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Alfred Renard

Alfred Renard (21 April 1895 – 20 June 1988) was an eminent Belgian aviation pioneer.

Alfred Renard was born in Anderlecht on 21 April 1895. Already as a youngster, inspired by kites he saw his father make, he illustrated his technical ability by installing electricity and telephone at an uncle’s farm.

In 1912, his inspiration is kindled by a prize of 10.000 francs, offered by French car builder Peugeot to the first cyclist to cover two flights, of 10 metres each, solely on her/his own muscular power. Alfred conceives and, with help from his brother Georges, concocts his own device for the test: a bicycle augmented with a home-brew propeller and a fabric-covered wing, unfolding through a lever when reaching the proper speed. The machine never flies, however, and the prize is carried by one Poulain.

During the World War I the brothers work a pedal-powered lathe, producing pieces for a Brussels workshop under the rafters of the family home; they also construct engines. They even venture into building a 5 metres long blimp that they fill with compressed air, their parents judging gas too dangerous.

The same World War I forces Alfred Renard to suspend his study at the Université libre de Bruxelles and the “Faculté des sciences appliquées” jogging waist pack, just at a time when aviation makes great progress. Only in 1920 will he gain his engineer’s degree in civil construction, plus a “licence” (more or less a bachelor’s degree) in aeronautics.

After study came the tour of soldier’s duty – especially important in this small country that had suffered heavily under the war, and was taking part in the occupation of Western Germany. Renard served as a cartographer, designing military aerodromes. During this service he re-acquainted one of his former university teachers, Emile Allard, newly appointed chief of the military aviation technical service TSA, and creator of a Belgian Aeronautical Laboratory. After several visits to Gustave Eiffel in Paris, the two of them would build a wind tunnel at Sint-Genesius-Rode. They also designed an all-metal monoplane, built at Zeebrugge by company ZACCO (best known under the French acronym ACAZ) as the ACAZ T-2. It failed to meet commercial success.

Through the same Emile Allard, Renard got in touch with Jean Stampe and his cherished dream of operating his own flying school with his self-designed and self-built solid trainer aircraft. The venture was completed with Maurice Vertongen, its designs marked RSV for Renard-Stampe-Vertongen. The company statute left Renard free to keep his position as chief engineer at the Defense Ministry, meanwhile designing RSV-aircraft built and sold by Stampe et Vertongen

In 1925 Alfred Renard creates his own company as Société anonyme des avions et moteurs Renard in Brussels. The main activity was the design and production of aircraft engines of 100, 120 and 240 hp. Some of them served Belgian military aviation, some were sold in Poland and in the USA. Also, a Renard 240 hp engine powered the second version of Belgium’s first helicopter, built by and named after Russian engineer Nicolas Florine. In 1928, his brother Georges Renard joined the company which was then renamed Renard Constructions Aéronautiques. The brothers shifted away from engine design: their R-31 and R-36 were powered by engines from abroad.

Foreseeing the German invasion in 1940, Alfred Renard planned to move his assets to France, but not in time. During World War II he disappeared from public view, to re-emerge in 1945 as a technical advisor with the Belgian State Railways NMBS/SNCB, making a study of light alloy railcars. In 1947 he rejoins Jean Stampe, having always remained on good terms with him, to become a manager at a new company Stampe & Renard till that company’s dissolution in January 1970. On top of producing the Stampe SV.4 trainer, he works at propeller engineering

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, at the development of the Stampe & Renard SR-7 and the Stampe & Renard SR-45 project.

Run over by a motorcar, Alfred Renard died on 20 June 1988.

Vedanayagam Samuel Azariah

Bishop Vedanayagam Samuel Azariah (17 August 1874 – 1 January 1945) (also transliterated as Vedanayakam Samuel Azariah) was the first Indian bishop in the churches of the Anglican Communion, serving as the first bishop of the diocese of Dornakal. A pioneer of Christian ecumenism in India, Azariah had a complex relationship with Mahatma Gandhi, who at least once called him postcolonial Indians’ “Enemy Number One.”

Vedanayakam Samuel Azariah was born in 1874 in the village of Vellalanvilai, Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, in the far south of India to Christian (Anglican) priest Thomas Vedanayagam, and his second wife Ellen. His ancestors were Shanar or Nadar, and traditionally orthodox Hindu and dedicated to the god Shiva (hence the Tamil family name Vedanayakam possibly reflecting Shiva’s 3-pronged spear or one of many names of his son Murugan). Thomas had converted to Christianity, in 1839 while at a Church Missionary Society school. He named his son Samuel after the Old Testament prophet, because of the 13-year gap after the couple had a daughter. Thomas died in 1889, but his devout mother raised Samuel, sending him at age 10 to be educated at Christian missionary boarding schools including the one at Megnanapuram run by his half-brother Ambrose, as she became the matron of the related girls’ school. At the school in Tirunelveli (called Tinnevelly during British rule), Azariah helped found a society to overcome caste differences, not a popular position with his caste but which foreshadowed his career.

Samuel Vedanayakam was then sent to the provincial capital, Chennai (then known as Madras), where the British principal of Madras Christian College gave him the name Azariah to distinguish him from other boys.[citation needed]There, his classmates included K.T. Paul (1876-1931), with whom Azariah would later work. He also came into contact with American missionary Sherwood Eddy, who also became a lifelong friend. Azariah studied mathematics, like one of his elder brothers who also became a missionary, but never received a degree—he completed his coursework in 1893 but fell ill shortly before his final mathematics exam and later chose not to retake it. Later, Azariah would criticize those who flaunted their degrees without becoming B.A. (meaning Born Again).

Instead, Azariah became an evangelist with the nondenominational Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) at age 19. By 1895, he led YMCA spiritual meetings and directed the opening of a new branch in Madras. In 1896 he met the evangelist John Mott who noted his enthusiasm favorably. In 1902 Azariah traveled to Jaffna in Sri Lanka to evangelize among the Tamils, which caused him to reevaluate the relatively prosperous Tinnevelly church’s position concerning evangelization. The following year Azariah revitalized a long-dormant proposal and thus helped form the Indian Missionary Society (based in Tinnevelly), whereby fellow Tamil Christians could evangelize among their brethren. Azariah also served as secretary of the YMCA in south India from 1895 to 1909, and remained convinced of the importance of indigenization in the Christian mission. On Christmas Day, 1905, in Carey’s library at Serampore in West Bengal, the interdenominational National Missionary Society was founded, with Azariah as its secretary and a mission to evangelize not only in India, but also in Afghanistan, Tibet, and Nepal. Other prominent individuals among the 17 founders included K.T.Paul, J.W.N. Hensman, Savarirayan Jesudasan and Ernest Forrester Paton.[citation needed]Furthermore, in 1907, Azariah attended the World Student Christian Federation Conference in Tokyo and the YMCA conference in Shanghai pork chop tenderizer, and remained interested in evangelizing strategies for Japan and China, as well as India. He focused on a pan-Asian global vision and converting Asians, rather than nationalists’ call to free Asia from Western domination.

In 1898, Azariah married Ambu Mariammal Samuel, one of the first Christian women in South India to take a college course, whom he described as “the most spiritually minded girl in Tirunelveli.”[citation needed] Their marriage broke or reinterpreted several native religious traditions, since the bride and groom corresponded with each other before marriage, disregarded dowry customs, set a mere 40 rupee budget for the ceremony, and married on a Wednesday.[citation needed]The couple eventually had four sons (George, Henry, Edwin, and Ambrose) and two daughters (Grace and Mercy).

In 1909, at age 35, Azariah was ordained as an Anglican priest, left his positions with the YMCA, learned Telugu and began as a missionary in Dornakal. That mission has been started by the Indian Missionary Society of Tinnevelly, and Rev. Azariah continued to speak widely on the need for indigenisation, including at the 1910 World Missionary Conference at Edinburgh.

On 29 December 1912, after three years as a priest, Azariah was consecrated the first Bishop of the new Diocese of Dornakal in St. Paul’s Cathedral, Calcutta. Missionary Dr. J. R. Mott, present on the occasion, called it one of the most impressive ceremonies he ever witnessed. Eleven Bishops of the Province of India took part in the act of Consecration, which made Rt.Rev. Azariah the first Indian to be consecrated a Bishop of the Anglican Communion. Indians from all parts, and especially from the new Bishop’s own country of Tinnevelly, attended in large numbers to honour their distinguished brother. Canon Edward Sell’s sermon on that occasion was soon published and remains available.

The Diocese of Dornakal, initially small, grew during Bishop Azariah’s episcopate. Initially comprising the south-east corner of the Nizam’s Dominions in Hyderabad, it soon added the District of Dummagudem, where the Church Missionary Society (CMS) worked. In 1920, the Episcopal Synod resolved that all the areas in which either the low-church CMS or the high church Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) evangelized in the Telugu country would become part of this diocese, transforming it into one of the largest (in terms of numbers of Christians) in India. Thus were added the watersheds of the Kistna and Godavery rivers; parts of the Kurnool and Cuddapah districts evangelized by the SPG, as well as the areas in the Hyderabad State served by missionaries of the Indian Missionary Society of Tinnevelly, the Singareni Mission, the Khammamett Mission (formerly under the Church Missionary Society), and the newly formed Dornakal Diocesan Mission (to the Mulag Taluq). Soon, the new bishop started raising funds and designing a cathedral to reflect his dioceses’ multiple ethnic and cultural traditions(merging Muslim, Hindu and Christian architectural elements), which was finally completed and consecrated in 1936 as Epiphany Cathedral.

Bishop Azariah lived for a time in a tent near his new cathedral, but spent most of his episcopate traveling across his vast diocese by bullock cart or bicycle, usually accompanied by his wife and coworker, Anbu. His village sermons often attacked “the four demons – Dirt

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, Disease, Debt, and Drink toothpaste dispenser philippines.”[citation needed] He proved the most successful leader of grassroots conversions to Christianity in South Asia during the early twentieth century. Known by the affectionate honorific Thandrigaru (“father”), Azariah inspired mass movements that brought roughly 200,000 outcast Malas and Madigas, tribals and low-caste non-Brahmins into his fledgling church. He also established a school to educate girls, later renamed for him. By 1924, the Diocese of Dornakal had 8 English-born priests and 53 Indian clergy. By 1935 rolling meat tenderizer tool, his diocese had 250 ordained Indian clergy and over 2,000 village teachers, plus medical clinics, cooperative societies, and printing presses.[citation needed]

The bishop became both an ally and leading foe of M.K. Gandhi during battles over communal representation and religious freedom. While also an Indian nationalist, Azariah believed Hinduism inherently repressive and grounded in a destructive caste system. On the other hand, Gandhi saw conversions to Christianity as a threat.

Bishop Azariah also believed the Church’s mission should express its unity, and thus continued to take a leading role in negotiating to reunite Protestant Christian missions in India. For many years Azariah served as chairman of the National Christian Council of India, Burma and Ceylon.

Rt. Rev. Azariah became the first, and remained the only native Indian bishop of an Anglican diocese from 1912 until his death in 1945. In 1920, Cambridge University awarded him an honorary degree. As both an effective evangelist to Indian villagers and a respected bishop in the British church hierarchy, Azariah provided a unique bridge between ordinary Indians and British elites during the late phase of their imperial associations. He was especially popular in rural Andhra Pradesh, an esteemed builder of Protestant unification within India, and a pioneer of the ecumenical movement globally.

With Bishop Henry Whitehead, Bishop Vedanayagam Azariah wrote Christ in the Indian Villages (1930). The previous year, he published two articles in the “International Review of Missions”. In 1936 V.S. Azariah published India and the Christian Movement and South India Union: an Examination of the Scheme from the Anglican Point of View as well as The Church and Evangelism: Being Studies on the Evangelization of India Based on Early Church History. His most popular book, Christian Giving (1940), was subsequently translated into more than 15 languages, although not yet freely available online. Azariah also wrote articles on Christian mission, such as ‘The Necessity of Christian Unity for the missionary enterprise of the world’ and ‘The Expansion of Christianity’, as well as published a number of works in his native Tamil as well as Telugu.

Bishop Azariah died on 1 January 1945 in Dornakal. Two years later, one of his dreams was realized, and a united Church of South India was formed, for the first time unifying an episcopal church (Anglican) with non-episcopal churches (Congregational, Presbyterian, Methodist) since the Reformation.

The diocese’s only college, Bishop Azariah College in Dornakal, is also named for him and educated both Christians and non-Christians. The girls’ school which he established was also renamed in his honor. The secondary school in his native Vellalanvilai is also now named in his honor.

Alexander Street Baptist Church

Alexander Street Baptist Church was a Baptist church in Toronto, Canada located on the south side of Alexander Street between Yonge and Church streets. The congregation was founded in 1866 and the church building, designed by Henry Langley, was completed the following year. When the congregation relocated in 1888, it was sold to the Anglican Church and eventually demolished in the mid-1950s.

Alexander Street Baptist Church was founded in October 1866 (1866-10) by about 20 members from Bond Street Baptist Church. Alexander Street was the first congregation of what was to be many Baptist congregations formed in the next 40–50 years within Toronto from the original Bond Street congregation. The church building, designed in the Gothic Revival style by the architectural firm of Thomas Gundry and Henry Langley, was completed in 1867 and seated 480 people. The $10,500 cost of its construction was largely met by a donation from Thomas Laily who owned a wholesale clothing business in Toronto bottled water glass bottles. Laily was also a major contributor to the church’s running expenses over the years.

George McNutt (1867) was the first pastor of Alexander Street Baptist Church

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. (Hoyes Lloyd the editor of the Canadian Baptist since 1863 had been the interim pastor in 1866 and was formerly from Port Hope, Ontario). Andrew Heber Munro became its second pastor in 1869 and remained in his post for seven years, leaving to take over the pastorship of the First Baptist Church in Montreal 18k Tennis Bracelet. Following Munro’s departure, the church was without a pastor for year until the arrival of his successor, Joshua Denovan (1829-1901) in 1878 who served until 1893 after the congregation had relocated (he resigned briefly due to health from 1888-1892 and W. H. Cline served in the interim). According to John Ross Robertson writing in Landmarks of Toronto:

The coming of Mr best workout bottle. Denovan at once infused new life into the church, and it reconstructed itself and entered upon a career of remarkable activity and, in one sense, has done a work that no other church in this city has accomplished. The Alexander street church occupies a unique position on the mission work, and has gained for itself a most enviable reputation in this respect. With a spirit of self-sacrifice, distinctively Christian and yet exceptional among churches, it has given away one dollar for missions for every dollar spent for its own upbuilding. In other Baptist churches $13 is used for the home church to $1 for missions, and in others $7 to $1.

The church sponsored a mission school outreach at Dovercourt Road Baptist Church which began in 1879 and organized as a congregation in April 1881. A building was eventually opened for use in September 1889 at the north-west corner of Dovercourt road and Argyle street. An outreach was also begun at 148 Tecumseth Street south (west of Queen and Bathurst streets) (also called Memorial Baptist Church), which is today occupied by the Ukrainian Baptist Church congregation.

In 1888 the Alexander Street congregation experienced growth and decided to relocate and build a new church at Jarvis and Wellesley Streets. The new church building opened in 1889 and was renamed Immanuel Baptist Church. The Alexander Street church building was sold to the Anglican Church in 1888. It was demolished in the mid-1950s when the south side of Alexander Street was razed to make way for the City Park apartment complex.

Coordinates:

Amiiformes

Gli amiiformi (Amiiformes) sono un gruppo di pesci ossei appartenenti agli alecomorfi. Apparvero nel corso del Giurassico inferiore (circa 195 milioni di anni fa) e sono tuttora rappresentati dalla specie Amia calva.

Questi pesci sono generalmente di grosse dimensioni, e alcuni esemplari raggiunsero i due metri di lunghezza. La maggior parte degli amiiformi possedeva un corpo altamente idrodinamico, slanciato ma robusto, e una dentatura forte e dotata di denti aguzzi adatti a una dieta ittivora. Gli amiiformi sono caratterizzati da un sottile strato di osso che ricopre uno scheletro per la maggior parte cartilagineo, un anello sclerotico composto da due metà, un preopercolo a forma di mezzaluna, lungo e stretto, una grande piastra golare mediana, e da dieci a tredici raggi branchiostegali. Le vertebre erano anficele e le parapofisi non erano fuse ai centri addominali (caratteristica primitiva). La base della pinna dorsale era solitamente lunga, mentre la pinna caudale era corta e variava tra una forma eterocerca a omocerca

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. Le scaglie sono arrotondate e non ganoidi, mentre la vescica natatoria può funzionare come un polmone.

Gli amiiformi sono un ordine di pesci alecomorfi che raggiunsero un’ampia distribuzione e si diversificarono soprattutto durante il Mesozoico. Le forme più antiche sono ascrivibili al gruppo dei caturoidi e apparvero nel Giurassico inferiore (Sinemuriano), anche se alcune specie attribuite con qualche dubbio a questo gruppo sono note a partire dal Triassico medio/superiore. L’ordine degli amiiformi si divide in due superfamiglie, i Caturoidea (Caturidae e Liodesmidae) e gli Amioidea (Amiidae e Sinamiidae). Tra le forme di incerta collocazione sistematica si ricorda Callopterus. I caturoidi si svilupparono nel corso del Giurassico ed erano diffusi principalmente verso la fine del periodo, con forme come Liodesmus, Amblysemius e numerose specie di Caturus. Gli amioidei, apparsi nel Giurassico superiore (con Solnhofenamia e Amiopsis), si diffusero soprattutto nel Cretaceo (ad esempio Calamopleurus), ma ancora all’inizio del Cenozoico erano presenti diversi generi (oltre ad Amia

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, anche Pseudamiatus e Cyclurus). Verso l’Oligocene/Miocene gli amiiformi scomparvero dalla documentazione fossile, e l’unica specie attuale è Amia calva, dei sistemi fluviali del Nordamerica orientale.

Gli amiiformi erano predatori di dimensioni medio/grandi, tipicamente ittiofagi. Solitamente vivevano in ecosistemi marini, di ambiente costiero, ma sono stati ritrovati numerosi fossili di amiiformi di ambiente dulciacquicolo o salmastro (in particolare le forme più evolute, ovvero gli amiidi) (Grande e Bemis, 1998). L’attuale amia vive nei sistemi fluviali nordamericani.