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Dave Needham (boxer)

Dave Needham (15 August 1951 – 19 September 2008) was a British boxer. He was a Commonwealth Games gold medal winner and one of the few boxers to have held both the BBBC bantamweight and featherweight titles.

Needham was born in Nottingham and attended Cottesmore School. He trained at the Nottingham Boxing School in Radford.
Needham won two Amateur Boxing Association flyweight titles in 1969 and 1970. He went on to compete in the 1970 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh. He won the Flyweight gold medal beating Uganda’s Leo Rwabwogo.
Needham’s first professional fight was on 25 January 1971 when he fought Jimmy Killeen.
His first title fight was on 10 December 1974 at the former Nottingham ice rink, when he had a points win over Paddy Maguire and became the British bantamweight champion.
He lost the bantamweight title on 20 October 1975 at Grosvenor House (World Sporting Club) 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor, Mayfair on a technical knockout (TKO) to the same Paddy Maguire.
On 20 April 1978 at the World Sporting Club 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, Piccadilly. Needham won the title of British featherweight champion when he defeated Alan Richardson on points.
On 16 December 1978 in Leon, Spain 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, he fought for the EBU featherweight title, but lost on a TKO to Roberto Castanon.
Needham lost the featherweight title on 6 November 1979 at the Royal Albert Hall when he was defeated by Pat Cowdell on points.
His last fight was on 29 May 1979 at Wolverhampton Civic Hall against Pat Cowdell for the British featherweight title. Cowdell won on a TKO.
Needham retired aged 29 in 1980, after becoming disillusioned with the sport. He went on to run a motorcycle dealership with his brother. He spent the last couple of years of his life in Thailand 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. Needham died in Chonburi hospital from liver problems. He was 57.

Polish opera

Polish opera may be broadly understood to include operas staged in Poland and works written for foreign stages by Polish composers, as well as opera in the Polish language.
The tradition reaches back to Italian language entertainments of the baroque. Romantic opera in Polish flourished alongside nationalism after the partition and is exemplified by the work of Stanisław Moniuszko. In the 20th century Polish opera was exported and composers such as Krzysztof Penderecki wrote operas in other languages (Ubu Rex, Die Teufel von Loudun) that were translated into Polish later.

Operas were first performed in Poland during the Baroque era in the reign of Sigismund III Vasa (1587-1632). The king himself had no interest in the arts, but his son Władysław IV (reigned 1632-1648) was an enthusiast and patron of opera while he was still a prince. In 1625 Francesca Caccini wrote an opera for Władysław when he visited Italy. This opera, La liberazione di Ruggiero dall’isola d’Alcina, was also performed in Warsaw in 1628; this is the earliest verified performance of an Italian opera outside of Italy.
Gli amori di Aci e Galatea by Santi Orlandi was also performed in 1628. When Władysław became king, he had operas staged in the hall of the royal castle and he invited Marco Scacchi’s opera troupe to Poland. A dramma per musica (as serious Italian opera was known at the time) entitled Giuditta, based on the Biblical story of Judith, was performed in 1635. The composer was probably Virgilio Puccitelli. During the reign of Władysław IV a dozen or so operas were performed whose music has not survived.
The next kings John II Casimir of Poland, Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki and John III Sobieski were too busy fighting wars to show much concern for opera, although such works that did appear were highly esteemed. After the Elector of Saxony was voted King of Poland in 1697, the situation changed. The German ruler presided over a thriving operatic scene at his court in Dresden. The first public opera house in Poland was opened in 1724. The great moderniser of Polish opera was another Saxon, King August III. In 1748 he built an opera house in which works by Italian and German composers were regularly staged. A star of European opera, the composer Johann Adolf Hasse, also arrived in Poland. His work there increased opera’s popularity amongst the nobility and raised the artistic standards of Polish opera to an international level. Hasse wrote the opera seria Zenobia, to a libretto by Pietro Metastasio, especially for Warsaw in 1761.
A high point of Polish opera occurred during the reign of the last king of Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski, in spite of the political troubles that afflicted the country. During this time Poland was carved up by its neighbours, Prussia, Austria and Russia, in a series of three Partitions between 1772 and 1795, when the country disappeared off the map of Europe. Yet culture thrived, a National Theatre was opened in 1779, and it was probably during this era that the first operas in Polish were written, although not even the titles and authors of these pieces are known. In 1777 Franciszek Bohomolec wrote the text for a cantata, Nędza uszczęśliwiona (Poverty Made Happy). Wojciech Bogusławski quickly turned this into a libretto for an opera which was staged with music by Maciej Kamieński. It is the first known opera in the Polish language. The composer was a Polonised Czech; Bogusławski and Bohomolec were Polish noblemen. Bogusławski threw himself into writing drama, which later earned him the name of “the father of Polish theatre”. Bogusławski wrote and staged the opera buffa Henryk IV na łowach (Henri IV Goes Hunting) with music by Jan Stefani. It was followed by Cud mniemany, czyli Krakowiacy i Górale (The Supposed Miracle, or the Krakowians and the Highlanders). The text of the latter was lost during the January Uprising of 1863 and only rediscovered in 1929 by Leon Schiller (who called it a “Polish national opera”). The premiere took place on 1 March 1794 to unprecedented applause. It occurred a few weeks before the Kościuszko Uprising against the foreign powers and the opera itself included pro-Kościuszko slogans. The authorities had the opera removed after four performances due to its unexpected popularity and anti-Partition allusions.
The fall of Poland did not stop operatic activity in the country. Wojciech Bogusławski was still at work. In the 1790s, Józef Elsner emerged in Lwów (Lviv, then Lemburg in the region conquered by Austria). Almost none of his many operas has survived, the most notable extant work being Amazonki, czyli Herminia (The Amazons, or Herminia). When Elsner took over the National Theatre in Warsaw, he began to write operas which made use of Polish folk music.
He began his work in Warsaw by composing an opera to a libretto by Bogusławski called Iskahar 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. However, he was doubtful of its success, since his knowledge of the Polish language was too limited for an adequate musical expression of the words. He was also concerned with the problem of the change of accents in the sung text, which could become unintelligible if they were muddled.
Elsner soon (1799) became the principal conductor at the National Theatre. In 1810 he was joined by composer Karol Kurpiński, who took up the post of second conductor. The two began a rivalry which lasted thirteen years until Elsner was removed by the Ruling Committee of the National Theatre at Kurpiński’s request. By that time he had managed to write 30 operas. In 1809 he scored a notable triumph with Leszek Biały (Leszek the White), to a libretto by Bogusławski. After this only the comic opera Siedem razy jeden (Seven Times One) and Król Łokietek (King Elbow-High) brought him moderate success.
Elsner had been born in Silesia and his first language was German, leading his critics to deny that he was truly Polish and to accuse him of sympathizing with the foreign invaders. The composer had praised some of the partitioning rulers, including Tsar Alexander I of Russia. After the November Uprising of 1830 he adopted a diametrically opposite opinion. For years he defended the Polish language as beautiful and fit for singing. He was an ardent proponent of Polish opera (by his time there were 300 works in the language in existence), particularly in the first ever account of the national tradition – Die Oper der Polen – published in 1812.
During this time Karol Kurpiński began to enjoy great success. Kurpiński composed 18 operas. All of them were enthusiastically received, but his best known works were Zamek w Czorsztynie (The Castle in Czorsztyn) and Zabobon, czyli Krakowiacy i Górale. The first was the prototype of Moniuszko’s The Haunted Manor. The second was a new opera to Bogusławski’s libretto. Kurpiński also won acclaim for Nagroda, czyli wskrzeszenie Królestwa Polskiego (The Prize, or the Resurrection of the Kingdom of Poland). As an ardent patriot and opponent of the foreign occupation, Kurpiński used his music as part of the struggle for independence (just as Giuseppe Verdi did in Italy). Following on from Elsner, Kurpiński significantly modernised the National Theatre. He introduced many works to the Polish stage including Mozart’s Don Giovanni, Spontini’s La vestale, Auber’s Fra Diavolo, Weber’s Der Freischütz and many other operas by Donizetti, Meyerbeer and Rossini.
In 1833 Antionio Corazzi, an Italian from Livorno, built a new theatre for the National Opera in Warsaw. The house was opened with a performance of Rossini’s The Barber of Seville.
Stanisław Moniuszko is regarded as the true creator of Polish national opera. His role in the Polish tradition is similar to that of Glinka in the Russian, Smetana in the Czech and Ferenc Erkel in the Hungarian.
In 1837 Moniuszko returned to Poland after receiving his musical education abroad. Ten years later he wrote the famous Polish Romantic opera Halka. The first, two-act version had its premiere in Vilnius, and a second, four-act version was performed in Warsaw ten years later. The work is regarded as one of the finest Polish national operas. It is made up of musical forms from the Polish folk tradition – polonaises, mazurkas and dumkas – and was the first Polish opera to be “through-composed” (i.e. the entire libretto is set to music and there is no spoken dialogue).
The libretto of Halka, by Włodzimierz Wolski is recognised as one of the finest Polish literary works of its time. Critics have noted certain similarities to Goethe’s Faust. Moniuszko’s next most important work is Straszny Dwór (The Haunted Manor), more comic in spirit than Halka. It has a libretto by Jan Chęciński which is full of allusions to the Polish noble tradition of Sarmatism and pro-independence sentiments, which led to the opera being banned. The premiere took place in 1865 to great applause, yet the authorities withdrew it after a handful of performances.
One of Moniuszko’s followers was Władysław Żeleński. Though he was never actually one of Moniuszko’s students, he modeled his works on Moniuszko, thus inheriting his musical style. He was the father of the writer and translator Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, who would go on to translate many opera libretti. Żeleński’s music is firmly rooted in Romanticism and his operas follow the example of Moniuszko. Żeleński wrote four operatic works: Konrad Wallenrod, Goplana, Janek, Stara Baśń. The first is based on the poem by Mickiewicz and is full of pro-independence sentiments, as are the three others. Goplana is based on Juliusz Słowacki’s play Balladyna. All are Slavophil and Romantic in character. They belong to the Slavic craze among Polish Romantics which was started by Zorian Dołęga-Chodakowski.
An important 20th century Polish opera, Manru (1901) was composed by Ignacy Paderewski to a libretto by Alfred Nossig based on the novel Chata za wsią by Józef Ignacy Kraszewski. To this day that opera, which received its American premiere at the Metropolitan opera in 1902, remains the only Polish opera by the Polish composer ever performed there. Other examples of modern opera are Bolesław Śmiały (Bolesław the Bold) and Casanova by Ludomir Różycki (the first to a libretto by Stanisław Wyspiański). The same composer wrote music to a text by Jerzy Żuławski and created one of the outstanding modernist operas – Eros i Psyche (Cupid and Psyche). Important works from the early 20th century are Legenda Bałtyku (The Legend of the Baltic) by Feliks Nowowiejski and Król Zygmunt August (King Zygmunt August) by Tadeusz Joteyko.
Karol Szymanowski wrote only two operas, both completely breaking away from the model of Moniuszko. The first, Hagith, was influenced by Richard Strauss’s Salome and was a failure at its premiere in 1922. Much more important was King Roger (1926) 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. This work was slow to gain a reputation and was considered marginal until the 1990s. It has now been performed with great success in the United Kingdom and France. Formally, King Roger draws on the tradition of oratorio as it much as it does that of opera; the chorus is a constant presence throughout almost its entire length. It is a varied work, moving from a style influenced by the singing of the Eastern Orthodox Church to dense chromatic harmony, and is considered the most important Polish opera of the 20th century.
Under the Communist regime in Poland (1945-1989), socialist realism was an officially endorsed artistic policy. An example of a Polish socialist realist opera is Bunt żaków (The Schoolboys’ Revolt, 1951) by Tadeusz Szeligowski which tells the story of the conflict between “proletarian” schoolboys and King Zygmunt II August in 1549. The same composer wrote other operas including ones for children. Another composer of this type was Witold Rudziński, whose works include Janko Muzykant (Janko the Musician, 1953) and Komendant Paryża (The Commandant of Paris, 1960). Rudziński was influenced by a far younger composer, Krzystof Penderecki. Rudziński’s finest opera is Odprawa posłów greckich (The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys), based on the play by the leading Renaissance poet Jan Kochanowski; the opera has elements of sonorism.
An important composer of the post-war era was Romuald Twardowski who won fame for his operas Cyrano de Bergerac (1963) and Lord Jim (1976). Other important works were written by Tadeusz Paciorkiewicz (Romans gdański, 1968), Józef Świder (Wit Stwosz, 1974, about the famous woodcarver), Henryk Czyż (Kynolog w rozterce after a play by Sławomir Mrożek, 1967; Inge Bartsch after Konstanty Ildefons Gałczyński, 1982), Tadeusz Baird (the famous Jutro, based on the short story “Tomorrow” by Joseph Conrad, 1966, which won many European awards and was turned into a film).
A trend for reinterpreting literature emerged. Such works include Pierścień wielkiej damy (after Cyprian Norwid) by Ryszard Bukowski, Edward Bogusławski’s Sonata Belzebuba (after Witkacy, 1977), Zbigniew Bargielski’s Mały Książę (after Le Petit Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, 1970) and Krzystof Baculewski’s Nowe Wyzwolenie (New Liberation 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, 1986).
There also arose a trend for unstaged opera. This led to works for the radio by Grażyna Bacewicz (Przygody Króla Artura -The Adventures of King Arthur, 1959), Jerzy Sikorski (Muzyczna opowieść niemalże o końcu świata – A Musical Tale About the End of the World 1958), Tadeusz Szeligowski (Odys płaczący -Odysseus Weeping 1961) and Zbigniew Penherski (Sąd nad Samsonem – Judgement on Samson 1969). Television operas were also written by Krzystof Meyer (the famous Cyberiad after the science-fiction stories by Stanisław Lem, 1970) and Maciej Małecki (Balladyna, 1999).
Sonorist opera was created by Krzysztof Penderecki, who composed one of the most famous contemporary operas in 1969: Diabły z Loudun (The Devils of Loudun, libretto by John Whiting after the book by Aldous Huxley). The opera, inspired by Wagner and psychoanalysis, makes extensive use of sonorism. It provoked a great deal of discussion among critics and the composer’s next work was eagerly awaited 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet. The Devils of Loudun immediately became a classic of contemporary opera thanks to its innovative style. To aid his sonorist experiments, Penderecki’s created a new way of notating music. The opera was later filmed. Penderecki’s next opera Paradise Lost also received good reviews. The next stage in Penderecki’s development was Die schwarze Maske, first performed in Salzburg during The Summer Festival in 1986 to mixed reactions.
When Penderecki abandoned sonorism he decided to compose a “Polish” opera. Ubu Rex is based on the farce by Alfred Jarry, Ubu roi, which takes place in Poland. The opera was in German, although the librettist, Jerzy Jarocki, was Polish. The opera received a mixed response: some greeted it with applause and standing ovations, but other members of the audience angrily walked out of the theatre. Nevertheless the opera had such a strong reception that it gained the attention of audiences outside Poland.
The most recent composers of opera are Krzystof Knittel, Eugeniusz Knapik and Roman Palester. In 1999, Knittel wrote Heart Piece – Double Opera, which makes use of rock music. Knapik composed the operatic trilogy Das Glas im Kopf wird vom Glas (1990), Silent Screams, Difficult Dreams (1992) and La libertà chiama la libertà (1996). The composer uses English, German and Italian – three traditional operatic languages. Palester wrote Śmierć Don Juana (The Death of Don Juan), a dodecaphonic work to a text by Oscar Milosz, which the composer himself translated from French.
Among the latest major Polish operas are Antygona (2001) by Zbigniew Rudziński, Balthazar and The Trap (2011) by Zygmunt Krauze, Ignorant i Szaleniec by Paweł Mykietyn and Madame Curie (2011) by Elżbieta Sikora.

True Beauty (season 2)

True Beauty (season 2) is the second season of the reality television series True Beauty. In a format similar to the first season, the contestants are competing to see who is the most beautiful. However, they think they are only being tested on outer beauty when in fact the judges are also evaluating their inner beauty through a series of hidden-camera challenges. Filming of the second season of True Beauty was completed in Las Vegas in October 2009 and featured judges Beth Ostrosky Stern and Carson Kressley, among others. As a ruse to keep contestants ignorant of the show’s true premise, ABC producers told participants they would be competing in a new modeling reality show known as Face of Vegas. In addition, contestants did not interact with Vanessa Minnillo, the only judge retained from the previous season, until after being eliminated. In each episode, all contestants were subjected to a main hidden-camera challenge. A second, “final straw” challenge was put only to the bottom two contestants in most cases. The second season premiered May 31, 2010 on ABC.

First aired May 31, 2010
The contestants, working with a fake stylist hired by the producers, have a $200 budget and 20 minutes to create a signature Vegas look; the stylist gives each player a chance to steal an item that exceeded their budget in order to get an edge in the competition. Liz, Michael, Craig, and JD are caught on hidden camera violating the rules by accepting the item offered by the stylist. The contestants put on their outfits and are placed in glass boxes on the street of Las Vegas. People passing by are given one token to give to the contestant of their choice. Amy dresses as a bride, Craig a cowboy, David as Elvis, Erika as Marilyn Monroe, JD as a drag queen, Liz as a glitzy go-go dancer, Michael as a pimp, Michelle as a pin-up girl, Regina as Lady Luck, and Taylor as a rocker. Liz gains the most tokens with her provocative and revealing (but stolen) outfit and wins the challenge. David and JD receive the lowest number of tokens and must face elimination.
The contestants had already encountered the final straw challenge earlier. On their way into the store where they created their signature look, they were blocked by a woman who had become tangled in her dog’s leash. JD untangled her, while David made his way around her without helping, saying he was too busy. In subsequent episodes, it was shown that Amy, Craig, and Michelle also passed her by without helping. The bottom two face the judges for the first elimination. Unaware of the hidden camera footage, JD argues that his willingness to dress in drag shows how badly he wants to win while David argues that his Elvis outfit fit better with the Las Vegas theme 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. David, who had not stolen an item, is pronounced safe. JD is eliminated and is shown the footage of him accepting the extra item out of budget.
First aired June 7, 2010
The contestants are taught a magic trick which they must demonstrate for magicians Penn and Teller. The contestants are specifically instructed by Penn and Teller to keep the magic trick details a secret. Later, each contestant meets with a reporter from People magazine (a real People reporter who is aware of the setup), who tries to get them to tell how the trick is performed. Craig, Liz, and Michelle all fail the test, revealing the secret behind trick to the reporter. Penn and Teller decide that Amy performed the trick the best, and as a reward, she is featured in the magicians’ live Las Vegas show. Michael and Regina perform the worst, and must face elimination.
On the way to the elimination, Michael and Regina face the final straw challenge. Each contestant observes an intoxicated man (actually an actor) attempting to drive away from the hotel. Regina stops the man from driving, while Michael does nothing to intervene. In the end, it is Michael who is eliminated. Before he leaves, he is shown footage of him breaking the rules in the first episode, making disparaging remarks about Liz, and not intervening to prevent the intoxicated man from driving.
First aired June 14, 2010
The contestants performed “man-on-the-street” interviews with passers-by, asking them questions about Las Vegas. The contestants were given the interview questions in an envelope and instructed not to look at them before starting the interview; the questions included some difficult words. Each contestant was then sent on a long elevator ride alone, during which Amy, Erika 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor, Liz, Michelle, and Regina all peeked in their envelopes. The judges noted that all of the women cheated while none of the men did.
The performance of the contestants was judged by a focus group of ordinary people who were not informed of the real nature of the competition. The contestants observed this focus group through a two-way mirror and were subjected to a second hidden-camera challenge, in which they were evaluated on their reaction to the focus group’s criticism. Taylor and Regina both swore angrily in response to what they heard, and were deemed to have failed. Craig received the highest scores from the focus group, while Taylor and Liz received the lowest scores.
Liz and Taylor plead their cases to the judges; however, they were informed that they would both be saved because another contestant violated the rules of the competition, and they were sent back to the loft. However 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, the judges made it very clear in their deliberations that Liz would have been eliminated if the other contestant had not violated the rules. Regina was then brought in and informed that she was being disqualified because she had used a cell phone to contact people outside the production.
First aired June 21, 2010
The contestants learned that neither Liz nor Taylor had been eliminated. Later, they participated in a challenge in which they had to create a print ad for the Planet Hollywood buffet, using only food to cover their otherwise naked bodies. The food items were assigned randomly as follows: Liz, baked desserts; Craig, crabs; Taylor, sushi; Michelle, vegetables; David, fruit; Erica, ice cream; and Amy, Italian food. While each contestant waited to meet with a food stylist, he or she met the stylist’s assistant Emily (actually an actress), who pretended to have lost her engagement ring. Amy, Erika, Taylor, and Michelle helped Emily look for the ring in the trash, thus passing the challenge; while Craig, Liz, and David did not help. The buffet ads were judged by Beth and Carson, who chose Erika as the winner and David and Craig as the bottom two.
The final straw challenge was a pair of actors posing as husband and wife tourists who asked the contestants to photograph them on their last night in Vegas. David agreed to help them while Craig declined 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. Beth and Carson also discussed David and Craig’s previous behavior, and it was shown that Craig had failed to help the woman tangled with her dog during The Stealing Challenge, as had David. The judges decided that David’s overall attitude was too cutthroat and he was eliminated.
First aired June 28, 2010
The contestants were given one night to study a Las Vegas tourist information book in preparation for giving a guided tour of the city the next day; the basis for the next elimination would be ratings given by the tourists. After each contestant finished the tour, one tourist leaving the bus (actually an actress) made it clear that she was dissatisfied with the tour as she handed over her comment card. The tour company manager, also an actor, then offered to change the scores on the card. Only Liz failed this hidden camera challenge. She and Michelle were the bottom two, while Taylor was the winner.
The final straw was an overweight and sweaty man, another actor (in fact, the “janitor” from the ending sequence), who would mistake the contestant for a celebrity. Michelle was gracious towards the man while Liz was aloof. The judges noted that both Liz and Michelle had failed a lot of hidden camera challenges and had behaved inconsiderately towards their fellow contestants. It was also shown that Michelle didn’t help the woman with a dog during The Stealing Challenge. Liz was eliminated, and she walked out of the judging chamber immediately after being shown the hidden camera footage of herself, without finishing the discussion with the judges.
First aired July 5, 2010
The contestants were brought to the Little White Wedding Chapel and dressed as bridesmaids and groomsmen, at which point real couples getting married would choose two of the contestants to serve as their attendants. The first contestant to be chosen by three couples would be the winner, while the two contestants chosen by the fewest couples would be the bottom two. While the contestants were individually using the changing room, they encountered a bride and her mother, both hired actresses. The “momzilla” berated her daughter for being overweight and not fitting in any of the dresses, leaving her visibly upset. Craig and Erika offered the bride words of encouragement, while Amy, Michelle, and Taylor ignored her. In the challenge, Taylor was the first contestant to be selected by three couples, followed by Craig. After Erika was also picked for a third wedding, Amy and Michelle became the bottom two with one and two weddings, respectively.
The final straw occurred during the main challenge. A florist, actually an actress, brought each contestant a floral arrangement to use during the challenge and then offered to tell her friend, one of the brides participating in the challenge, to vote for the contestant. Amy tells the florist that she would rather meet all of the couples and let them choose, passing the final straw. Michelle accepts the florist’s offer, and was deemed to have failed. Footage was not shown of the other three contestants, but the judges stated during deliberation that Michelle was the only contestant who did not pass. Michelle was eliminated.
First aired July 12, 2010
The contestants were taken directly from leisure time by the pool to be trained as blackjack dealers, after which they would be judged by a pit boss on their appearance, dealing skills, and customer satisfaction. On their individual elevator rides to where they would be trained, each contestant faced a hidden-camera challenge in which a pregnant woman (actually a non-pregnant actress) smoked and drank alcohol while chatting with a girlfriend. Taylor and Erika challenged the woman on her actions, passing the challenge. Craig and Amy said nothing and failed. Then, while being trained by one of two blackjack dealers, a pit boss berated the trainer for various shortcomings; this was a second hidden-camera challenge, and both trainers and the pit boss were all actors. Only Craig failed this challenge, by not speaking up on behalf of the trainer. During the blackjack challenge, the contestants were judged by an actual Planet Hollywood pit boss who chose Erika as the winner and put Craig and Amy in the bottom two.
On the way to the final judging, the contestants encountered the final straw. An actress posed as a mother with a baby and knocked over a piece of luggage while her arms were full. Craig picked it up for her while Amy did not. The judges noted that Craig and Amy both had mixed records on the hidden-camera challenges, but that Amy was lacking in confidence and had spoken about Liz behind her back. Amy was eliminated.
First aired July 19, 2010
The contestants were brought to a hangar where they were told that they would have an opportunity to enjoy the Vegas nightlife, but that they’d also be showing a good time to Steve-O and his spiritual advisor, Guy Friendly. At 6 am, after spending a wild night out with the pair, the contestants were informed that they would have to participate in their next challenge, filming a commercial for Las Vegas without having the opportunity to sleep. The judges wanted to see how the contestants would react to this situation; Erika was the only one to complain, but this was not officially a hidden-camera challenge. Later, Beth and Carson informed the contestants that all three of them had won the challenge; none of them would be eliminated prior to the final judging to determine the overall winner.
After the challenge, Beth and Carson gave the contestants a key to the judges’ “spy room”. There, Vanessa Minnillo appeared on a video screen and informed the contestants of the real nature of the competition. They were then shown footage of their bad behavior. At the final judging, the contestants came face-to-face with all three judges for the first time. The contestants plead their cases after the judges asked them about specific aspects of their behavior. Erika was asked if aspects of her behavior are fake; in her plea, she focused on having grown as a person through this experience and seeing the potential for greatness in herself. The judges asked Craig if he had failed to love others the same way he loves himself; he admitted that he had “missed the point” in this respect, and he returned the vest he stole in the first episode. Taylor was called out on the temper he had exhibited; he spoke about wanting to be a role model. After deliberating, the judges announced that Craig was the third-place finisher. A giant slot machine then revealed that Taylor was the “True Beauty” placing Erika as Second.

H&BR Class A

The H&BR Class A (later LNER Class Q10) was an 0-8-0 heavy freight engine designed by Matthew Stirling and built by the Yorkshire Engine Company of Sheffield. They were the largest of the engines on the Hull and Barnsley Railway. The Class A was developed to deal with the steeply graded eastern section of the H&BR between Springhead and Sandholme. Because of this the special link workings they dealt with were nicknamed the “Sandholme Bankers”.

An order for 15 locomotives was placed with the Yorkshire Engine Company in 1907 with 10 arriving in the spring and the remainder in the autumn of that year. No. 117 was the first to arrive 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, this engine being the one used to familiarise footplate staff with them. Due to their size they were affectionately nicknamed “Tinies” by the footplate men.
The locos were set to work being able to pull 50% more than the previous capabilities of the early Stirling Classes. Though they were cleared for running on the whole of the H&B mainline, they never strayed from Springhead Shed and were banned from the Denaby, Neptune Street 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, Cannon Street and Sculcoates lines. Despite being reasonable locomotives they were regarded with suspicion due to their high boiler pressures following the Wath explosion, so the H&B management increased payment for crews who manned the “Tinies”. The Wath explosion, in 1907, involved H&BR Class F2 0-6-2T number 109.
Various modifications were made to the “Tinies” over their lives. Sanding arrangements were altered to improve the adhesion of the engines, and one engine, No. 129, received a small porthole window in the cabside. All engines received a cab roof ventilator 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet. During the First World War, the boiler pressure was dropped from 200 lb/sq.in to 175 lb/sq.in. No other modifications were made until the merger with the North Eastern Railway.
Under new management, some “Tinies” were sent to Darlington Works where they received domed boilers 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. All members of the class passed into LNER ownership, though by the grouping more powerful ex Great Central Railway types were available. Cudworth shed soon became swarmed with ROD 2-8-0s, and 12 of the “Tinies” were away from their home system by 1929.
The “Tinies” never found favour with other depot footplate staff, and all were withdrawn by the end of 1931. None are preserved.

Irene Asanina

Irene Asanina was the Empress consort of John VI Kantakouzenos of the Byzantine Empire.

Asanina was a daughter of Andronikos Asen and his wife Tarchanaiotissa. Her paternal grandparents were Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria and Irene Palaiologina. Her maternal grandparents were protostrator Michael Doukas Glabas Tarchaneiotes and his wife Maria Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Branaina.
The last names of her maternal grandmother indicate descent from the families Doukas, Komnenos and Palaiologos who each produced several Byzantine Emperors 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. Her last name however indicates being a member of the Branas family which produced military leaders, like Alexios Branas and Theodore Branas, but whose genealogy is poorly recorded.
Her paternal grandmother, Irene Palaiologina, was a daughter of Michael VIII Palaiologos and Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina which makes Asanina a member of the extended Imperial family of her time.
Kantakouzenos was a trusted advisor of Andronikos III Palaiologos, grandson of Andronikos II and great-grandson of Michael VIII. Andronikos III died on 15 June 1341 and was succeeded by his eldest son John V Palaiologos, who was only nine-years-old and was placed under the regency of his mother Anna of Savoy. However Andronikos III had entrusted the administration of the empire to Kantakouzenos.
At about the same time 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia launched an invasion of Northern Thrace. Kantakouzenos left Constantinople to try to restore order to the area. Anna took advantage of his absence to declare him an enemy of the state and to strip him of titles and fortune. But Kantakouzenos was still in control of part of the Byzantine army and, on 26 October 1341, he answered by proclaiming himself emperor at Didymoteicho. Irene joined him and was crowned Empress at his side. One of her first acts as Empress was to obtain the release of her two brothers 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, John and Manuel Asen, who had been imprisoned in Thrace since 1335 on a charge of treason.
This was the beginning of a civil war that would last until 1347. Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria soon allied with the faction under John V and Anna while Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia sided with John VI. Both parties were actually taking advantage of the civil war to advance their own political and territorial agendas and John VI even allied himself with Orhan I of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet.
During the war Irene remained at Didymoteicho with her three daughters while John VI was busy campaigning. She defended the city from the attacks of King Ivan Alexander the best she could until her husband, with the help of Sultan Umur of Aydin, made his way back to Didymoteicho in the winter of 1343. her courageous efforts impressed many of her contemporaries, such as Umur himself and the historian Nikephoros Gregoras. On 3 February 1347, the two sides reached an agreement. John VI was accepted as senior emperor with John V as his junior co-ruler. The agreement was sealed with the marriage of their daughter Helena Kantakouzene to John V. John VI entered Constantinople and took effective control of the city with Irene serving as senior Empress at his side.
However, John V restarted the conflict in 1352 and gained support as the “legitimate” emperor. On 4 December 1354, John VI abdicated and the former imperial couple retired themselves to separate monasteries. In her case, it was the convent of Hagia Martha under the monastic name Eugenia. In 1356 and the following year, Irene rejected the offer of Ziani, to effect the release of her son Matthew Kantakouzenos, then imprisoned by Emperor John V, and reinstate him as Emperor. In 1359, she was joined at the convent by her daughter Maria, and her granddaughter Theodora, the eldest daughter of Matthew. Nicol speculates that she followed the rest of her family to the Morea where her younger son Manuel Kantakouzenos was Despot, but may have returned to Constantinople in 1362 or 1363, where she may have been one of the “Empresses” whom the ambassadors from the Empire of Trebizond met there in April 1363. Although the date of her death is not recorded, Nicol presumes it happened before 1379 when her husband and other members of her family were taken to Galata as hostages by Andronikos IV Palaiologos.
Irene married John Kantakouzenos, a son of Michael Kantakouzenos and Theodora Angelina Palaiologina. In his History, John records his mother being a kinswoman of Andronikos II Palaiologos, presumably a cousin by one of the siblings of Michael VIII. The marriage produced six children:

Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne

The Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne (officially, “Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de la Sorbonne”; translation, “‘Sorbonne Interuniversity Library”‘) is an inter-university library in Paris, France. It is situated in the Sorbonne building. It is a medieval institution of the Sorbonne, which evolved over the centuries as part of the University of Paris. The library’s operation is governed by an agreement signed in 2000 among five universities, with management under the auspices of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne University. It provides inter-institutional cooperation among Paris 1, Paris III, Paris IV, Paris V, and Paris VII.
The Sorbonne Library is located at 47, rue des Écoles in the Latin Quarter in the 5th arrondissement. The library of the Institute of Geography, located at 191, rue Saint-Jacques, is attached.

The college of theology, Maison de Sorbonne, was established at the Collège de Sorbonne in 1257 by Robert de Sorbon. Its library, the Library of the Collège de Sorbonne was founded in 1289. In the 1700s, the Jesuits, before leaving the Sorbonne, gave away their buildings and books to the University of Paris. In 1791, during the French Revolution, the library disbanded, and the books (of which there were 25,000 volumes on the eve of the Revolution) were distributed to other libraries. After the Revolution, the Sorbonne was rebuilt at the location of the medieval buildings. In the late 1800s, after the Napoleonic era, the library of the university started functioning from the Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne.
In 1770, almost five centuries after the Library of the Collège de Sorbonne was founded, the Library of the University of Paris was established. At the time, it was situated on the campus of the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. The initial fonds were acquired from the library of the rector and Cartesian philosophy professor, Jean-Gabriel Petit de Montempuis, collections of the college library, and others from 28 Parisian colleges, supplemented by purchases. The Lycée Louis-le-Grand closed in 1793 and the library materials were moved to a dépôt littéraire named “Louis la Culture” at the Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis Church. Some manuscripts were taken to the Bibliothèque nationale de France, but the dépôt was enriched with other materials, including those confiscated from the Princes of Condé, the House of Rougé, and House of Montmorency. In 1796, it was decided to move the books from the “Louis la Culture.” With the creation of schools in 1802, the library was renamed the “Paris School Library” In 1808, it was renamed the “Library of the University of France”.
During the period of 1816-21, the faculties of theology, sciences and literature merged, adding their libraries to the Sorbonne Library. In 1823, the library moved across the rue Saint-Jacques to settle in the current building, constructed in the seventeenth century. Philippe Le Bas was head librarian from 1844 until 1860. He was noted for significant acquisitions, reorganization of collections, and the creation of five divisions. The library was deeded to the city of Paris in 1857 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, and five years later, the library used the name “University Library of France.” Leon Renier, who succeeded Le Bas as head librarian (1860–85), continued with Le Bas’ policies.
Henri Paul Nénot designed the “new Sorbonne” which was built from 1885 to 1901, though its collections moved there in 1897; it provided seating for 300. By a decree of 28 June 1910, the Sorbonne Library became attached to the “Library of the University of Paris.” From 1930 to 1970, the Sorbonne Library served as the head library of the University of Paris, and had a head librarian. In 1970, its modern scientific collections (since about 1945) were transferred to Saint-Victor (renamed Jussieu Campus), which formed the Interuniversity Scientific Library Jussieu (Bibliothèque interuniversitaire scientifique de Jussieu). In 1972 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, the Sorbonne Library merged with the Library of art and archeology, the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, and the Library for sick students. But six years later, it separated, returning to the name, Sorbonne Library. Additions were the Library of the Institute of Geography and the Victor Cousin Library.
In September 2010, restoration work began at the Sorbonne, estimated to last until October or November 2013. Funded by the City of Paris, owner of the premises, the aim was to redevelop the library premises and improve security. This included the creation of a single storey hall with Richelieu and Sorbon galleries, as well as new reading rooms. The project forced the relocation of collections and the reopening of the library at the Bibliothèque Sainte-Barbe from May 2010 to May 2013 when the library collections were moving back to the Sorbonne building site. The Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne reopened on November 2013.
The Library is normally open six days a week : Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday 09.00 – 20.00 / Thursday 12.00 – 20.00 / Saturday 10.00 – 19.00
From July to September 15 : Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Friday : 10.00 – 19.00 / Thursday : 12.00 – 19.00
The library is situated at the Sorbonne building. It overlooks the courtyard, opposite the main entrance. The reading room is on the first floor of the main building. With a length of 62 metres (203 ft), it features five cross sections overlooking the courtyard 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. In the center are the librarians’ offices and courtyard. There are 264 seats in the reading room. The library of Victor Cousin is on the second floor.
The library consists of five sections:
Within the general humanities and social sciences, the Sorbonne Library has however developed some areas of excellence: history (excluding contemporary history) 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, geography, philosophy and French literature. In these areas, it has acquisitions in French and foreign languages. The library also acquired documents in religious sciences, and English language and literature, German, Spanish and Italian. It contains about three million volumes, with more than 18,000 printed theses and 15,000 on microfiche, 17,750 paper periodicals titles of which 4,370 still exist (among them a large majority in foreign languages), as well as a broad selection of electronic journals.
Sorbon left his volumes to the college collections. By 1289, there were over 1000 volumes, by the late 15th century, there were over 2,500 volumes, and in 1789, there were nearly 25,000 printed volumes plus over 2,000 manuscripts. Of its ancient or precious fonds, the library owns more than 2,500 manuscripts, as well as the archives of the former University of Paris, with more than 5,000 prints and more than 400,000 ancient books. The Victor Cousin Library includes nearly 500 manuscripts and 30,000 printed works. The Richelieu Collection includes the archives of the family of Richelieu, including Armand de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu and Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu.
By 1990, the library had almost a million volumes covering all departments of the university. By 2005, the number of books had increased to 2.5 million under 17,750 headings with 3,500 manuscripts. It has 7,100 graphics and pictures; every year an additional 1,000 to 12,000 volumes are added. The collection occupies 40 km of shelf space. It has two reading rooms with seating for 318 and has 13,780 registered members.
Coordinates: 48°50′41″N 2°20′33″E / 48.84472°N 2.34250°E / 48.84472; 2.34250

Funny You Should Ask

Funny You Should Ask is an American television series which aired from 1968 to 1969 on ABC. Hosted by Lloyd Thaxton, it was a comedy game show featuring celebrities, and aired as part of a programming block which also included The Newlywed Game and The Dating Game. The series debuted on October 28 1968 and was produced by Heatter-Quigley Productions.

Five celebrities are each asked for their answer to a question (such as which magazine best describes their personality), which usually results in humorous answers. Two contestants are asked to identify which celebrity said which answer.
Unusually, the series aired in a 25-minute time-slot, and was followed by a 5-minute series titled The Children’s Doctor. Since it was a daytime series 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor, it featured more advertising than a prime-time series of the same period, with a 1-minute commercial break approximately every 5 minutes 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, plus plugs for the providers of prizes.
An episode appears on YouTube. Since the episode lacks a copyright notice, it also appears on the Internet Archive. The episode features Stu Gilliam 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, Rose Marie, Meredith MacRae, Marty Allen and Dean Jones 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. Additionally, another four episodes are known to circulate among video collectors.
This theme song was later used by KPRC-TV in Houston, for their late afternoon newscast, The Scene at 5, with Ron Stone & Doug Johnson, from the 70’s to the early 80’s. The theme song is a variant of “Shades” by Patrick Williams, released in 1968.


Agaja (also spelled Agadja and also known as Trudo Agaja or Trudo Audati) was a King of the Kingdom of Dahomey, in present-day Benin, who ruled from 1718 until 1740. He came to the throne after his brother King Akaba. During his reign, Dahomey expanded significantly and took control of key trade routes for the Atlantic slave trade by conquering Allada (1724) and Whydah (1727). Wars with the powerful Oyo Empire to the east of Dahomey resulted in Agaja accepting tributary status to that empire and providing yearly gifts. After this, Agaja attempted to control the new territory of the kingdom of Dahomey through militarily suppressing revolts and creating administrative and ceremonial systems. Agaja died in 1740 after another war with the Oyo Empire and his son Tegbessou became the new king. Agaja is credited with creating many of the key government structures of Dahomey, including the Yovogan and the Mehu.
The motivations of Agaja and his involvement with the slave trade remain an active dispute among historians of Dahomey with some arguing that he was resistant to the slave trade but agreed to it because of the need to defend his kingdom, while others argue that no such motivation existed and the wars against Allada and Whydah were simply for economic control.

Agaja served a crucial role in the early development of the Kingdom of Dahomey. The kingdom had been founded by Agaja’s father Houegbadja who ruled from 1645 until 1685 on the Abomey plateau. Although there were some limited military operations outside of the plateau, the kingdom did not significantly expand before the eighteenth century.
Oral tradition says that Agaja was born around 1673, the second oldest son to Houegbadja. Houegbadja’s first two children were the twins Akaba and Hangbe. Agaja was originally called Dosu, a traditional Fon name for the first son born after twins. When Houegbadja died, Akaba became the king and ruled from 1685 until about 1716. Akaba died during a war in the Ouémé River valley and since his oldest son, Agbo Sassa, was a minor, his twin sister Hangbe may have ruled for a brief period of time (alternatively given as either three months or three years). Hangbe supported a faction that wanted Agbo Sassa to be the next king, but Agaja contested this and became the ruler in 1718 after a brief, violent struggle.
Agaja led the most important expansions of the kingdom in the 1720s with the conquest of the Kingdom of Allada in 1724 and the Kingdom of Whydah in 1727. Allada and Whydah, both Aja kingdoms, had become important coastal trading centers in the early 1700s, with trade connections to multiple European countries. The two powers made a 1705 agreement where both agreed not to interfere in the trade of the other kingdom. The King of Whydah, Huffon, grew increasingly connected through trade with the British Royal African Company while the king of Allada, Soso, made his ports outposts for the Dutch West India Company. In 1712, a British ship attacked a Dutch ship in the harbor at Allada, triggering economic warfare between Allada and Whydah that lasted until 1720. Upon coming to the throne, Agaja and Soso made an agreement to attack Whydah and remove Huffon from power; however, this plan was halted for unknown reasons.
In 1724, Soso died and a contest for the throne in Allada followed. On March 30, 1724, Agaja’s army entered Allada in support of the defeated candidate, named Hussar. After a three-day battle Agaja’s army killed the king and set the palace on fire. Rather than place Hussar on the throne, though, Agaja drove him out of the city after establishing his own power. Agaja then turned his forces against the other Aja kingdoms. In April 1724, Agaja conquered the town of Godomey and in 1726 the King of Gomè transferred his allegiance from the King of Whydah to Agaja.
Agaja planned his attack on Whydah in February 1727. He conspired with his daughter, Na Gueze, who was married to Huffon, to pour water on the gunpowder stores in Whydah. He also sent a letter to all of the European traders in the port of Whydah encouraging them to remain neutral in the conflict, in return for which he would provide favorable trade relations at the conclusion of the war. On February 26, 1727, Agaja attacked Whydah and burned the palace, causing the royal family to flee from the city. During the five-day battle, reports say that five thousand people in Whydah were killed and ten to eleven thousand were captured. In April, he burned all of the European factories in the Whydah capital.
In the three years between 1724 and 1727, Agaja had more than doubled the territory of Dahomey, had secured access to the Atlantic coast, and had made Dahomey a prominent power along the Slave Coast.
The Aja kingdoms had been tributaries to the Oyo Empire since the 1680s. After Agaja had conquered Allada, it appears that he sent a smaller tribute and so on April 14, 1726, the Oyo Empire sent its army against Dahomey. The Oyo conquered Abomey and burned the city while Agaja and his troops escaped into the marshes and hid until the Oyo armies returned home.
Agaja rebuilt Abomey and when he conquered Whydah the next year he provided many gifts to the King of Oyo. Despite these gifts, tributary terms acceptable to Oyo were not agreed to and so the Oyo Empire returned on March 22, 1728. As part of a strategy, Agaja buried his treasure, burned food resources, and made all the residents of Abomey abandon the city. The Oyo army found it difficult to remain in that situation and so they returned to Oyo in April. This strategy was repeated in 1729 and 1730, with Oyo sending increasingly larger armies and Agaja and his troops retreating into the marshes. The 1730 invasion was particularly devastating as the Oyo feigned acceptance of gifts from Agaja but then ambushed Dahomey’s forces when they returned to Abomey. With the regular destruction of Abomey, Agaja moved the capital to Allada and ruled from there (his son Tegbessou would later move the capital back to Abomey while appointing a puppet king in Allada).
After the 1730 attack by the Oyo Empire, Agaja’s forces were particularly depleted. Huffon and the deposed royal family of Whydah, with support from the British and the French, attempted to reconquer the city. With depleted forces, Agaja created a special unit of women dressed in war armor to assemble at the back of his remaining army to make his forces look larger. The ploy worked as the Whydah forces saw a huge force marching toward the city and fled before any fighting happened. After this attack, Agaja asked the Portuguese leader in the area to negotiate a peace agreement between Dahomey and Oyo. The agreement set the boundaries between Oyo and Dahomey at the Ouémé River and made Dahomey a tributary state of Oyo, a status which would remain until 1832. As a guarantee, Agaja had to send a son, Tegbessou, to Oyo.
For the last ten years of his reign, from 1730 until 1740, Agaja worked on consolidating his kingdom and increasing trade with Europeans.
Having come to terms with the Oyo empire, Agaja sought to militarily destroy other rivals in the region. This started in 1731 with a successful war against the Mahi people to the north of Abomey for supplying the Oyo with food and support during the wars. Attempts by the Portuguese and the Dutch to establish forts in Godomey, which Agaja had conquered in 1724 but whose leader had recently renounced his allegiance to Dahomey, caused a large war in 1732 in which Agaja burned the town and took thousands of people captive. In addition, regular warfare continued between Agaja and the exiled Whydah population under Huffon. In July 1733 Huffon died and a civil war broke out in the exiled community. A defeated prince went to Agaja to ask for assistance and seeing the opportunity, Agaja agreed to support the prince against the leadership of Whydah and allowed the prince to resettle after the war was successful. The other Whydah faction was defeated by Agaja in 1734 with assistance of the French.
Agaja also undertook significant administrative reforms to govern the newly conquered areas 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. Many of the chiefs and officers in Allada were retained, while Agaja dispatched his trade officers and kept active military control over Whydah. The old chiefs, retained for necessity, often caused problems for Agaja by resisting his rule or even revolting. Agaja also appointed three different trade directors, one to manage relations with each different European power (Britain, France, and Portugal). When the Europeans complained about these directors in 1733, Agaja replaced them with one person, thus creating the important position of Yovogan. The Dutch, in contrast, were held in high contempt by Agaja and he spent much of this period trying to destroy their interests in the region. This led the Dutch to organize a significant army of many tribes to the west of Dahomey which destroyed Agaja’s forces in 1737 but did not destroy the kingdom.
Starting in 1730 but becoming formal in 1733 all slaves could only be sold through representatives of the king. This royal monopoly led to some revolts by important chiefs who were not receiving full prices for their goods and Agaja crushed multiple rebellions between 1733 and 1740. The royal monopoly proved unpopular and, following the defeat of Agaja’s forces in 1737, he was forced to allow the free trade of slaves through Dahomey.
As part of his efforts against the Dutch, Agaja organized a war against Badagry in 1737. This war, while marginally successful, was possibly considered by the Oyo Empire to be against the terms of the 1730 agreement. Conversely, it is possible that Agaja simply refused to continue paying the tribute to Oyo. Whatever the reason, war between Oyo and Dahomey resumed in 1739 and Agaja repeated his earlier strategy of withdrawing into the wild to wait for the Oyo troops to leave.
Agaja was the first king of Dahomey to have significant contact with European traders. Although Dahomey had been known to European traders in the 1600s, largely as a source for slaves, because it was an inland kingdom contact was limited 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. When Agaja expanded the kingdom, he came into contact with the Dutch, British, French, and Portuguese traders. Agaja opposed the Dutch and largely excluded them from trade along the coast after he had conquered it. However, he created direct officers to manage contacts with the other European powers.
One important contact began in 1726 when Agaja sent Bulfinch Lambe (a British trader captured in the 1724 attack on Godomey) and a Dahomey ambassador known as Adomo Tomo or Captain Tom on a mission to Britain. Lambe was meant to deliver a “Scheme of Trade” to King George I. The “Scheme of Trade” outlined a plan for King George I to work with King Agaja in the creation of a plantation in Dahomey, exporting goods such as sugar, cotton, and indigo. However, Lambe was aware that the English had already abandoned plans to set up a plantation in Dahomey; he left Dahomey with no intention of following through on Agaja’s plan. Lambe initially sold Adomo Tomo into slavery in Maryland, but after a few years came back to free Tomo and bring him to England. Lambe and Tomo carried a letter claimed to be from Agaja and received an audience with King George II. The letter from Agaja was dismissed as a fraud and Tomo was returned to Dahomey where Agaja appointed him the assistant to the chief of trade with the British.
Agaja died in Allada a few months after returning following the war with Oyo in 1740. Oral traditions say that Tegbessou 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, who was the fifth oldest son of Agaja, was told by Agaja earlier that because he had saved Dahomey from the Oyo Empire he was going to be the king rather than any of his older brothers, although that tradition may have been created by Tegbessou to legitimize his rule. Regardless, the result was a contest between him and his brothers upon Agaja’s death. In the end, Tegbessou was victorious and became the new king of Dahomey.
Agaja’s motivations for taking over Allada and Whydah and his involvement in the slave trade have been a topic for debate among historians. The debate centers largely around Agaja’s conquest of Allada and Whydah and an observed decrease in the slave trade in the area after this conquest. Complicating attempts to discern motivation is that Agaja’s administration ended by creating a significant infrastructure for the slave trade and participated actively in it during the last few years of his reign.
The debate over Agaja’s motivations goes back to John Atkins’ 1735 publication of A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West Indies. In that book, Atkins argued that Allada and Whydah were known for regular slave raiding on the Abomey plateau and that Agaja’s attacks on those kingdoms were primarily to release some of his people who had been captured. A key piece of evidence for Atkins was a letter purported to be from Agaja and carried by Bulfinch Lambe to England in 1731 which expressed the willingness of Agaja to establish agricultural exports to Great Britain as an alternative to the slave trade. The authenticity of this letter is disputed and it was widely used in abolition debates in Great Britain as a letter by a purported indigenous African abolitionist.
Later historians have continued this debate about the role of Agaja in the slave trade, but with the need to account for the fact that in the last years of Agaja’s life (and after Atkins’ book was published) the Kingdom of Dahomey was a major participant in the Atlantic slave trade.
Robert Harms writes that Agaja’s participation in the slave trade was a self-perpetuated necessity. Agaja had increasingly made his kingdom more and more dependent on foreign wares that could only be paid for by slaves. He writes:
He noted that by converting his army from bows and arrows to guns, he needed a steady supply of gunpowder from the Europeans. He also described the fine clothing of his wives and the opulence of his royal court, implying that he needed a reliable supply of imported cloth and other luxury goods in order to maintain the court lifestyle. Finally, he noted that, as king of Dahomey, he had an obligation to distribute cowry shells and other common goods periodically among the common people. The cowry shells for the common people, like the silk cloth for the royal wives and the gunpowder for the army, could be obtained only through the slave trade.
Basil Davidson contended that Dahomey was drawn into the slave trade only as a means of self-defense against slave raiding by the Oyo Empire and the kingdoms of Allada and Whydah. He argued that Agaja took over the coastal cities to secure access to European firearms to protect the Fon from slave raiding. He writes:
Dahomey emerged “at the beginning of the seventeenth century, or about 1625, when the Fon people of the country behind the Slave Coast drew together in self-defense against the slave-raiding of their eastern neighbor, the Yoruba of Oyo. No doubt the Fon were interested in defending themselves from coastal raiders too…But the new state of Dahomey could defend itself effectively only if it could lay hold on adequate supplies of firearms and ammunition. And these it could obtain only by trade with Ardra [Allada] and Ouidah [Whydah] — and, of course, only in exchange for slaves…In the end, Dahomey found their exactions intolerable. They refused to allow Dahomey to sell its captives to the Europeans except through them, and this was the immediate reason why the fourth king of Dahomey, Agaja, waged successful war on them in 1727 and seized their towns.”
I.A. Akinjogbin has pushed the argument the farthest arguing that Agaja’s primary motivation was to end the slave trade in the region. He writes that although Agaja participated in the slave trade, this was primarily a means of self-defense and that his original motives were to end the slave trade. The Bulfinch Lambe letter plays a prominent role in Akinjogbin’s analysis as a declaration of Agaja’s willingness to stop the slave trade. Akinjogbin writes:
“It immediately becomes clear that Agaja had very little sympathy for the slave trade when he invaded the Aja coast [Allada and Whydah]. His first motive appears to have been to sweep away the traditional political system, which had completely broken down and was no longer capable of providing basic security and justice…The second motive would appear to have been to restrict and eventually stop the slave trade, which had been the cause of the breakdown of the traditional system in Aja, and to substitute other ‘legitimate’ items of trade between Europe and the new kingdom of Dahomey.”
Historian Robin Law, in contrast, argues that there is no clear evidence of motivation by Agaja opposing the slave trade and that the conquests of Allada and Whydah may have been simply done to improve Agaja’s access to economic trade. Law contends that the disruption in slave trade that followed the rise of Dahomey was not necessarily related to any efforts on their part to slow the slave trade, but was simply due to the disruption caused by their conquests. Law believes in the authenticity of the Bulfinch Lambe letter, but contends that Atkins misinterprets it. In addition, Law doubts the self-defense motivation highlighted by Davidson and Akinjogbin, writing:
“It is true that the kings of Dahomey subsequently claimed credit for having freed the Dahomey area from the threat of invasion by neighbouring states, but there is no suggestion that this was a motive for either the original foundation or the subsequent expansion of the kingdom, or indeed that such invasions were seen (to any greater degree than Dahomey’s own wars) as slave raids 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor.”
Similarly, David Henige and Marion Johnson question Akinjogbin’s argument. While agreeing with the evidence from Akinjogbin that trade did slow after Agaja’s rise, they find that the evidence does not support any altruistic or moral opposition to the slave trade as the reason for this. In terms of the Bulfinch Lambe letter, they maintain that its authenticity remains “not proven” but that since Lambe was provided 80 slaves when he was released, it is unlikely that Agaja’s motivations were clear. Instead, they argue that the evidence supports Agaja trying to get involved in the slave trade but being unable to do so because of war with the exiled royal family of Whydah and the Oyo Empire. They write:
“Agaja’s actions, insofar as we know them, suggest a willingness to participate in the external trade—be it slaves, goods, or gold—in a way that suited the perceived needs of Dahomey. At the same time, he was unable to implement this opportunity immediately because of the persistent warfare that threatened the existence of his state. During such a transitional and troubled period, trade inevitably languished. Such a view may not necessarily be correct, but it has the clear advantage of being both plausible and congenial to the available evidence.”
Edna Bay assesses the debate by writing:
“Though the possibility that an African monarch tried to put an end to the slave trade is obviously attractive in the twentieth century, historians who have closely considered the evidence from Dahomey suggest, as did the eighteenth-century slave traders, that Dahomey’s motive was a desire to trade directly with Europe, and that the kingdom was willing to provide the product most desired by European traders, human beings. Akinjogbin’s thesis therefore is not likely. However, both Atkin’s idea that Dahomey wanted to stop raids on its own people and the argument that the Dahomeans were seeking direct overseas commerce in slaves are conceivable.”
Agaja is credited with introducing many features of the Dahomey state that became defining characteristics for future kings. It is often said that Agaja created the Mehu (a prime minister), the Yovogan (chief to deal with Europeans), and other administrative positions. However, oral traditions sometimes ascribe these developments to other kings. In addition, Agaja is sometimes credited as the king who created the Dahomey Amazons, a military unit composed entirely of women. Multiple histories account that Agaja did have armed female bodyguards in his palace and that he did dress women in armor in order to attack Whydah in 1728; however, historian Stanley Alpern believes that the Amazons were not likely fully organized during his reign.
Agaja also had a large impact on the religion of Dahomey, largely by increasing the centrality of the Annual Customs (xwetanu or huetanu in Fon). Although the Annual Customs already existed and each family had similar celebrations, Agaja transformed this by making the royal Annual Customs the central religious ceremony in the kingdom. Family celebrations could not occur until after the royal Annual Customs had occurred.
Agaja is often considered one of the great kings in Dahomey history and is remembered as the “great warrior”. His expansions of Dahomey and connections with European traders led to his depiction in Dahomey art as a European caravel boat.

Hajong marriage

Traditional Hajong marriage (Hajong Bhasa:Bi’â 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, Pronounced as: Biɯ) is a ceremonial ritual that involve a marriage established by pre-arrangement between families. Within Hajong culture, romantic love and widow re-marriage was allowed, and monogamy was the norm for the Hajong people.

Hajongs are endogamous people. In Hajong society matriarchy declined with the influence of Hinduism, leading towards the growing dominance of patriarchy in Hajong society. When intimacy develops between a boy and a girl without the knowledge of their parents, they are married to each other, provided that they do not belong to close maternal and paternal kinship. Exorbitant dowry system was absent in the Hajong society. The Hajongs would give a tolerable bride price or groom price called pǒn. Marriage is usually negotiated by the parents through a matchmaker known as Jahu or Jasu. Marriage is prohibited between close maternal and paternal kin.
In a traditional Hajong wedding there are different people who participate in the wedding ceremony.
When an unmarried boy’s parents found a potential daughter-in-law, they then go to the girl’s house with a Jahu whose job was to assuage the conflict of interests and general embarrassments when discussing the possibility of marriage on the part of two families largely unknown to each other.
At this point the bridegroom’s family arranged the matchmaker(Jahu or Jasu) to present a bride price to the bride’s family.
Before wedding ceremony, two families would arrange a wedding day according to Hajong calendar. Selecting an auspicious day to assure a good future for the couple is as important as avoiding what is believed to be an unlucky day. The wedding is not held on the birth day of both the bride and the groom.
The bride’s family finalises people like the Airǒs, Dhuni-Mao and Dhuni-Bap who are essential for performing the marriage rites. They are invited by giving betel nuts and betel leaves.
The final ritual would be the actual wedding ceremony where bride and groom become a married couple, which consists of many elaborate parts and the rituals takes place for three to five days:
The airǒs make sun, moon, birds and palanquis on a bamboo screen and paint auspicious symbols on earthen lamps and pottery.
The airǒs invite the gods, to attend the wedding and bless the newly married couple, by lighting a lamp in the name of the deity.
The wedding procession from the bride’s home to the groom’s home consists of a traditional band and the airǒs. Picking the groom from his house, the airǒs along with the groom and the mitâ heads towards the bride’s residence.
The wedding procession stops at the door of the bride’s home 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. There are ceremonies to be followed to welcome the groom and her wedding procession into the bride’s home, which varies from place to place.
The bride and the groom are ritually purified by the airǒs before the bhor bi’â.
Bhor bi’â is the actual wedding ceremony equivallent to exchanging vows in the west, it is an elaborate ritual and is held at the night. The couple would pay respect to wedding deities, the patron family deities, paying respect to deceased ancestors and the bride and groom’s parents and other elders.
It is the second half of the wedding and is performed in the next morning.
In Hajong society, the wedding banquet is known as Bi’â-khawa. There are ceremonies such as the bride and groon eating together sharing the side dishes. Traditionally 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, the bride’s father is responsible for the cost of the wedding invitation sweet treats, the banquet invitations, and the wedding itself. Wedding banquets are elaborate and consist usually of 5-10 courses and turtle meat is considered auspicious for wedding banquets as it symbolizes long life. Traditionally, the father of the bride is responsible for the wedding banquet hosted on the bride’s side and the alcohol consumed during both banquets. The wedding banquets are two separate banquets: the primary banquet is hosted once from the bride’s side 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, the second banquet is at the groom’s side, for which the groom’s family takes the expenses of the banquet. While the wedding itself is often based on the couple’s choices, the wedding banquets are a gesture of thanks and appreciation, to those that have raised the bride and groom (such as grandparents and uncles). It is also to ensure the relatives on each side meet the relatives on the other side.
Polygamy is very rare among the Hajongs. Traditional Hajong culture does not prohibit nor explicitly encourage polygamy, except as a way to obtain male children.
Widows are allowed to remarry in the Hajong society and this type of marriage is called Hang’a or Sang’a in Hajong. This marriage is mostly performed for young widows by her inlaws or the village headman.

Mi’kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Tripartite Forum

The Mi’kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Tripartite Forum was established in 1997 to provide the Mi’kmaq, Nova Scotia and Canada a place to resolve issues of mutual concern. The Forum’s vision is to develop Mi’kmaw communities and foster positive relationships with other Nova Scotians.
On February 23, 2007, the Mi’kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Framework Agreement was created for the Made-in-Nova Scotia Process. The Framework Agreement confirms each party’s commitment to work “to resolve Mi’kmaq rights issues through negotiation in a spirit of reconciliation.” The intent of the Agreement is to: Enhanced legal clarity on rights issues; Improved relations; and Reduced social and economic disparity.
On August 31, 2010, the Assembly of Nova Scotia Mi’kmaq Chiefs signed an historic agreement with the Governments of Canada and Nova Scotia 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. The Mi’kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Consultation Terms of Reference lays out a process for the parties to follow when governments wish to consult with the Mi’kmaq.
One of the successes of the Mi’kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Tripartite Forum is the Nova Scotia government and the Mi’kmaq community have made the Mi’kmaq Kina’ matnewey, which is the most successful First Nation Education Program in Canada. In 1982, the first Mi’kmaq operated school opened in Nova Scotia 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet. By 1997 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, all education for Mi’kmaq on reserves were given the responsibility for their own education. There are now 11 band run schools in Nova Scotia. Now Nova Scotia has the highest rate of retention of aboriginal students in schools in the country. More than half the teachers are Mi’kmaq. From 2011 to 2012 there was a 25% increase of Mi’kmaq students going to university. Atlantic Canada has the highest rate of aboriginal students attending university in the country 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp.