Tag Archives: alabama wholesale socks

Historia de al-Ándalus

En el siglo VII, los musulmanes habían comenzado una rápida conquista en la que ocuparon Oriente Medio y el norte de África steel insulated water bottle, llegando a la Península Ibérica a principios del siglo siguiente, en el marco del último proceso expansionista del Califato Omeya de Damasco.

A principios del siglo VIII el reino visigodo se encontraba sumido en una de sus constantes luchas internas, la toma del poder del último rey visigodo Rodrigo provocó que sus rivales llamasen al líder musulmán Táriq Ibn Ziyad que inició la conquista de la España peninsular por Gibraltar.

En el año 711 tropas del Califato Omeya, compuestas por árabes y bereberes, cruzaron el estrecho de Gibraltar dirigidos por Tariq, lugarteniente del gobernador del Norte de África, Musa ibn Nusayr. En principio Tariq se atrincheró en el peñón que recibiría después su nombre Chabal Tariq, (Gibraltar), a la espera de la llegada del grueso de sus tropas. Sólo entonces inició su ofensiva con la toma de Carteya (Cádiz), después de lo cual se dirigió al oeste e instaló su base de operaciones en Al-Yazirat Al-Hadra, (en árabe: الجزيرة الخضراء) lo que hoy es Algeciras.

En ese mismo año Tariq vence a los visigodos en la trascendental batalla de Guadalete, y tras dar remate a lo que quedaba del ejército rival en Écija emprende una rápida conquista, primero en dirección a Toletum (Toledo), y posteriormente hacia Caesar Augusta (Zaragoza). Hacia el 718 la Península Ibérica, salvo las zonas montañosas del norte habitadas por Vascones, Cántabros y Astures, estaba en manos del Califato Omeya.

Desde 716 la Península fue dirigida desde Qurtuba, Córdoba, por un gobernador (wali) nombrado por el califa de Damasco. Los primeros gobernadores aparte de organizar el estado islámico y asentar a inmigrantes árabes, sirios y sobre todo bereberes, llevaron a cabo expediciones contra el reino franco hasta que después de la batalla de Poitiers en el 732, los francos emprendieron diversas campañas que expulsaron a los musulmanes de las tierras situadas al norte de los Pirineos hacia el 759.

En el territorio de al-Ándalus, los musulmanes respetaron a la población cristiana y judía alabama wholesale socks, por pertenecer a una de las religiones abrahámicas, que los dotaba de un estatus determinado. Este establecía que, aunque no formaran parte de la umma, comunidad islámica, quedarían protegidos, tendrían sus jueces y conservarían sus ritos. Estas circunstancias motivaron una política de pactos de capitulación donde muchos aristócratas visigodos pudieron conservar propiedades e incluso cierto grado de poder mediante nuevas fórmulas, como es el caso de Teodomiro (en árabe: تدمير Tūdmir), gobernador de la provincia Provincia Carthaginense, que tras un acuerdo gobernó a título de rey un territorio cristiano visigodo autónomo dentro de al-Ándalus, denominado kora de Tudmir.

Este hecho, unido a que una parte de la población, cristianos unitarios y hebreos sobre todo, vieran con buenos ojos el nuevo poder musulmán que los libraba de la dura opresión que los visigodos habían ejercido contra ellos, podría explicar la rapidez de la conquista musulmana.

La composición social de al-Ándalus fue muy compleja y varió a lo largo de su historia; por un lado se encuentran los que pertenecían a la comunidad islámica, Umma, que se dividían en libres y esclavos y étnicamente en árabes, sirios, bereberes, muladíes (cristianos conversos al Islam y sus descendientes) saqalibas (de origen eslavo y que podían ser esclavos o libres), y también esclavos provenientes de África, aunque estos nunca llegaron a constituirse como un grupo social diferenciado. Entre los que no pertenecían a la Umma estaban los judíos y los mozárabes (cristianos de al-Ándalus).

En el año 750, en Damasco, la familia de los Abasídas desplaza a los Omeyas del poder, matando a todos sus miembros excepto a Abd al-Rahman I -también conocido como Abderramán-, y trasladan el poder a Bagdad.

En 756 Abd al-Rahman huye a la Península Ibérica y consigue que ésta se separe del poder de Bagdad, haciendo que Córdoba se convirtiera en un emirato independiente. En la segunda mitad del siglo IX se erige la alcazaba de Majerit como defensa de Toledo.

La creación de los reinos de Asturias y de Pamplona, y de diversos condados en la zona pirenaica por parte de los francos, a finales del siglo VIII y primeros años del IX representó la primera reducción del territorio de al-ndalus. Hasta el siglo XI, las fronteras entre al-Ándalus y los estados cristianos del norte experimentaron pocas variaciones aunque la lucha entre ellos fue frecuente.

El estado andalusí estaba dirigido por visires (ministros) bajo la dirección del hagib el de más rango de ellos. También se formó un ejército profesional compuesto por mercenarios.

A comienzos del año 929 (final del año 316 de la hégira), el emir Abd al-Rahman III proclama el califato de Córdoba, y se nombra a sí mismo Emir al-Muminin (príncipe de los creyentes), lo cual le otorga buy meat tenderizer, además del poder terrenal, el poder espiritual sobre la umma (comunidad de creyentes), de este modo se convirtió en el primer califa independiente de la Península. Por otra parte, la naturaleza misma del poder dinástico cambió a causa de este acontecimiento, y el alcance histórico, reconocimiento y adhesión del pueblo a los califas de al-Ándalus fue inmenso.

Este importante acontecimiento histórico encuentra sus fundamentos en la victoria definitiva que el poder cordobés había logrado unos meses antes sobre la interminable revuelta de Omar Ben Hafsún con la toma de Bobastro en enero del 928. Así mismo, se logró el restablecimiento de la autoridad del poder central de Córdoba sobre la mayor parte del territorio y la rendición de las últimas disidencias como la de Badajoz y de Toledo.

Dentro del contexto general del mundo musulmán en los primeros decenios del siglo X, hay otra causa del acontecimiento que es la creación del califato fatimí proclamado en 910 en Qairawan, norte de África, opuesto al abbassí; sin duda ésta fue una justificación implícita de la instauración del título califal en al-Ándalus.

La relación con los reinos vecinos fue tensa; por una parte se encontraba el califato fatimí en las fronteras cordobesas del norte de África; en el año 931, las tropas andalusíes entraron en Ceuta, donde se levantaron fortificaciones importantes. Desde entonces se establecieron tanto en Ceuta como en Melilla guarniciones andalusíes con carácter permanente. El califato omeya desplegó grandes esfuerzos para contener lo mejor posible el avance fatimí, siguiendo en su política de alianzas con las tribus Magrawa-Zanata del Magreb occidental, hostiles a los Sanhaya del centro que sostenían el poder fatimí.

Por el norte se encontraban los reinos cristianos que seguían con sus incursiones en territorio andalusí aprovechando cualquier debilidad del emirato cordobés. En el 932 Ramiro II atacó Madrid y derrotó a un ejército musulmán en Osma en el 933. Aliándose con el poderoso gobernador tuyibí de Zaragoza. Abd al-Rahman III intentó restablecer la situación del lado cristiano organizando una campaña contra el reino de León para restablecer la supremacía musulmana sobre la frontera del Duero. Abd-el-Rahman no alcanzó su objetivo y sufrió una derrota en la batalla de Simancas, seguida de otra en el barranco de Alhándega, aunque estas derrotas no tuvieron, de hecho, graves consecuencias territoriales porque igualmente se consiguieron otras victorias de importancia, los problemas internos paralizaron León y porque el poder cordobés, con su tenacidad, logró mantener una presión lo suficientemente fuerte sobre la frontera, y desplegó un gran esfuerzo para protegerla, edificando nuevas defensas y fortificando las ya existentes.

Abd al-Rahman III mandó edificar en el año 936 la ciudad palatina de Medina Azahara donde se trasladó con su gobierno y la corte.

Cuando llega al poder Al-Hakam II el Califato cordobés se encuentra consolidado tanto en el norte de la Península, con los reinos cristianos bajo vasallaje, como en el Magreb occidental, controlado por el Califato cordobés, bien mediante sus propias tropas, bien por medio de tribus aliadas o sometidas.

A su muerte, Al-Hakam II dejó el trono cordobés a un muchacho de once años sin ninguna experiencia política llamado Hisham, este joven califa contaba con el apoyo de su madre la concubina Subh de Navarra y el ministro Al-Musafi, además de la de un hombre llamado Abi Amir Muhammad, futuro al-Mansur (Almanzor para los cristianos), que mediante intrigas y movimientos políticos va ascendiendo en el poder hasta hacerse con el poder absoluto. Al-Mansur puso en marcha un programa de reformas en la administración civil y militar y supo atraerse a las clases populares con una política de intensa actividad militar contra los cristianos del norte.

Al-Mansur inició una serie de campañas o algaradas que se adentraron en territorio cristiano, llegando hasta Santiago, Pamplona, etc. Esta política provocó que los reinos cristianos crearán una coalición contra al-Ándalus.

Las taifas (palabra que en árabe significa “bando” o “facción”) fueron hasta treinta y nueve pequeños reinos en que se dividió el califato de Córdoba después del derrocamiento del califa Hisham III (de la dinastía omeya) y la abolición del califato en 1031, como consecuencia de la guerra civil.

Finalmente en 1031, se produce la separación del califato en reinos de Taifas.

Entre los años 718 y 1230 se forman los principales núcleos cristianos en la península en los reinos de Castilla, Portugal, Navarra y la Corona de Aragón.

En el siglo XIII, se produce un gran avance cristiano gracias a la victoria en la Batalla de las Navas de Tolosa (1212) que provoca que el poderoso imperio almohade entre en decadencia, aprovechando las monarquías cristianas para conquistar grandes territorios y arrasar las principales ciudades.

Queda sólo el Reino nazarí de Granada como último reducto musulmán en la Península, mientras la corona de Aragón inicia una política de expansión por el Mediterráneo y se confirma la unión de Castilla con León.

La Reconquista finaliza en 1492 con la toma de Granada por parte de los Reyes Católicos que lo anexionan a la Corona de Castilla. En este mismo año se produce la expulsión de los judíos y el descubrimiento de América, en nombre de Castilla, por Cristóbal Colón.

Grizzly Man

Grizzly Man is a 2005 American documentary film by German director Werner Herzog. It chronicles the life and death of bear enthusiast Timothy Treadwell. The film includes some of Treadwell’s own footage of his interactions with grizzly bears before 2003, and of interviews with people who knew, or were involved with Treadwell, as well as professionals dealing with wild bears.

He and his girlfriend Amie Huguenard were killed and eaten by a grizzly bear in 2003. Treadwell’s footage was found after his death. The bear that killed Treadwell and Huguenard was later encountered and killed by the group retrieving the remains of the victims. The final film was co-produced by Discovery Docs, the Discovery Channel’s theatrical documentary unit, and Lions Gate Entertainment. The film’s soundtrack is by British singer-songwriter and guitarist Richard Thompson.

Herzog used sequences extracted from more than 100 hours of video footage shot by Treadwell during the last five years of his life. He also conducted and filmed interviews with Treadwell’s family and friends, and bear and nature experts. Park rangers and bear experts commented on statements and actions by Treadwell, such as his repeated claims that he was defending the bears from poachers. Park rangers noted that there had never been a recorded incident of poaching at this national park.

As another example, Treadwell claimed he had “gained the trust” of certain bears, sufficient to approach and pet them. Park rangers pointed out that bears are wild and potentially dangerous animals; given that, Treadwell was lucky to have survived so long as he did without being mauled running with a fanny pack. One park ranger suggested that the bears were so confused by Treadwell’s direct, casual contact that they weren’t sure how to react to him. Other park rangers point out that the bears were not threatened by poachers custom youth football jerseys cheap, but Treadwell’s actions put them at real risk of harm and death. By familiarizing them with human contact, he increased the likelihood that they would approach human habitation seeking food, and cause a confrontation in which humans would kill them.

In 2003, Treadwell was camping in Katmai National Park with his girlfriend, Amie Huguenard. Treadwell usually left the park at the end of summer but that year stayed into early October. This put him and Huguenard at greater risk, as in this period, bears are aggressive about searching for food to store up calories for hibernation during the winter. Herzog speculates that their staying later in the season ultimately resulted in the deaths of Treadwell and Huguenard.

In addition to presenting views from friends and professionals, Herzog narrates and offers his own interpretations of events. He concluded that Treadwell had a sentimental view of nature, thinking he could tame the wild bears. Herzog notes that nature is cold and harsh. Treadwell’s view clouded his thinking and led him to underestimate danger, resulting in his death and that of his girlfriend.

Treadwell’s video camera captured an audio record of the bear attack. Herzog refrained from making this a part of the film alabama wholesale socks, but he is shown listening to it, clearly disturbed. The director advised Palovak (the owner of the tape) to destroy it rather than listen to it. He later repudiated his own advice, saying it was

“Stupid… silly advice born out of the immediate shock of hearing—I mean, it’s the most terrifying thing I’ve ever heard in my life. Being shocked like that, I told her, ‘You should never listen to it, and you should rather destroy it. It should not be sitting on your shelf in your living room all the time.’ [But] she slept over it and decided to do something much wiser. She did not destroy it but separated herself from the tape, and she put it in a bank vault.”

The coroner gave Palovak Treadwell’s wristwatch, which had been retrieved from his left arm, one of the few remains found. Willy Fulton, the pilot who discovered the remains of Treadwell and his girlfriend, had noted seeing the lone arm with the wristwatch and not being able to keep the image out of his mind.

Treadwell spent 13 summers in Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Over time, he believed the bears grew to trust him; they allowed him to approach them and he had even touched them. He gained some national notoriety for his work with the bears and founded Grizzly People with his friend Jewel Palovak. They worked to protect bears in national parks by raising awareness.

Park officials repeatedly warned him that his interaction with the bears was unsafe to both him and to the bears. “At best, he’s misguided,” Deb Liggett, superintendent at Katmai and Lake Clark national parks, told the Anchorage Daily News in 2001. “At worst, he’s dangerous. If Timothy models unsafe behavior, that ultimately puts bears and other visitors at risk.” Treadwell filmed his exploits, and used the films to raise public awareness of the problems faced by bears in North America. In 2003, at the end of his 13th visit, he and his girlfriend Amie Huguenard were attacked, killed, and partially eaten by a bear. The events that led to the attack are unknown.

Jewel Palovak, co-founder of Grizzly People and a close friend of Treadwell’s, had to give her approval for the film to be produced, as she controlled his video archives. The filmmakers had to deal with logistical as well as sentimental factors related to Treadwell’s footage of his bear interactions. Grizzly People is a “grassroots organization” concerned with the treatment of bears in the United States. After her friend’s death, Palovak was left with control of Grizzly People and Treadwell’s 100 hours of archival footage. As his close friend, former girlfriend, and confidante, she had a large emotional stake in the production. She had known Treadwell since 1985 and felt a deep sense of responsibility to her late friend and his legacy.

She said that he had often discussed his video archives with her. “Timothy was very dramatic,” she once said. She quoted Treadwell as saying, “‘If I die, if something happens to me, make that movie. You make it. You show ’em.’ I thought that Werner Herzog could definitely do that.”

Grizzly Man premiered at the 2005 Sundance Film Festival and its limited US theatrical release began on August 12, 2005. It was later released on DVD in the United States on December 26, 2005. The Discovery Channel aired Grizzly Man on television on February 3, 2006; its three-hour presentation of the film included a 30-minute companion special that delved deeper into Treadwell’s relationship with the bears and addressed controversies related to the film.

The DVD release lacks an interview with Treadwell by David Letterman, which was shown in the original theatrical release. Letterman had joked that Treadwell would be eaten by a bear. The versions televised on the Discovery Channel and Animal Planet both retain this scene.

Grizzly Man opened on August 12, 2005 in 29 North America venues. It grossed US$269,131 ($9,280 per screen) in its opening weekend, ranking number 26 in the box office. At its widest point, it played at 105 theatres, and made US$3,178,403 in North America during its run, with $882,902 overseas for a worldwide total of $4,061,305.

Upon its North American theatrical release, Grizzly Man was acclaimed by critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 93% “Certified Fresh” score based on 136 reviews, with an average rating of 8/10. The site’s consensus states: “Whatever opinion you come to have of the obsessive Treadwell, Herzog has once again found a fascinating subject.” Metacritic reports an 87 out of 100 rating based on 35 critics, indicating “universal acclaim”.

David Denby of The New Yorker said:

“Narrating in his extraordinary German-accented English, Herzog is fair-minded and properly respectful of Treadwell’s manic self-invention. He even praises Treadwell as a good filmmaker: as Treadwell stands talking in the foreground of the frame, the bears play behind him or scoop up salmon in sparkling water; in other shots, a couple of foxes leap across the grass in the middle of a Treadwell monologue. The footage is full of stunning incidental beauties.”

Film critic Roger Ebert, a longtime supporter of Herzog’s work, awarded the film four out of four stars.

“‘I will protect these bears with my last breath’, Treadwell says. After he and Amie become the first and only people to be killed by bears in the park, the bear that is guilty is shot dead. Treadwell’s watch, still ticking, is found on his severed arm. I have a certain admiration for his courage, recklessness, idealism, whatever you want to call it, but here is a man who managed to get himself and his girlfriend eaten, and you know what? He deserves Werner Herzog.”

Charlie Russell, a naturalist who studied bears for many years, lived near them and raised them for a decade in Kamchatka. He corresponded with Treadwell and wrote about the film:

“Herzog is a skillful filmmaker so a large percentage of those who watch the movie Grizzly Man, overlook Timothy’s amazing way with animals even though to me this stands out very strongly. The fact that Timothy spent an incredible 35,000 hours, spanning 13 years, living with the bears in Katmai National Park, without any previous mishap, escapes people completely. Even with his city-kid background, I found myself mesmerized by what he could do with animals.”

The film placed at No. 94 on Slant Magazine’s best 100 films of the 2000s.

Udemy

Udemy.com is an online learning platform. It is aimed at professional adults who want to add new skills to their resumes. Unlike academic MOOC programs driven by traditional collegiate coursework, Udemy provides a platform for experts of any kind to create courses which can be offered to the public, either at no charge or for a tuition fee alabama wholesale socks. Udemy provides tools which enable users to create a course, promote it and earn money from student tuition charges.

No Udemy courses are currently credentialed for college credit; students take courses largely as a means of improving job-related skills. Some courses generate credit toward technical certification. Udemy has made a special effort to attract corporate trainers seeking to create coursework for employees of their company.

In 2010, Udemy was hosting around 400 courses. As of 2016, there are more than 40,000.

In 2007, Udemy founder Eren Bali built software for a live virtual classroom while living in Turkey where to buy jerseys. He saw potential in making the product free for everyone, and moved to Silicon Valley to found a company two years later. The site was launched by Bali, Oktay Caglar and Gagan Biyani in early 2010.

In February 2010, the founders tried to raise venture capital funding, but the idea failed to impress investors and they were rejected 30 times, according to Gagan Biyani. In response to this, they bootstrapped the development of the product and launched Udemy—”The Academy of You”—in May 2010.

Within a few months, 1,000 instructors had created about 2,000 courses children’s socks wholesale, and Udemy had nearly 10,000 registered users. Based on this favorable market reaction, they decided to attempt another round of financing, and raised $1 million in venture funding by August. This sum was significantly more than they had originally sought when approaching investors just months earlier.

In October 2011, the company raised an additional $3 million in Series A funding led by Groupon investors Eric Lefkofsky and Brad Keywell, as well as 500 Startups and MHS Capital.

In December 2012, the company raised $12 million in Series B funding led by Insight Venture Partners, as well as Lightbank Capital, MHS Capital and Learn Capital, bringing Udemy’s total funding to $16 million.

On April 22, 2014, the Wall Street Journal’s Digital edition reported that Dennis Yang, Chief Operating Officer of Udemy was named CEO, replacing Eren Bali.

In May 2014, Udemy raised another $32 million in a Series C funding, led by Norwest Venture Partners, as well as Insight Venture Partners and MHS Capital.

In June 2015, Udemy raised a $65 million Series D financing round, led by Stripes Group.Now Udemy joint anther online learning house Skillsdox Inc of Canada to open up School of Skills in India.

In April 2016, Udemy changed their pricing structure to cap all courses at $50. There were mixed feelings as many applauded the efforts to make courses more affordable, while several course creators left for other platforms.

Udemy serves as a platform that allows instructors to build online courses on topics of their choosing. Using Udemy’s course development tools they can upload video, PowerPoint presentations, PDFs, audio, zip files and live classes to create courses. Instructors can also engage and interact with users via online discussion boards.

Courses are offered across a breadth of categories, including business and entrepreneurship, academics, the arts, health and fitness, language, music, and technology. Most classes are in practical subjects such as Excel software or using an iPhone camera. Udemy also offers Udemy for Business, enabling businesses access to a targeted suite of over 1,300 training courses on topics from digital marketing tactics to office productivity, design, management, programming, and more. With Udemy for Business, organizations can also create custom learning portals for corporate training.

Udemy offers paid and free courses, depending on the instructor.

Instructor compensation from tuition varies based on who invests in marketing to attract students to Udemy. Instructors earn 97% of all tuition revenues if the instructor’s own reputation or marketing attracts the student. Udemy retains 50% of the earnings if the student is attracted by the site’s own marketing or other coursework, and the instructor earns just 25% of the tuition if a Udemy promotional affiliate attracts the student to the site and course. In the latter case, the affiliate earns 50% of the tuition, and the remaining 50% is split between Udemy and the instructor goalie gloves. In 2015, the top 10 instructors made more than $17 million in total revenue.

Udemy is part of the growing MOOC movement available outside the traditional university system, and has been noted for the variety of courses offered.

In April 2013, Udemy offered an Apple iOS app, allowing students to take classes directly from iPhones; The Android version was launched in January 2014. As of January 2014, the iOS app had been downloaded over 1 million times, and 20 percent of Udemy users access their courses via mobile.

Udemy has been discussed in The New York Times, The China Post, Fast Company, the BBC YPN and TechCrunch, with Mashable noting “Udemy offers an experience that rivals the real classroom, and should prove to be a useful utility for teachers and students of all subject matters.”

In 2014, Forbes named Udemy cofounder Eren Bali as part of their “30 Under 30” of “the brightest stars in 15 different fields under the age of 30.”

Noted businessman Jack Welch has developed an online MBA program, offered through the Jack Welch Management Institute (JWMI) at Strayer University, which acquired JWMI assets in November 2011. Udemy became the MOOC platform for the institute’s Welch Way courseware in November 2012, and promoted this Jack Welch connection.

In November 2015, Udemy was accused of publishing and profiting off of pirated courses, although no evidence was provided supporting that Udemy was profiting from this. The CEO, Dennis Yang, answered the accusations in a blog post, looking specifically at one accusation and stating that Udemy did not profit from that instance of piracy.