runs from Cedarbrook Mall–Olney Terminal up to Fox Chase using Rising Sun, while the routes 19, 24, 26 and 67 buses serve the Eastern portions of the neighborhood, connecting to the Olney, Frankford and Fern Rock Transportation Centers via direct service or single transfer. All routes have connecting service to the Broad Street subway and Market-Frankford elevated lines.

The primary ZIP Code is 19111 (Fox Chase Post Office) for the area North of Comly Street and 19120 (Olney P.O.) for the area South of Comly Street. Most of the southern end of the Community is actually built on the former property of the Wentz Farm. Portions of the East side of Crescentville are actually built over former swamp land, while the West side was built on more stable bedrock.

Rising Sun Avenue is usually identified as the main artery through Lawncrest, though originally, Ashmead Road/Levick Street was the primary Road. The business area along “the Avenue” is commonly known for its numerous pizza parlors, small “mom ‘n’ pop” stores and doctors’ offices. There are a good number of corner stores, hair salons, bars and even a couple Chinese take-out places that line the avenue as well. Two movie theaters once served the Lawncrest Community, the Lawndale at Rising Sun and Fanshawe Street and the CREST at Rising Sun and Cheltenham Ave. Only the Lawndale remains, now as a day care center. The Crest was torn down to make way for a 7-Eleven in 1988.

St. William’s Parish, founded in 1920, covers most of the Crescentville end of the community and part of the lower end of Lawndale, from Magee Avenue South, while the upper end of Lawndale approximately covers the area of Presentation B.V.M. Parish which was founded in 1890. There are about a dozen Protestant Churches within the Community, the oldest being which dates back to 1698.

Lawncrest is about 36% Black, 30% White, 19% Hispanic, and 15% Asian.

In the heart of the community is the 18-acre (73,000 m2) Lawncrest Recreation Center and fields which was built on the location of an old City Reservoir. Also on this property are the Free Library of Philadelphia Lawncrest Branch, built in the 1960s and the Engine 64 Fire House built in 1924. The recreation area includes fields to play sports and other activities. There are tennis courts and basketball courts as well as a roller hockey rink, several baseball diamonds and the pool. Soccer is also played on the central fields in the Fall. Inside the Recreation Center there is a basketball court bpa free water bottle brands, gym, auditorium with stage, dance room and meeting rooms. The Lawncrest Athletic Association, created back in the 1950s, has since ceased operations. The LCAA was a non-profit organization that saw its peak in the 1980s when close to 1000 kids would be annually registered for the various activities during the summer months. Parents and volunteers conducted leagues for children aged 6 and up to play sports over the vast playing fields for a nominal fee. The LCAA offered baseball, softball, soccer, and, early in its history, football.

The Rec still offers a summer day camp for kids and a pre-school program known as ‘Tot-rec’. The Rec is decorated with murals throughout. The gym is open during the day and is free for use. Currently, sports have resumed operation with baseball as a sport favorite.

Aside from the Lawncrest Recreation Center, Gibbons Police Athletic League (PAL) is located at the intersection of Longshore and Rising Sun Avenues in Lawndale on the property of the Trinity Oxford Church. There is a field at PAL for baseball and two basketball courts inside the building. Salvation Army (Korean Ministry) located at the corner of Rising Sun avenue & Van Kirk street offers Sunday worship & Day care services.

Best known for the multiple championship Roller Hockey teams, The Lawncrest Lightning.

Most teens who live in Lawncrest attend either Cardinal Dougherty High School (Catholic-private) (Now closed), Northeast High School (public), or Samuel Fels High School (public). Two Public elementary schools serve the area – Ben Franklin and Creighton and in addition, Presentation BVM Parish School and Cedar Grove Academy (in the former Lawndale Public School building) serve the private sector in education. St. William Parish School Closed in 2012.

Most older residents who chose not to remain in their homes, opt to live in one of two retirement homes/communities with the area. (PPH) offers 3 levels of retirement living. Its campus takes up over 12 acres (49,000 m2) of land and has been within the community since 1889. Pilgrim Gardens also takes up a large portion of land just to the North in Burholme and also traces its routes back to the 1880s.

The community is especially known for its annual 4 July celebration which started back in 1915 as two separate events. The day includes a main parade down Rising Sun Avenue, baby parade, music, activities and a flea market at the Lawncrest Recreation Center, and fireworks at night. Many former residents return to Lawncrest for the 4th of July celebration. People from all parts of the city come here on 4 July as well. You will find people of all ages and backgrounds at the flea market that follows the parade.

Lawncrest saw several population “booms” over the years, particularly during 1920s–1950s era, with Pre and Post WW2 Residents building the neighborhood up from the small farming community it was prior to. There was a second boom in the mid-to-late 80’s that saw many baby boomers residing in the community with their children football pink socks. There has been little in the way of housing construction since the early 1970s. A large majority of the homes are owner occupied and maintained well under pride of ownership. The loss of several major employers in the area between 1970 and 1990 also had an effect on retaining residents in later years. Some of these major employers included: Sears & Roebuck, Canada Dry, Mrs. Pauls, Stokes Vacuum, 3M, Bond Bread, Exide Battery, among many other smaller companies. Currently, the (Commonly referred to locally as the Navy Depot) is the area’s single largest employer, with over 5,900 Military and Civilian Jobs. This facility takes up over 145 acres (0.59 km2) of land in Lawncrest and is a large barrier in the usual street grid layout of the City, between Lawncrest and neighborhoods to the East, such as Oxford Circle, Summerdale and Frankford, with Levick Street, Martins Mill Road/Oxford Avenue and Godfrey Avenues providing the only gateways to the neighborhood. The 2nd largest employer in the area is Industries with over 3,000 employees working at two separate facilities, one on Rising Sun Avenue, just below Adams Avenue, and the other on Tabor Road, in the former Stokes Vacuum Factory. , a leading, Mid-Atlantic construction company with offices also in Indiana, also calls Lawncrest its home base, with its long time location on Bingham Street at Godfrey Avenue.