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Teodora Albon

Teodora Albon (born 2 December 1977 in Cisnădie, Romania) is a Romanian football referee bogner ski jackets 2016. Albon started her refereeing career in 2000 while still playing for Clujana Cluj-Napoca, where she was coached by her husband, Mirel Albon, a former Liga I assistant referee.
In 2009 was in charge for the UEFA Women’s Under-19 Championship Final between Sweden and England. She took charge (accompanied by a team of three Romanian match officials – assistants Petruța Iugulescu and Mihaela Țepușa, and fourth official Cristina Dorcioman) of the 2013 UEFA Women’s Champions League Final at Stamford Bridge in London, where VfL Wolfsburg beat Lyon 1-0 in regular time, and also officiated at two matches during UEFA Women’s Euro 2013. She has also handled the 2011–12 UEFA Women’s Champions League semi-final between Lyon and Turbine Potsdam, and the 2012–13 UEFA Women’s Champions League quarter-final, between Arsenal and Torres. Additionally, she was a referee for the 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup in Canada.

Kven language

The Kven language is a Finnic language spoken in northern Norway by the Kven people. For political and historical reasons, it received the status of a minority language in 2005 within the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Linguistically, however, it is seen as a mutually intelligible dialect of the Finnish language, and grouped together with the Peräpohjola dialects such as Meänkieli, spoken in Torne Valley in Sweden.
Contrary to popular belief, the dialects spoken by the Kvens and Kainuu peoples are not closely related. The Kainuu dialect is one of the Savonian dialects that was formed from the 16th century onwards, when immigrants from Savonia started to settle in the northern wastelands.[citation needed]
The Kven language has come to incorporate many Norwegian loanwords, such as tyskäläinen (from the Norwegian word tysk, meaning German) instead of standard Finnish saksalainen. The Kven language also uses some old Finnish words that are no longer used in Finland.

From the 1860s onwards the Norwegian government attempted to assimilate the Kvens. For example, the use of the Kven language became forbidden in schools and government offices, and Kven town names were replaced by Norwegian names. From 1970s onwards, the Kvens and the Sami in Norway have openly been allowed to use their original native languages, the Kven language and the Sami languages, respectively, and to teach them to their children in schools. Despite its recent gain of status as a minority language, there is still a major discussion among the Kven about whether the Finnish orthography should be applied to the language or if a new orthography should be devised.
Since 2006, it has been possible to study the Kven culture and language at the University of Tromsø, and in 2007 the Kven language board was formed at the Kven institute, a national centre for Kven language and culture in Børselv, Norway. The council will work out a written Kven language, but use Finnish orthography to maintain inter-Finnish language understanding.
Today, most speakers of Kven are found in two Norwegian communities, Storfjord and Porsanger. A few speakers can be found other places, such as Bugøynes, Neiden, Vestre Jakobselv, Vadsø, and Nordreisa.
In northeastern Norway, mainly around Varanger Fjord, the spoken language is quite similar to standard Finnish, whereas west of Alta the people speak Kven due to its close ties to the Torne Valley, and the closely related Meänkieli, spoken in the Torne Valley in the border areas of Finland and Sweden, which is also the ancient core area of the Kvens.
In government report from 2005, the number of people speaking Kven in Norway is estimated to be between 2,000 and 8,000, depending on the criteria used. However, there are very few young people who speak it, making it an endangered language.
The phonology of Kven is basically the same as that of Finnish. It is however worth noting that while Standard Finnish has been replacing /ð/ by /d/, it is retained in Kven. For instance, the word meiđän (‘our’) in Kven is meidän in Standard Finnish.
Kven has 16 vowels, if one includes the vowel length:
In writing, the vowel length is indicated by doubling the letter, e.g. ⟨yy⟩ /yː/ and ⟨öö⟩ /øː/ bogner ski jackets 2016.
The graphemes representing /ø/, /æ/ and /ɑ/ are ⟨ö⟩, ⟨ä⟩ and ⟨a⟩, respectively.
Kven has 14 consonants found in native vocabulary, and four consonants found in loanwords:
/b, d, ɡ, ʃ/ are only found in loanwords.
/ʋ/ and /ʃ/ are represented in writing by ⟨v⟩ and ⟨š⟩, respectively.
/ð/ is represented in writing by ⟨đ⟩.
/ŋ/ is represented in writing by ⟨n⟩ if followed by /k/, and ⟨ng⟩ if geminated, i.e. ⟨nk⟩ /ŋk/ and ⟨ng⟩ /ŋː/
Gemination is indicated in writing by doubling the letter, e.g. ⟨mm⟩ for /mː/ and ⟨ll⟩ for /lː/
Kvääninkieli oon se kieli mitä kväänit oon puhuhneet ja vielä tääpänäki puhhuuvat, ja mikä oon säilyny ruottalaistumisen ja norjalaistumisen läpi minuriteettikielenä. Minun mielestä Torniolakson «meiän kieliki» oon vanhaa kvääninkieli tahi vanhaala meiđän kielelä kaihnuunkieli.
Kveenin kieli on se kieli, jota kveenit ovat puhuneet ja vielä tänä päivänäkin puhuvat, ja joka on säilynyt ruotsalaistumisen ja norjalaistumisen läpi vähemmistökielenä. Minun mielestäni Torniolaakson “meidän kielikin” on vanhaa kveenin kieltä tai vanhalla meidän kielellämme kainun kieltä.
The Kven language is the language which the Kvens have spoken and still today speak, and which has survived through Swedenization and Norwegianization as a minority language. In my opinion “meänkieli” of Torne Valley is also an old Kven language or in our old language, Kainu language.

Bearing pressure

Bearing pressure is a particular case of contact mechanics often occurring in cases where a convex surface (male cylinder or sphere) contacts a concave surface (female cylinder or sphere: bore or hemispherical cup). Excessive contact pressure can lead to a typical bearing failure such as a plastic deformation similar to peening. This problem is also referred to as bearing resistance.

A contact between a male part (convex) and a female part (concave) is considered when the radii of curvature are close to one another. There is no tightening and the joint slides with no friction therefore, the contact forces are normal to the tangent of the contact surface.
Moreover, bearing pressure is restricted to the case where the charge can be described by a radial force pointing towards the center of the joint.
In the case of a revolute joint or of a hinge joint, there is a contact between a male cylinder and a female cylinder. The complexity depends on the situation, and three cases are distinguished:
By “negligible clearance”, H7/g6 fit is typically meant.
The axes of the cylinders are along the z-axis, and two external forces apply to the male cylinder:
The main concern is the contact pressure with the bore, which is uniformly distributed along the z-axis.
In this first modeling, the pressure is uniform. It is equal to ·  · :
There are two ways to obtain this result.
First, we can consider a hemicylinder in a fluid, with a uniform hydrostatic pressure. The equilibrium is achieved when the resulting force on the flat surface is equal to the resulting force on the curved one. The flat surface is a D × L rectangle, therefore
Second, we can integrate the pressure elementary forces. Let us consider a small surface dS on the cylindrical part, parallel to a generating line; its length is L, and it is bound by the angles θ and θ + dθ. This small surface element can be considered as a flat rectangle which dimensions are L × (dθ × D/2). The pressure force on the surface is equal to
The (y, z) plane is a plane of reflection symmetry, so the x compound of this force is annihilated by the force on the symmetrical surface element. The y compound of this force is equal to:
The resulting force is equal to
If it is considered that the parts deform elastically, then the contact pressure is no longer uniform and transforms to a sinusoidal repartition · :
This is a particular case of the following section (θ0 = π/2).
The maximum pressure is 4/π ≃ 1.27 times bigger than the case of uniform pressure.
In cases where the clearance can not be neglected, the contact between the male part is no longer the whole half-cylinder surface but is limited to a 2θ0 angle. The pressure follows Hooke’s law:
The pressure varies as:
where A and B are positive real number. The maximum pressure is:
the angle θ0 is in radians.
The rigidity coefficient K and the half contact angle θ0 can not be derived from the theory. They must be measured. For a given system — given diameters and materials —, thus for given K and clearance j values, it is possible to obtain a curve θ0 = ƒ(F/(DL)).
Relationship between pressure, clearance and contact angle
The part no. 1 is the containing cylinder (female, concave), the part no. 2 is the contained cylinder (male, convex); the center of the cylinder i is Oi, and its radius is Ri.
The reference position is an ideal situation where both cylinders are concentric. The clearing, expressed as a radius (not diameter), is:
Under the load, the part 2 gets in contact with the part 1, the he surfaces deform. we suppose that the cylinder 2 is rigid (no deformation), and that the cylinder 1 is an elastic body. The indentation of 2 into 1 has a depth of δmax; the cylinder movement is e (excentration):
We considere the frame at the center of the cylinder 1 (O1, x, y). Let M be a point on the contact surface; θ is the angle (-y, O1M). The displacement of the surface, δ, is:
with δ(0) = δmax. The coordinates of M are:
and the coordinates of O2:
Let us considere the frame (O1, u, v), where the axis u is (O1M). In this frame, the coordinates are:
We know that
then we use the expression of e and R1 = j + R2:
The deformations are small, as we are in the elastic domain. Thus, δmax ≪ R1 and therefore |φ| ≪ 1, i.e.
At θ = θ0, δ(0) = 0 and the first equation is
and thus
If we use the law of elasticity for a metal (α = 1):
The pressure is an affine function of cos θ:
with A = K⋅j/cos θ0 and B = A⋅cos θ0.
Case where the clearance can be neglected
If j ≃ 0 (R1 ≃ R2), then the contact is on the whole half-perimeter: 2θ0 ≃ π and cos θ0 ≃ 0. The value of 1/cos θ0 rise towards infinity, thus
As j and cos θ0 both tend towards 0, the ratio j/cos θ0 is not defined when j goes to 0. In mechanical engineering, j = 0 is an uncertain fit, it is a nonsense, both mathematically and mechanically. We are looking for a limit function
So, the pressure is a sinusoid function of θ:
Let us considere an infinitesimal element of surface dS bound by θ and θ + dθ. As in the case of the uniform pressure, we have
When we integrate between -π/2 and π/2, the result is:
We know that (e.g. using the Euler’s formula):
and thus
Case where the clearance can not be neglected
The force on an infinitesimal element of surface is:
We recognise the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ :
and therefore:
A sphere-sphere contact corresponds to a spherical joint (socket/ball), such as a ball jointed cylinder saddle. It can also describe the situation of bearing balls.
The case is similar as above: when the parts are considered as rigid bodies and the clearance can be neglected bogner ski jackets 2016, then the pressure is supposed to be uniform. It can also be calculated considering the projected area ·  · :
As in the case of cylinder-cylinder contact, when the parts are modeled as elastic bodies with a negligible clearance, then the pressure can be modeled with a snusoidal repartition · :
When the clearance can not be neglected, it is then necessary to know the value of the half contact angle θ0 , which can not be determined in a simple way and must be measured. When this value is not available Discount Bogner outlet 2016, the Hertz contact theory can be used.
The Hertz theory is normally only valid when the surfaces can not conform, or in other terms, can not fit each other by elastic deformation; one surface must be convex, the other one must be also convex or plane. This is not the case here, so the results must be considered with great care. The approximation is only valid when the inner radius of the container R1 is far greater than the outer radius of the content R2, in which case the surface container is then seen as flat by the content. However, in all cases, the pressure that is calculated with the Hertz theory is greater than the actual pressure (because the contact surface of the model is smaller than the real contact surface), which affords designers with a safety margin for their design.
In this theory, the radius of the female part (concave) is negative.
A relative diameter of curvature is defined:
where d1 is the diameter of the female part (negative) and d2 is the diameter of the male part (positive). An equivalent module of elasticity is also defined:
where νi is the Poisson’s ratio of the material of the part i and Ei its Young’s modulus.
For a cylinder-cylinder contact, the width of the contact surface is:
and the maximal pressure is in the middle:
In case of a sphere-sphere contact, the contact surface is a disk whose radius is:
and the maximal pressure is in the middle:
In a bolted connection, the role of the bolts is normally to press one parts one the other; the adherence (friction) is opposed to the tangent forces and prevents the parts from sliding apart. In some cases however, the adherence is not sufficient. The bolts then play the role of stops: the screws endure shear stress whereas the hole endure bearing pressure.
In good design practice, the threaded part of the screw should be small and only the smooth part should be in contact with the plates; in the case of a shoulder screw, the clearance between the screw and the hole is very small ( a case of rigid bodies with negligible clearance). If the acceptable pressure limit Plim of the material is known, the thickness t of the part and the diameter d of the screw, then the maximum acceptable tangent force for one bolt Fb, Rd (design bearing resistance per bolt) is:
In this case, the acceptable pressure limit is calculated from the ultimate tensile stress fu and factors of safety, according to the Eurocode 3 standard ·

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. In the case of two plates with a single overlap and one row of bolts, the formula is:
In more complex situations, the formula is:
When the parts are in wood, the acceptable limit pressure is about 4 to 8.5 MP.
In plain bearings, the shaft is usually in contact with a bushing (sleeve or flanged) to reduce friction. When the rotation is slow and the load is radial, the model of uniform pressure can be used (small deformations and clearance).
The product of the bearing pressure times the circumferential sliding speed, called load factor PV, is an estimation of the resistance capacity of the material against the frictional heating ·  · .

Whack Attack Tour

The Whack Attack Tour was a concert tour by rock band ZZ Top. Whack Attack was a 24-week-long tour in the United States and Canada, which was a longer outing than the previous Summer North American Tour. It began in June 2005 and ended in November 2005. The set was designed by Chris Stuba and had a ‘retro garage’ theme, with custom microphone stands and drum kit; tinsel was used as a backdrop. Risers were made out of diamond-plated steel. The set list highlighted material from the albums Mescalero (2003), Chrome, Smoke & BBQ (2003) bogner ski jacket, and Rancho Texicano (2004). Billy Gibbons and Dusty Hill appeared on stage in sequined blazers. The show has received positive criticism ted baker dresses 2016, complimenting their showmanship, as well as the longevity of their signature sound and look.

The Whack Attack Tour’s production was designed by lighting technician Chris Stuba, who had worked with the band for the past eleven years. The backdrop was made of black and silver-colored tinsel, with drum and amplifier risers made of diamond-plated steel. Microphone stands were designed by John A. Douglas, who also designed the drum kit for Frank Beard used on the tour bogner ski jackets 2016; the stands were made from truck exhaust pipes and were equipped with built-in LED tubes that changed color during the show, as well as Electro-Voice 664 dynamic microphones. The drum kit was painted with a lime green, leopard print design, including bass drums made with hubcaps on the outside and spun during the show. Gibbons and Hill used Crate V-50 2×12″ combo amplifiers as monitors. The lighting package was supplied by Bandit Lites, consisting of mostly Vari-Lite fixtures including VL3500 spot lights.

CIÉ 2600 Class

The Córas Iompair Éireann (CIÉ) 2600 Class were Associated Equipment Company (AEC)–engined diesel multiple units (normally termed railcars in Ireland) that operated InterCity and suburban services on the CIÉ system between 1952 and 1975. Many were later converted for push–pull operation with diesel locomotives, finally being withdrawn when displaced by the electric Dublin Area Rapid Transit service in the mid-1980s.

The first single-unit diesel railcars in Ireland were introduced on the narrow-gauge County Donegal and Clogher Valley railways in the early 1930s. The Great Northern Railway and Northern Counties Committee followed shortly thereafter. However, early railcar trains did not exceed two cars in length. Early in 1948, the GNR(I) ordered a fleet of 20 railcars, capable of operating in pairs with one or two intermediate trailer cars, from AEC. Introduced in 1950 and 1951, these vehicles drew on AEC’s experience with the Great Western Railway’s pre-war railcars. The cars combined AEC diesel engines (two per car, each of 125 bhp (93 kW)) with bodywork by Park Royal Vehicles. CIÉ had been interested in railcars since its inception in 1945, but an initial plan for a four-car diesel-electric unit was cancelled. However, the success of the GNR(I) cars and the 1948 Milne Report’s recommendations in favour of railcars (but not diesel locomotives) encouraged the company to place a large-scale order with AEC in September 1950. (Note also that 10 of the 20 GNR(I) AEC cars were inherited by CIÉ on the Great Northern’s dissolution in 1958, along with 10 of 24 later cars built by the Great Northern Railway Board on British United Traction (BUT) underframes; the remainder went to the Ulster Transport Authority—see also UTA AEC.)
In 1951, CIÉ ordered a series of 60 cars similar to the GNR(I) examples, again combining AEC engines and Park Royal bodywork. These vehicles were almost identical to the GNR(I) units but incorporated improvements derived from experience with the latter; most notably, up to four power cars, rather than two, could operate in multiple. They were delivered between March 1952 and September 1954 and numbered in the series 2600–2659.
Six additional cars (2660–2665) were ordered in August 1954. Delivered in 1956, they were mechanically identical to the earlier vehicles—although the engines were now designated as BUT, rather than AEC, products. However, the cars’ bodywork was constructed at CIÉ’s Inchicore Works to a distinctive design by the company’s Chief Mechanical Engineer, Oliver Bulleid Top Free People Dress. (It may be noted that CIÉ had faced political pressure to build the bodywork of the original cars itself, rather than importing complete vehicles.) Although the cars’ length and width were identical to those of their predecessors, they were distinguished by flat sides and a high, flat front end. Even-numbered cars had the standard composite (two-class) seating arrangement, whereas odd-numbered ones had a single-class layout. The Bulleid cars had a short career in their original form, soon being rebuilt as powered intermediates (see below).
Various carriages were fitted or retrofitted with jumper cables to allow their operation in a railcar train. There were at least 88 trailers in total, including pre-1950s stock (one example dating from 1902), 1950s CIÉ vehicles, other 1950s stock from Park Royal Vehicles (manufacturer of the railcars’ own bodywork) and 1960s Cravens vehicles.
Examples included three composite (i.e. two-class) vehicles specially modified to work as through Cork–Belfast coaches on the Enterprise, and 14 buffet cars capable of functioning either as a conventional buffet car (in which passengers consumed their food in the car itself) in locomotive-hauled trains, or as a kitchen vehicle with ordinary seating in railcar trains (whose passengers were served food at their seats, either in the car or elsewhere in the train) which were built in 1953 and 1954. Trailers generally ran between a pair of power cars, although there were a number of driving trailers, described below; additionally, ordinary trailers were sometimes marshalled at the tail of a train, particularly in the 2600s’ early days.
Two special Park Royal trailer vehicles for service on the isolated Waterford and Tramore Railway were built in 1955. These vehicles, like the railcars they worked with, had high-density seating arrangements. One of them was, additionally, fitted out as a driving trailer, with a guard’s compartment at the non-cab end and a large area set aside for prams. Two further driving trailers, known as “mules,” were converted from 1953-built hauled stock but were used only briefly, working as part of the Westport portion of a Dublin–Galway/Westport train.
The 2600 Class were effectively identical to the GNR(I) cars in overall configuration, having a full-width driver’s cab at one end, a gangway at the other, and underfloor engines. Their bodywork was conventional for CIÉ stock of the time, consisting of steel panels on timber framing. The underframe was of steel channel construction.
The 2600s shared the engines and transmission of their GNR(I) predecessors, having two 250 brake horsepower (190 kW), 9.6-litre, six-cylinder, four-stroke engines driving the inner axles of the two bogies via fluid flywheels and Self-Changing Gears five-speed preselector gearboxes, with cardan shafts driving forward/reverse gearboxes on the ends of the axles. Multiple working was via 24-core jumper cables. The cars were fitted with two parallel vacuum brake systems—a conventional system and a second high-vacuum, quick-release system, based on reservoirs in which a vacuum was continually maintained, for use on services with frequent stops. Steam heating was originally fitted; even-numbered cars had a boiler in the guard’s compartment, capable of supplying steam for up to four cars. Cars used on suburban services were subsequently fitted with a bus-type heating system that utilised the engines’ cooling water.
Almost all the cars were delivered with a two-class layout. A 12-seat first class saloon was located at the cab end of the car, a glazed partition behind the cab permitting forward (or rearward) views through the windscreen. A 32-seat second class (known as third class until 1956) saloon was positioned towards the gangway end, and there was also a guard’s compartment and, in cars 2600–2647, a toilet. Cars 2648–2657 were intended for suburban use and devoid of toilets, permitting an extra four second class seats; apart from a lack of tables, they were otherwise identical to cars intended for longer-distance service. However, odd-numbered cars in this series subsequently had their guard’s compartments removed to provide additional seating. Exceptionally, two cars (2658–2659) for use on the Waterford and Tramore Railway were delivered with high-density, single-class (although still divided into two saloons) layouts without toilets; the guard’s compartment was also omitted from one car. Special trailer cars (see above) with similar high-density layouts operated with them. Most other cars were refitted with high-density, single-class layouts in the 1960s and early 1970s; these layouts seated between 70 and 91, depending on whether the toilet, guard’s compartment or both were retained.
When originally delivered, the railcars were employed on mainline express trains, including crack workings such as a three-hour nonstop service between Dublin and Cork. Eight-car formations were commonly deployed on these duties, sometimes splitting en route to serve (for example) Tralee and Cork or Galway and Westport. By 1954, they were also operating on longer secondary and branch routes, such as Cork–Bantry. However, the arrival of diesel locomotives from 1955 onwards displaced the mainline 2600s to secondary workings.
Moreover, the fact that CIÉ operated its railcars in four-car (two power cars, two trailers) or eight-car (four power cars, four trailers) sets, whereas the Great Northern—and, in general, its successor in Northern Ireland, the Ulster Transport Authority—used its near-identical vehicles in two-car (both power cars) or three-car (two power cars, one trailer) sets, meant that the 2600s had a poor power-to-weight ratio. One solution initially employed at busy times was to operate certain trains in a so-called “6+2” formation, comprising a power car, four intermediate trailers (usually including a dining car) and a second power car—thus giving passenger access throughout all six cars—followed by two extra power cars which were normally locked and inaccessible to passengers. From 1961, this arrangement was superseded by the use of powered intermediate cars, discussed below. By 1969, although suburban workings on “the relatively flat sections around Dublin” were formed of two power cars and two trailers, the remaining mainline workings used two-car sets.
Additionally, obtaining spare parts proved troublesome as the railcars aged. As early as 1968, the AEC engines were considered obsolete, and spares were “virtually impossible” to obtain, forcing CIÉ to cannibalise some of the 2600s in order to keep the remainder running.
In 1969, the only mainline services remaining railcar-operated were one round trip per day on each of the Sligo–Dublin and Dublin–Rosslare routes. The last mainline working was on the Dublin–Rosslare route in April 1970. By 1971, conversions of the cars to push–pull stock had begun. Early in 1972, it was reported that only a small railcar fleet would be retained in operational condition, pending the introduction of the push–pull trains. In late 1974, eight cars were reportedly being kept operational to address a shortage of locomotives “by reason of damage by accidents and bomb incidents.” The last five railcars were withdrawn on 20 September 1975. Ten of the 2600 Class, along with 19 of the AEC and BUT cars inherited from the Great Northern, were broken up rather than converted to push–pull stock.
Cars 2614, 2617 and 2656 from the original fleet were rebuilt following severe collision or fire damage. Cars 2614 and 2617 were returned to service in 1960 with new bodies whose sides resembled the Bulleid cars’ but whose ends were similar to those of the original batch. These cars were further rebuilt in 1961, this time along with 2656 and all the Bulleid cars, into “powered intermediates” with engines but not cabs, which were renumbered into the 2660 series. Odd-numbered powered intermediates seated 60, while even-numbered cars had 52 seats and a guard’s compartment. The cars were substituted for trailer vehicles in certain trains, improving the trains’ power-to-weight ratio. Other cars underwent changes in the seating layout, discussed above, as they were reassigned from long-distance to suburban service.
In 1971, with the process of modifying railcars for suburban operations still underway, work began on the first conversions to push–pull stock for service with the then recently re-engined 201 Class locomotives. The conversion was intended to address both the cars’ poor power-to-weight ratio and the increasing difficulties in obtaining spare parts for their engines. The first test runs were made on the Dublin–Cork line in mid-February 1972. Trials on the Dublin suburban lines commenced in June 1972, and sets began entering service in February 1973. Operation on the Cork–Cobh line was also considered at one point.
There were four types of push–pull vehicle:
All cars’ toilets were removed. There were originally nine five-car and three four-car sets. The first sets to enter service had the locomotive at the north end, but later ones were marshalled with the locomotive at the south end; the earlier sets were then turned on the triangle at Limerick Junction to standardise the position. However, the number of available driving trailers declined due to a spate of fires (at one stage, a “spare man” travelled in each driving trailer’s generator compartment to detect and extinguish fires) and the fatal collision at Gormanston in 1974. There were only six driving trailers available by 1982; conventional locomotive haulage was, thus, often substituted for push–pull operation.
The push–pull sets were “not very attractive and were not very comfortable”, particularly due to ride problems arising from the vehicles’ reduced weight compared to the original railcars. However, they “were cheap and could be quickly produced” and survived, “deeply unloved by those travelling,” until (and

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, in some cases beyond) electrification.
Although the railcars had already received high-density seating, overcrowding of the push–pull trains was such that the transverse seats were replaced by longitudinal ones to give more standing room. Notoriously, the seating provided was similar to contemporaneous plastic stacking chairs in dingy shades of green and orange. In 1980, the driving trailers and connector cars typically had 58 seats, the standard intermediates 70 and the former powered intermediates 66; however, there were minor variations among the individual cars. Yet another modification took place in early 1984, when some cars intended for retention after electrification received “more comfortable seating.” This consisted of the then standard class high backed bench seats, seating three and two passengers respectively. The seats were upholstered in blue moquette with a vinyl headrest running along the top of the bench.
At the end of February 1984, five months before the inauguration of DART, only four sets remained. Most vehicles were withdrawn soon after electric services began; by 1985, there were only two sets of three cars each, one set used to provide a shuttle service between Bray and Greystones and the other as a spare. One of these sets was withdrawn in 1986, the other surviving to pass into Iarnród Éireann ownership in February 1987 and managing to outlast its normal motive power; the remaining 201 Class locomotives were withdrawn in 1986, and 121 Class locomotives were used thereafter. (Locomotive 121, then numbered B121, had undergone trials with push–pull stock as early as 1973.) During Hurricane Charley in August 1986, the shuttle train was even used to stand in for electric trains on the partially flooded main Dublin–Bray line. However, the shuttle was withdrawn in mid-September 1987, due to the poor condition of the rolling stock (the service was resumed at the end of October, using an 80 Class train hired from Northern Ireland Railways).
Almost all the push–pull vehicles were scrapped at Mullingar or Dundalk. One, driving trailer 6111 (the former railcar 2624) bogner ski jackets 2016, was set aside for possible preservation. It remained at Inchicore in a derelict condition until 7 February 2015, when it was purchased by and moved to the Downpatrick and County Down Railway.
Both the number series originally carried by the railcars and that used for the push–pull conversions have been reused. Iarnród Éireann’s first order of diesel multiple units, from Tokyu Car Corporation of Japan, received numbers in the 26xx series when delivered in 1994. Previously, the 61xx and 63xx series had been used, respectively, for driving and intermediate push–pull cars based on the British Rail Mark 3 design.

Lee Baxandall

Lee Raymond Baxandall (January 26, 1935 – November 28, 2008) was an American writer, translator, editor, and activist, first known for his New Left engagement with cultural topics and then as a leader of the naturist movement.

Baxandall was born and raised in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. He attended the University of Wisconsin in Madison, where he obtained a B.A. (1957) and M.A sleeveless dress. (1958) in English, studied comparative literature at the doctoral level, and became one of the editors of Studies on the Left, a New Left intellectual journal known for its free-wheeling qualities. In 1960, Baxandall traveled to revolutionary Cuba. In 1962, he married Rosalyn Fraad; she would become an early women’s liberation activist and they would have a son, Phineas. Living in New York City from 1962 to 1977, they were active in the movement to end the Vietnam War

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Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Baxandall demonstrated a strong interest in the relationship between culture, particularly theatre, and radicalism. He translated plays by Peter Weiss and Bertolt Brecht, edited a collection of writings by the German social critic and psychologist Wilhelm Reich, compiled an annotated bibliography on Marxism and aesthetics, and wrote numerous essays on major literary figures, including Bertolt Brecht and Franz Kafka. In 1965 he gave lectures at the Free University of New York on ‘Marxist approaches to the Avant-Garde Arts.
In 1973, he edited a collection of writings by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels on art and literature with Polish philosopher Stefan Morawski. Baxandall’s writing appeared in a wide variety of venues, from left-wing periodicals such as The Nation, New Politics, The National Guardian, and Liberation, to mainstream publications including The New York Times and intellectual-cultural outlets such as Partisan Review, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, and New German Critique.
Naturism would by the late 1970s become the main focus of Baxandall’s activism. He first took up the activity as an Eagle Scout in Wisconsin and would frequent a free beach with his family at Cape Cod National Seashore in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1974, he travelled to the West Coast of the United States to meet founders of the free beach movement there: Eugene Callen and Cec Cinder. This became Beachfront USA. Having inherited his family’s publishing business in Oshkosh in 1970, which he managed by traveling back there monthly and then by relocating to there permanently in 1978, Baxandall began to publish Free Beaches magazine and created the Free Beaches Documentation Center 2016 clothes online, collecting data from all over the world on nude beaches. In 1980, he published Lee Baxandall’s World Guide to Nude Beaches & Recreation bogner ski jackets 2016, a color guidebook locating places to go nude all over the world, which he succeeded in getting distributed through major book channels. It was updated and published again several times, the last being in 1996.
Baxandall’s view was that nudism fostered body acceptance and broke down the alienation and repression that stood in the way of the realization of full human potential. He founded The Naturist Society in 1980 and was the first editor of its magazine, Clothed with the Sun, launched in 1981 and renamed Nude & Natural in 1989. The Naturist Society had very inclusive membership policies, in contrast to the more conservative America Sunbathing Association, now known as the American Association for Nude Recreation. Baxandall is a member of their Nudist Hall Of Fame.
Baxandall was one of the originators, along with Eugene Callen, of “National Nude Weekend,” later “National Nude Week,” which he used to generate media attention for the cause. He helped organize and sponsor the first nationwide and later regional annual Naturist Gatherings, with seminars and nude fun for everyone. He also commissioned Edin and Ethel Vélez to produce a series of videos (World of Skinnydipping, etc.) depicting the naturist lifestyle and debunking myths surrounding nude recreation.
Baxandall founded the Naturist Action Committee, the primary group responsible for early warning and defense against those who would legislate naturists out of existence in the United States. He was the first to retain the services of a professional lobbyist to get the movement’s viewpoint heard in state legislatures and Congress. He founded the Naturist Education Foundation, devoted to improving awareness and acceptance of naturism and body acceptance throughout North America.
In 1992, Baxandall remarried, to longtime companion Johanna Moore. In 1995, Baxandall was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease and he retired from public life from 2002 until his death on November 28, 2008.
Baxandall is commemorated by the naming of a bridge in his honour at the Desert Shadows Inn Resort and Villas, Palm Springs, California.