Curtis Edward Amy

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Curtis Amy (Curtis Edward Amy) est un saxophoniste ténor, soprano, alto, un clarinettiste et flûtiste américain, né à Houston au Texas le 11 décembre 1929.
De mère pianiste, il reçoit une initiation musicale précoce (clarinette à l’école, puis la direction de big bands de collégiens de 1950 & 1952).
En 1955, à Los Angeles. Il joue dans des orchestres de rhythm and blues sandro robe, puis avec les organiste Perri Lee Blackwell et Paul Bryant. Il enregistre sous son nom régulièrement depuis 1961, et participe à quelques enregistrements en grand orchestre (avec Gerald Wilson, Jack Wilson, Lou Rawls, Onzy Matthews). Il a travaillé comme instrumentiste free-lance notamment avec Dizzy Gillespie, Roy Ayers, Johnny Almond et Amos Easton karen millen france 2016. Il se produit aussi avec sa femme la chanteuse Merry Clayton.
Il utilise surtout le ténor, avec une sonorité légèrement « growlée » et « dirty » (volontairement sale, impure) avec une volonté expressionniste imitée de Gene Ammons et de Sonny Stitt, puis plus tard sandro robe, de John Coltrane : exemple typique de « ténor velu ». Il jouait aussi du saxophone soprano.
Depuis la fin des années 60, il semble avoir abandonné la carrière musicale, si l’on excepte un disque en 1974. Il a de nouveau enregistré en 1994 avec Steve Huffsteter (trompette), Bob McChesney (trombone) soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, Donn Wyatt ou Frank Strazzeri au piano, John B. Williams à la basse, Leon Ndugu Chancler à la batterie. Il est mort le 5 juin 2002 à Los Angeles.

Agaja

Agaja (also spelled Agadja and also known as Trudo Agaja or Trudo Audati) was a King of the Kingdom of Dahomey, in present-day Benin, who ruled from 1718 until 1740. He came to the throne after his brother King Akaba. During his reign, Dahomey expanded significantly and took control of key trade routes for the Atlantic slave trade by conquering Allada (1724) and Whydah (1727). Wars with the powerful Oyo Empire to the east of Dahomey resulted in Agaja accepting tributary status to that empire and providing yearly gifts. After this, Agaja attempted to control the new territory of the kingdom of Dahomey through militarily suppressing revolts and creating administrative and ceremonial systems. Agaja died in 1740 after another war with the Oyo Empire and his son Tegbessou became the new king. Agaja is credited with creating many of the key government structures of Dahomey, including the Yovogan and the Mehu.
The motivations of Agaja and his involvement with the slave trade remain an active dispute among historians of Dahomey with some arguing that he was resistant to the slave trade but agreed to it because of the need to defend his kingdom, while others argue that no such motivation existed and the wars against Allada and Whydah were simply for economic control.

Agaja served a crucial role in the early development of the Kingdom of Dahomey. The kingdom had been founded by Agaja’s father Houegbadja who ruled from 1645 until 1685 on the Abomey plateau. Although there were some limited military operations outside of the plateau, the kingdom did not significantly expand before the eighteenth century.
Oral tradition says that Agaja was born around 1673, the second oldest son to Houegbadja. Houegbadja’s first two children were the twins Akaba and Hangbe. Agaja was originally called Dosu, a traditional Fon name for the first son born after twins. When Houegbadja died, Akaba became the king and ruled from 1685 until about 1716. Akaba died during a war in the Ouémé River valley and since his oldest son, Agbo Sassa, was a minor, his twin sister Hangbe may have ruled for a brief period of time (alternatively given as either three months or three years). Hangbe supported a faction that wanted Agbo Sassa to be the next king, but Agaja contested this and became the ruler in 1718 after a brief, violent struggle.
Agaja led the most important expansions of the kingdom in the 1720s with the conquest of the Kingdom of Allada in 1724 and the Kingdom of Whydah in 1727. Allada and Whydah, both Aja kingdoms, had become important coastal trading centers in the early 1700s, with trade connections to multiple European countries. The two powers made a 1705 agreement where both agreed not to interfere in the trade of the other kingdom. The King of Whydah, Huffon, grew increasingly connected through trade with the British Royal African Company while the king of Allada, Soso, made his ports outposts for the Dutch West India Company. In 1712, a British ship attacked a Dutch ship in the harbor at Allada, triggering economic warfare between Allada and Whydah that lasted until 1720. Upon coming to the throne, Agaja and Soso made an agreement to attack Whydah and remove Huffon from power; however, this plan was halted for unknown reasons.
In 1724, Soso died and a contest for the throne in Allada followed. On March 30, 1724, Agaja’s army entered Allada in support of the defeated candidate, named Hussar. After a three-day battle Agaja’s army killed the king and set the palace on fire. Rather than place Hussar on the throne, though, Agaja drove him out of the city after establishing his own power. Agaja then turned his forces against the other Aja kingdoms. In April 1724, Agaja conquered the town of Godomey and in 1726 the King of Gomè transferred his allegiance from the King of Whydah to Agaja.
Agaja planned his attack on Whydah in February 1727. He conspired with his daughter, Na Gueze, who was married to Huffon, to pour water on the gunpowder stores in Whydah. He also sent a letter to all of the European traders in the port of Whydah encouraging them to remain neutral in the conflict, in return for which he would provide favorable trade relations at the conclusion of the war. On February 26, 1727, Agaja attacked Whydah and burned the palace, causing the royal family to flee from the city. During the five-day battle, reports say that five thousand people in Whydah were killed and ten to eleven thousand were captured. In April, he burned all of the European factories in the Whydah capital.
In the three years between 1724 and 1727, Agaja had more than doubled the territory of Dahomey, had secured access to the Atlantic coast, and had made Dahomey a prominent power along the Slave Coast.
The Aja kingdoms had been tributaries to the Oyo Empire since the 1680s. After Agaja had conquered Allada, it appears that he sent a smaller tribute and so on April 14, 1726, the Oyo Empire sent its army against Dahomey. The Oyo conquered Abomey and burned the city while Agaja and his troops escaped into the marshes and hid until the Oyo armies returned home.
Agaja rebuilt Abomey and when he conquered Whydah the next year he provided many gifts to the King of Oyo. Despite these gifts, tributary terms acceptable to Oyo were not agreed to and so the Oyo Empire returned on March 22, 1728. As part of a strategy, Agaja buried his treasure, burned food resources, and made all the residents of Abomey abandon the city. The Oyo army found it difficult to remain in that situation and so they returned to Oyo in April. This strategy was repeated in 1729 and 1730, with Oyo sending increasingly larger armies and Agaja and his troops retreating into the marshes. The 1730 invasion was particularly devastating as the Oyo feigned acceptance of gifts from Agaja but then ambushed Dahomey’s forces when they returned to Abomey. With the regular destruction of Abomey, Agaja moved the capital to Allada and ruled from there (his son Tegbessou would later move the capital back to Abomey while appointing a puppet king in Allada).
After the 1730 attack by the Oyo Empire, Agaja’s forces were particularly depleted. Huffon and the deposed royal family of Whydah, with support from the British and the French, attempted to reconquer the city. With depleted forces, Agaja created a special unit of women dressed in war armor to assemble at the back of his remaining army to make his forces look larger. The ploy worked as the Whydah forces saw a huge force marching toward the city and fled before any fighting happened. After this attack, Agaja asked the Portuguese leader in the area to negotiate a peace agreement between Dahomey and Oyo. The agreement set the boundaries between Oyo and Dahomey at the Ouémé River and made Dahomey a tributary state of Oyo, a status which would remain until 1832. As a guarantee, Agaja had to send a son, Tegbessou, to Oyo.
For the last ten years of his reign, from 1730 until 1740, Agaja worked on consolidating his kingdom and increasing trade with Europeans.
Having come to terms with the Oyo empire, Agaja sought to militarily destroy other rivals in the region. This started in 1731 with a successful war against the Mahi people to the north of Abomey for supplying the Oyo with food and support during the wars. Attempts by the Portuguese and the Dutch to establish forts in Godomey, which Agaja had conquered in 1724 but whose leader had recently renounced his allegiance to Dahomey, caused a large war in 1732 in which Agaja burned the town and took thousands of people captive. In addition, regular warfare continued between Agaja and the exiled Whydah population under Huffon. In July 1733 Huffon died and a civil war broke out in the exiled community. A defeated prince went to Agaja to ask for assistance and seeing the opportunity, Agaja agreed to support the prince against the leadership of Whydah and allowed the prince to resettle after the war was successful. The other Whydah faction was defeated by Agaja in 1734 with assistance of the French.
Agaja also undertook significant administrative reforms to govern the newly conquered areas 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. Many of the chiefs and officers in Allada were retained, while Agaja dispatched his trade officers and kept active military control over Whydah. The old chiefs, retained for necessity, often caused problems for Agaja by resisting his rule or even revolting. Agaja also appointed three different trade directors, one to manage relations with each different European power (Britain, France, and Portugal). When the Europeans complained about these directors in 1733, Agaja replaced them with one person, thus creating the important position of Yovogan. The Dutch, in contrast, were held in high contempt by Agaja and he spent much of this period trying to destroy their interests in the region. This led the Dutch to organize a significant army of many tribes to the west of Dahomey which destroyed Agaja’s forces in 1737 but did not destroy the kingdom.
Starting in 1730 but becoming formal in 1733 all slaves could only be sold through representatives of the king. This royal monopoly led to some revolts by important chiefs who were not receiving full prices for their goods and Agaja crushed multiple rebellions between 1733 and 1740. The royal monopoly proved unpopular and, following the defeat of Agaja’s forces in 1737, he was forced to allow the free trade of slaves through Dahomey.
As part of his efforts against the Dutch, Agaja organized a war against Badagry in 1737. This war, while marginally successful, was possibly considered by the Oyo Empire to be against the terms of the 1730 agreement. Conversely, it is possible that Agaja simply refused to continue paying the tribute to Oyo. Whatever the reason, war between Oyo and Dahomey resumed in 1739 and Agaja repeated his earlier strategy of withdrawing into the wild to wait for the Oyo troops to leave.
Agaja was the first king of Dahomey to have significant contact with European traders. Although Dahomey had been known to European traders in the 1600s, largely as a source for slaves, because it was an inland kingdom contact was limited 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. When Agaja expanded the kingdom, he came into contact with the Dutch, British, French, and Portuguese traders. Agaja opposed the Dutch and largely excluded them from trade along the coast after he had conquered it. However, he created direct officers to manage contacts with the other European powers.
One important contact began in 1726 when Agaja sent Bulfinch Lambe (a British trader captured in the 1724 attack on Godomey) and a Dahomey ambassador known as Adomo Tomo or Captain Tom on a mission to Britain. Lambe was meant to deliver a “Scheme of Trade” to King George I. The “Scheme of Trade” outlined a plan for King George I to work with King Agaja in the creation of a plantation in Dahomey, exporting goods such as sugar, cotton, and indigo. However, Lambe was aware that the English had already abandoned plans to set up a plantation in Dahomey; he left Dahomey with no intention of following through on Agaja’s plan. Lambe initially sold Adomo Tomo into slavery in Maryland, but after a few years came back to free Tomo and bring him to England. Lambe and Tomo carried a letter claimed to be from Agaja and received an audience with King George II. The letter from Agaja was dismissed as a fraud and Tomo was returned to Dahomey where Agaja appointed him the assistant to the chief of trade with the British.
Agaja died in Allada a few months after returning following the war with Oyo in 1740. Oral traditions say that Tegbessou 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, who was the fifth oldest son of Agaja, was told by Agaja earlier that because he had saved Dahomey from the Oyo Empire he was going to be the king rather than any of his older brothers, although that tradition may have been created by Tegbessou to legitimize his rule. Regardless, the result was a contest between him and his brothers upon Agaja’s death. In the end, Tegbessou was victorious and became the new king of Dahomey.
Agaja’s motivations for taking over Allada and Whydah and his involvement in the slave trade have been a topic for debate among historians. The debate centers largely around Agaja’s conquest of Allada and Whydah and an observed decrease in the slave trade in the area after this conquest. Complicating attempts to discern motivation is that Agaja’s administration ended by creating a significant infrastructure for the slave trade and participated actively in it during the last few years of his reign.
The debate over Agaja’s motivations goes back to John Atkins’ 1735 publication of A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West Indies. In that book, Atkins argued that Allada and Whydah were known for regular slave raiding on the Abomey plateau and that Agaja’s attacks on those kingdoms were primarily to release some of his people who had been captured. A key piece of evidence for Atkins was a letter purported to be from Agaja and carried by Bulfinch Lambe to England in 1731 which expressed the willingness of Agaja to establish agricultural exports to Great Britain as an alternative to the slave trade. The authenticity of this letter is disputed and it was widely used in abolition debates in Great Britain as a letter by a purported indigenous African abolitionist.
Later historians have continued this debate about the role of Agaja in the slave trade, but with the need to account for the fact that in the last years of Agaja’s life (and after Atkins’ book was published) the Kingdom of Dahomey was a major participant in the Atlantic slave trade.
Robert Harms writes that Agaja’s participation in the slave trade was a self-perpetuated necessity. Agaja had increasingly made his kingdom more and more dependent on foreign wares that could only be paid for by slaves. He writes:
He noted that by converting his army from bows and arrows to guns, he needed a steady supply of gunpowder from the Europeans. He also described the fine clothing of his wives and the opulence of his royal court, implying that he needed a reliable supply of imported cloth and other luxury goods in order to maintain the court lifestyle. Finally, he noted that, as king of Dahomey, he had an obligation to distribute cowry shells and other common goods periodically among the common people. The cowry shells for the common people, like the silk cloth for the royal wives and the gunpowder for the army, could be obtained only through the slave trade.
Basil Davidson contended that Dahomey was drawn into the slave trade only as a means of self-defense against slave raiding by the Oyo Empire and the kingdoms of Allada and Whydah. He argued that Agaja took over the coastal cities to secure access to European firearms to protect the Fon from slave raiding. He writes:
Dahomey emerged “at the beginning of the seventeenth century, or about 1625, when the Fon people of the country behind the Slave Coast drew together in self-defense against the slave-raiding of their eastern neighbor, the Yoruba of Oyo. No doubt the Fon were interested in defending themselves from coastal raiders too…But the new state of Dahomey could defend itself effectively only if it could lay hold on adequate supplies of firearms and ammunition. And these it could obtain only by trade with Ardra [Allada] and Ouidah [Whydah] — and, of course, only in exchange for slaves…In the end, Dahomey found their exactions intolerable. They refused to allow Dahomey to sell its captives to the Europeans except through them, and this was the immediate reason why the fourth king of Dahomey, Agaja, waged successful war on them in 1727 and seized their towns.”
I.A. Akinjogbin has pushed the argument the farthest arguing that Agaja’s primary motivation was to end the slave trade in the region. He writes that although Agaja participated in the slave trade, this was primarily a means of self-defense and that his original motives were to end the slave trade. The Bulfinch Lambe letter plays a prominent role in Akinjogbin’s analysis as a declaration of Agaja’s willingness to stop the slave trade. Akinjogbin writes:
“It immediately becomes clear that Agaja had very little sympathy for the slave trade when he invaded the Aja coast [Allada and Whydah]. His first motive appears to have been to sweep away the traditional political system, which had completely broken down and was no longer capable of providing basic security and justice…The second motive would appear to have been to restrict and eventually stop the slave trade, which had been the cause of the breakdown of the traditional system in Aja, and to substitute other ‘legitimate’ items of trade between Europe and the new kingdom of Dahomey.”
Historian Robin Law, in contrast, argues that there is no clear evidence of motivation by Agaja opposing the slave trade and that the conquests of Allada and Whydah may have been simply done to improve Agaja’s access to economic trade. Law contends that the disruption in slave trade that followed the rise of Dahomey was not necessarily related to any efforts on their part to slow the slave trade, but was simply due to the disruption caused by their conquests. Law believes in the authenticity of the Bulfinch Lambe letter, but contends that Atkins misinterprets it. In addition, Law doubts the self-defense motivation highlighted by Davidson and Akinjogbin, writing:
“It is true that the kings of Dahomey subsequently claimed credit for having freed the Dahomey area from the threat of invasion by neighbouring states, but there is no suggestion that this was a motive for either the original foundation or the subsequent expansion of the kingdom, or indeed that such invasions were seen (to any greater degree than Dahomey’s own wars) as slave raids 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor.”
Similarly, David Henige and Marion Johnson question Akinjogbin’s argument. While agreeing with the evidence from Akinjogbin that trade did slow after Agaja’s rise, they find that the evidence does not support any altruistic or moral opposition to the slave trade as the reason for this. In terms of the Bulfinch Lambe letter, they maintain that its authenticity remains “not proven” but that since Lambe was provided 80 slaves when he was released, it is unlikely that Agaja’s motivations were clear. Instead, they argue that the evidence supports Agaja trying to get involved in the slave trade but being unable to do so because of war with the exiled royal family of Whydah and the Oyo Empire. They write:
“Agaja’s actions, insofar as we know them, suggest a willingness to participate in the external trade—be it slaves, goods, or gold—in a way that suited the perceived needs of Dahomey. At the same time, he was unable to implement this opportunity immediately because of the persistent warfare that threatened the existence of his state. During such a transitional and troubled period, trade inevitably languished. Such a view may not necessarily be correct, but it has the clear advantage of being both plausible and congenial to the available evidence.”
Edna Bay assesses the debate by writing:
“Though the possibility that an African monarch tried to put an end to the slave trade is obviously attractive in the twentieth century, historians who have closely considered the evidence from Dahomey suggest, as did the eighteenth-century slave traders, that Dahomey’s motive was a desire to trade directly with Europe, and that the kingdom was willing to provide the product most desired by European traders, human beings. Akinjogbin’s thesis therefore is not likely. However, both Atkin’s idea that Dahomey wanted to stop raids on its own people and the argument that the Dahomeans were seeking direct overseas commerce in slaves are conceivable.”
Agaja is credited with introducing many features of the Dahomey state that became defining characteristics for future kings. It is often said that Agaja created the Mehu (a prime minister), the Yovogan (chief to deal with Europeans), and other administrative positions. However, oral traditions sometimes ascribe these developments to other kings. In addition, Agaja is sometimes credited as the king who created the Dahomey Amazons, a military unit composed entirely of women. Multiple histories account that Agaja did have armed female bodyguards in his palace and that he did dress women in armor in order to attack Whydah in 1728; however, historian Stanley Alpern believes that the Amazons were not likely fully organized during his reign.
Agaja also had a large impact on the religion of Dahomey, largely by increasing the centrality of the Annual Customs (xwetanu or huetanu in Fon). Although the Annual Customs already existed and each family had similar celebrations, Agaja transformed this by making the royal Annual Customs the central religious ceremony in the kingdom. Family celebrations could not occur until after the royal Annual Customs had occurred.
Agaja is often considered one of the great kings in Dahomey history and is remembered as the “great warrior”. His expansions of Dahomey and connections with European traders led to his depiction in Dahomey art as a European caravel boat.

Perfect group

In mathematics, more specifically in the area of modern algebra known as group theory, a group is said to be perfect if it equals its own commutator subgroup, or equivalently, if the group has no nontrivial abelian quotients (equivalently, its abelianization, which is the universal abelian quotient, is trivial). In symbols, a perfect group is one such that G(1) = G (the commutator subgroup equals the group), or equivalently one such that Gab = {1} (its abelianization is trivial).

The smallest (non-trivial) perfect group is the alternating group A5. More generally

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, any non-abelian simple group is perfect since the commutator subgroup is a normal subgroup with abelian quotient juicy couture online sale. Conversely, a perfect group need not be simple; for example, the special linear group SL(2,5) (or the binary icosahedral group which is isomorphic to it) is perfect but not simple (it has a non-trivial center containing ).
More generally, a quasisimple group (a perfect central extension of a simple group) which is a non-trivial extension (i.e., not a simple group itself) is perfect but not simple; this includes all the insoluble non-simple finite special linear groups SL(n,q) as extensions of the projective special linear group PSL(n,q) (SL(2,5) is an extension of PSL(2,5), which is isomorphic to A5). Similarly, the special linear group over the real and complex numbers is perfect, but the general linear group GL is never perfect (except when trivial or over F2, where it equals the special linear group), as the determinant gives a non-trivial abelianization and indeed the commutator subgroup is SL.
A non-trivial perfect group, however, is necessarily not solvable; and 4 divides its order (if finite), moreover, if 8 does not divide the order, then 3 does.
Every acyclic group is perfect, but the converse is not true: A5 is perfect but not acyclic (in fact, not even superperfect), see (Berrick & Hillman 2003). In fact, for n ≥ 5 the alternating group An is perfect but not superperfect, with H2(An, Z) = Z/2 for n ≥ 8.
Any quotient of a perfect group is perfect. A non-trivial finite perfect group which is not simple must then be an extension of at least one smaller simple non-abelian group. But it can be the extension of more than one simple group. In fact, the direct product of perfect groups is also perfect.
Every perfect group G determines another perfect group E (its universal central extension) together with a surjection f:E → G whose kernel is in the center of E, such that f is universal with this property. The kernel of f is called the Schur multiplier of G because it was first studied by Schur in 1904; it is isomorphic to the homology group H2(G).
As the commutator subgroup is generated by commutators, a perfect group may contain elements that are products of commutators but not themselves commutators. Øystein Ore proved in 1951 that the alternating groups on five or more elements contained only commutators, and made the conjecture that this was so for all the finite non-abelian simple groups. Ore’s conjecture was finally proven in 2008. The proof relies on the classification theorem.
A basic fact about perfect groups is Grün’s lemma from (Grün 1935, Satz 4,[note 1] p. 3): the quotient of a perfect group by its center is centerless (has trivial center).
Proof: If G is a perfect group, let Z1 and Z2 denote the first two terms of the upper central series of G (i.e., Z1 is the center of G, and Z2/Z1 is the center of G/Z1). If H and K are subgroups of G, denote the commutator of H and K by [H, K] and note that [Z1, G] = 1 and [Z2, G] ⊆ Z1

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, and consequently (the convention that [X, Y, Z] = [[X, Y], Z] is followed):
As a consequence, all higher centers (that is, higher terms in the upper central series) of a perfect group equal the center.
In terms of group homology, a perfect group is precisely one whose first homology group vanishes: H1(G, Z) = 0, as the first homology group of a group is exactly the abelianization of the group, and perfect means trivial abelianization. An advantage of this definition is that it admits strengthening:
Especially in the field of algebraic K-theory, a group is said to be quasi-perfect if its commutator subgroup is perfect; in symbols, a quasi-perfect group is one such that G(1) = G(2) (the commutator of the commutator subgroup is the commutator subgroup), while a perfect group is one such that G(1) = G (the commutator subgroup is the whole group). See (Karoubi 1973, pp. 301–411) and (Inassaridze 1995 2016 clothes online, p. 76).

West, Mississippi

West is a city in northeastern Holmes County, Mississippi. The population was 220 at the 2000 census.

West is located at 33°11′50″N 89°46′45″W / 33.19722°N 89.77917°W / 33.19722; -89.77917 (33.197266, -89.779288).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2), all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 220 people, 94 households, and 64 families residing in the town. The population density was 394.6 people per square mile (151 bogner online.7/km²). There were 113 housing units at an average density of 202.7 per square mile (77.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 56.36% White, 42.73% African American, 0.45% Asian, and 0.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.27% of the population.
There were 94 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the town the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64 Sandro Botticelli, and 25

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.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $25,625, and the median income for a family was $45,625. Males had a median income of $22,083 versus $12,396 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,398. About 14.9% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.9% of those under the age of eighteen and 31.2% of those sixty five or over Ted Baker Dresses UK.
West made national news in 1989 when all-white East Holmes Academy initially refused to play a football game against Heritage Academy because Heritage had a black player. After seven East Holmes players quit the team, two board members resigned and the Mississippi Private School Association threatened to eject the school, East Holmes relented.
The town of West is served by the Holmes County School District.
Official Website to Konigun Ninjutsu

Kongō-class ironclad

The Kongō-class ironclads (金剛型?) were a pair of armored corvettes built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) by British shipyards in the 1870s. A British offer to purchase the two ships during the Russo-Turkish War in 1878 was refused. They became training ships in 1887 and made training cruises to the Mediterranean and to countries on the edge of the Pacific Ocean. The ships returned to active duty during the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95 where one participated in the Battle of the Yalu River and both in the Battle of Weihaiwei. The Kongō-class ships resumed their training duties after the war, although they played a minor role in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05. They were reclassified as survey ships in 1906 and were sold for scrap in 1910 and 1912.

Tensions between Japan and China heightened after the former launched its punitive expedition against Taiwan in May 1874 in retaliation of the murder of a number of shipwrecked sailors by the Paiwan aborigines. China inquired into the possibility of buying ironclad warships from Great Britain and Japan was already negotiating with the Brazilian government about the purchase of the ironclad Independencia then under construction in Britain. The Japanese terminated the negotiations with the Brazilians in October after the ship was badly damaged upon launching and the expeditionary force was about to withdraw from Taiwan. The crisis illustrated the need to reinforce the IJN and a budget request was submitted that same month by Acting Navy Minister Kawamura Sumiyoshi for ¥3.9–4.2 million to purchase three warships from abroad. No Japanese shipyard was able to build ships of this size so they were ordered from Great Britain. This was rejected as too expensive and a revised request of ¥2.3 million was approved later that month. Nothing was done until March 1875 when Kawamura proposed to buy one ironclad for half of the money authorized and use the rest for shipbuilding and gun production at the Yokosuka Shipyard. No response was made by the Prime Minister’s office before the proposal was revised to use all of the allocated money to buy three ships, one armored frigate and two armored corvettes of composite construction to be designed by the prominent British naval architect Sir Edward Reed, formerly the Chief Constructor of the Royal Navy. Reed would also supervise the construction of the ships for an honorarium of five percent of the construction cost. The Prime Minister’s office approved the revised proposal on 2 May and notified the Japanese consul, Ueno Kagenori, that navy officers would be visiting to negotiate the contract with Reed.
Commander Matsumura Junzō arrived in London on 21 July and gave Reed the specifications for the ships. Reed responded on 3 September with an offer, excluding armament, that exceeded the amount allocated in the budget. Ueno signed the contracts for all three ships on 24 September despite this problem because Reed was scheduled to depart for a trip to Russia and the matter had to be concluded before his departure. Ueno had informed the Navy Ministry about the costs before signing, but Kawamura’s response to postpone the order for the armored frigate did not arrive until 8 October. The totals for all three contracts came to £433,850 or ¥2,231,563 and did not include the armament. These were ordered from Krupp with a 50 percent down payment of £24,978. The government struggled to provide the necessary money even though the additional expenses had been approved by the Prime Minister’s office on 5 June 1876, especially as more money was necessary to fully equip the ships for sea and to provision them for the delivery voyage to Japan.
The Kongō class was 220 feet (67.1 m) long between perpendiculars and had a beam of 41 feet (12.5 m). They had a forward draft of 18 feet (5.5 m) and drew 19 feet (5.8 m) aft. The ships displaced 2,248 long tons (2,284 t) and had a crew of 22 officers and 212 enlisted men. To reduce biofouling, their hulls were sheathed with copper.
The Kongō-class ships had a single two-cylinder double-expansion horizontal return connecting rod-steam engine made by Earle’s Shipbuilding and Engineering, driving a single two-bladed 16-foot (4.9 m) propeller. Six cylindrical boilers provided steam to the engine at a working pressure of 4.22 bar (422 kPa; 61 psi). The engine was designed to produce 2,500 indicated horsepower (1,900 kW) to give the ships a speed of 13.5 knots (25.0 km/h; 15.5 mph). During sea trials, the ships reached maximum speeds of 13.75–13.92 knots (25.47–25.78 km/h; 15.82–16.02 mph). They carried a maximum of 345–390 long tons (351–396 t) of coal, enough to steam 3,100 nautical miles (5,700 km; 3,600 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).
The ironclads were barque-rigged and had a sail area of 14,036 square feet (1,304 m2) Maje Dresses shop 2016. To reduce wind resistance while under sail alone, the funnel was semi-retractable. Their topmasts were removed in 1895.
Both ships were reboilered at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in 1889: Hiei received two steel double-ended cylindrical boilers while Kongō’s new boilers were of the same type as her original ones ted baker uk outlet. The new boilers proved to be less powerful for both ships during sea trials, Kongō reached a maximum speed of 12.46 knots (23.08 km/h; 14.34 mph) from 2,028 ihp (1,512 kW) while Hiei was significantly slower at 10.34 knots (19.15 km/h; 11 juicy couture outlet sale.90 mph) from 1,279 ihp (954 kW).
The ships were fitted with three 172-millimeter (6.8 in) Krupp rifled breech-loading (RBL) guns and six RBL 152-millimeter (6.0 in) Krupp guns. All of the 172-millimeter guns were positioned as chase guns, two forward and one aft. The forward chase guns were pivot-mounted and could traverse 122 degrees from straight ahead on their side of the ship. The aft gun could traverse a total of 125 degrees to each side. The 152-millimeter guns were mounted on the broadside. Each ship also carried two short 75-millimeter (3.0 in) guns for use ashore or mounted on the ships’ boats.
The armor-piercing shell of the 172-millmeter gun weighed 132 pounds (59.9 kg). It had a muzzle velocity of about 1,500 ft/s (460 m/s) and was credited with the ability to penetrate 10.3 inches (262 mm) of wrought iron armor at the muzzle. Data for the 152-millimeter gun is not available.
During the 1880s, the armament of the Kongō-class ships was reinforced with the addition of four quadruple-barreled 25-millimeter (1.0 in) Nordenfelt and two quintuple-barreled 11-millimeter (0.4 in) Nordenfeldt machine guns for defense against torpedo boats. Around the same time the ships each also received two 356-millimeter (14.0 in) torpedo tubes for Schwartzkopff torpedoes. The tubes were mounted above the waterline and one torpedo was provided for each tube. Their anti-torpedo boat armament was again reinforced in 1897 by the addition of a pair of 2.5-pounder Hotchkiss guns. After the end of the Russo-Japanese War, their armament was reduced to six ex-Russian 12-pounder guns and six 2.5-pounders Red Wing shoes online.
The Kongō-class corvettes had a wrought-iron waterline armor belt 4.5 inches (114 mm) thick amidships that tapered to 3 inches (76 mm) at the ends of the ship.
In February 1878, during the Russo-Turkish War, the British were not willing to accept the occupation of the Ottoman Turkish capital of Constantinople by Russian forces and began to prepare for war. The British government made informal inquiries about purchasing the two corvettes, but this was firmly rejected by the Japanese government. The ships sailed from Britain in February–March and arrived in Yokohama two months later. They were sailed to Japan by hired British crews as the IJN lacked the necessary experience. The ships were not formally turned over to the navy until 10 July when a formal ceremony was held in Yokohama attended by the Meiji Emperor and many senior government officials. The ships were opened for public tours after the ceremony.
Kongō hosted the Duke of Genoa when he visited Japan in late 1879. Hiei made port visits in China and in the Persian Gulf the following year. In 1885–86 both ships were assigned to the Small Standing Fleet. They became training ships in 1887 and they both made a training cruise to the Mediterranean in 1889–90 with cadets from the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy. Hiei and Kongō ferried the 69 survivors of the wrecked Ertuğrul back to Turkey where the ships’ officers were received by Sultan Abdul Hamid II. The ships also carried a class of naval cadets. Until the end of the century, one or the other of the Kongō-class ships made the annual cadet cruise, usually to countries bordering the Pacific Ocean. Kongō was in Honolulu on one of these cruises during the Hawaiian Revolution of 1893, although the ship played no part in the affair. She returned to Hawaii the next year and briefly became the patrol ship there until the start of the First Sino-Japanese War later in 1894. Kongō did not participate in the Battle of the Yalu River, but Hiei was there. She was heavily engaged by Chinese ships and was damaged enough that she was forced to break off the action. Hiei was repaired after the battle and both ships were present during the Battle of Weihaiwei in early 1895, although neither saw any significant combat.
The Kongō-class ships were redesignated as 3rd-class coast defense ships in 1898 although they continued their training duties. They played a minor role in the Russo-Japanese War before they were reclassified as survey ships in 1906. Kongō was stricken from the Navy List in 1909 and sold the next year for scrap. Hiei was struck from the Navy List two years after her sister ship and was sold before 25 March 1912.

Hajong marriage

Traditional Hajong marriage (Hajong Bhasa:Bi’â 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, Pronounced as: Biɯ) is a ceremonial ritual that involve a marriage established by pre-arrangement between families. Within Hajong culture, romantic love and widow re-marriage was allowed, and monogamy was the norm for the Hajong people.

Hajongs are endogamous people. In Hajong society matriarchy declined with the influence of Hinduism, leading towards the growing dominance of patriarchy in Hajong society. When intimacy develops between a boy and a girl without the knowledge of their parents, they are married to each other, provided that they do not belong to close maternal and paternal kinship. Exorbitant dowry system was absent in the Hajong society. The Hajongs would give a tolerable bride price or groom price called pǒn. Marriage is usually negotiated by the parents through a matchmaker known as Jahu or Jasu. Marriage is prohibited between close maternal and paternal kin.
In a traditional Hajong wedding there are different people who participate in the wedding ceremony.
When an unmarried boy’s parents found a potential daughter-in-law, they then go to the girl’s house with a Jahu whose job was to assuage the conflict of interests and general embarrassments when discussing the possibility of marriage on the part of two families largely unknown to each other.
At this point the bridegroom’s family arranged the matchmaker(Jahu or Jasu) to present a bride price to the bride’s family.
Before wedding ceremony, two families would arrange a wedding day according to Hajong calendar. Selecting an auspicious day to assure a good future for the couple is as important as avoiding what is believed to be an unlucky day. The wedding is not held on the birth day of both the bride and the groom.
The bride’s family finalises people like the Airǒs, Dhuni-Mao and Dhuni-Bap who are essential for performing the marriage rites. They are invited by giving betel nuts and betel leaves.
The final ritual would be the actual wedding ceremony where bride and groom become a married couple, which consists of many elaborate parts and the rituals takes place for three to five days:
The airǒs make sun, moon, birds and palanquis on a bamboo screen and paint auspicious symbols on earthen lamps and pottery.
The airǒs invite the gods, to attend the wedding and bless the newly married couple, by lighting a lamp in the name of the deity.
The wedding procession from the bride’s home to the groom’s home consists of a traditional band and the airǒs. Picking the groom from his house, the airǒs along with the groom and the mitâ heads towards the bride’s residence.
The wedding procession stops at the door of the bride’s home 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. There are ceremonies to be followed to welcome the groom and her wedding procession into the bride’s home, which varies from place to place.
The bride and the groom are ritually purified by the airǒs before the bhor bi’â.
Bhor bi’â is the actual wedding ceremony equivallent to exchanging vows in the west, it is an elaborate ritual and is held at the night. The couple would pay respect to wedding deities, the patron family deities, paying respect to deceased ancestors and the bride and groom’s parents and other elders.
It is the second half of the wedding and is performed in the next morning.
In Hajong society, the wedding banquet is known as Bi’â-khawa. There are ceremonies such as the bride and groon eating together sharing the side dishes. Traditionally 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, the bride’s father is responsible for the cost of the wedding invitation sweet treats, the banquet invitations, and the wedding itself. Wedding banquets are elaborate and consist usually of 5-10 courses and turtle meat is considered auspicious for wedding banquets as it symbolizes long life. Traditionally, the father of the bride is responsible for the wedding banquet hosted on the bride’s side and the alcohol consumed during both banquets. The wedding banquets are two separate banquets: the primary banquet is hosted once from the bride’s side 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp, the second banquet is at the groom’s side, for which the groom’s family takes the expenses of the banquet. While the wedding itself is often based on the couple’s choices, the wedding banquets are a gesture of thanks and appreciation, to those that have raised the bride and groom (such as grandparents and uncles). It is also to ensure the relatives on each side meet the relatives on the other side.
Polygamy is very rare among the Hajongs. Traditional Hajong culture does not prohibit nor explicitly encourage polygamy, except as a way to obtain male children.
Widows are allowed to remarry in the Hajong society and this type of marriage is called Hang’a or Sang’a in Hajong. This marriage is mostly performed for young widows by her inlaws or the village headman.

Portaerei

Una portaerei è una nave da guerra il cui ruolo principale è il trasporto in zona di operazioni, lancio e recupero di aeroplani, agendo in effetti come una base aerea capace di muoversi in mare. Le portaerei permettono pertanto ad una forza navale di proiettare la propria potenza aerea fino a grandi distanze senza dover dipendere da basi terrestri locali per gli aerei.
Le marine moderne che operano portaerei le trattano come il nucleo della flotta, un ruolo giocato in precedenza dalle corazzate. Il cambiamento iniziò con la crescita della potenza aerea come parte significativa della guerra ed avvenne durante la seconda guerra mondiale. Le portaerei prive di scorta sono considerate vulnerabili ad attacchi da altre navi, aerei, sottomarini o missili e pertanto viaggiano come parte di un gruppo da battaglia di portaerei.

Nel corso dell’ultimo secolo sono stati sperimentati diversi tipi di portaerei, alcuni dei quali ora obsoleti. In generale possono essere categorizzati come segue:
: alcuni dei tipi nella lista non sono considerati portaerei secondo alcune fonti
Con lo sviluppo degli aeroplani all’inizio del XX secolo le varie marine iniziarono ad interessarsi al loro potenziale uso per missioni di ricognizione per le loro corazzate. Vennero effettuati diversi voli sperimentali per testare l’idea. Eugene Ely fu il primo pilota a decollare da una nave stazionaria nel novembre 1910. Decollò da una struttura installata sul castello di prua dell’incrociatore corazzato USS Birmingham a Hampton Roads, Virginia ed atterrò a Willoughby Spit dopo circa cinque minuti di volo. Il 18 gennaio 1911 divenne anche il primo pilota ad atterrare su una nave stazionaria. Decollò dalla pista di corse di Tanforan ed atterrò su una struttura temporanea installata sulla poppa dell’USS Pennsylvania ancorato sul fronte del porto di San Francisco – il sistema di frenaggio improvvisato di sacchi di sabbia e di corde è l’antenato del dispositivo formato dal gancio d’appontaggio e di funi d’arresto descritti in seguito. Il Capitano di fregata Charles Samson, divenne il primo pilota a decollare da una nave in movimento il 2 maggio 1912 decollando a bordo di un Short 27 dalla nave da guerra HMS Hibernia mentre questa viaggiava a 10.5 nodi (19 km/h) durante la Rivista della Royal Fleet a Weymouth.
La HMS Ark Royal non fu la prima portaerei. Venne originariamente progettata come nave mercantile, ma durante la costruzione venne convertita per essere trasformata in una nave appoggio idrovolanti (cosa ben diversa da una portaerei). Varata nel 1914, servì nella Campagna dei Dardanelli e durante la prima guerra mondiale.
Il primo attacco lanciato da una portaerei contro un bersaglio terrestre avvenne il 19 luglio 1918. Sette Sopwith Camel decollati dalla HMS Furious la prima portaerei, perché gli aerei potevano decollare ed atterrare sul ponte di volo situato a prora, attaccarono la base di Zeppelin tedesca di Tondern con due bombe da 25 kg ognuno. Diversi dirigibili e palloni aerostatici vennero distrutti, ma poiché il Furious non aveva metodi per recuperarli in sicurezza due piloti eseguirono un atterraggio d’emergenza in mare, a fianco del Furious, mentre i rimanenti si diressero verso la neutrale Danimarca. Nel frattempo la Germania cercava di convertire il mercantile veloce Ausonia (una nave italiana da 12.000 ton. circa che era stata varata alla fine del 1914 ad Amburgo) in una nave ibrido porta aerei-porta idrovolanti, con 20-30 apparecchi e 20 nodi circa di velocità. La fine della guerra pose fine al progetto

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Successivamente alla prima guerra mondiale, il Trattato navale di Washington del 1922 impose alle maggiori potenze navali stretti limiti sul tonnellaggio di corazzate e incrociatori, così come un limite sul tonnellaggio totale delle portaerei ed un limite massimo di 27.000 ton per ogni nave. Sebbene venissero fatte alcune eccezioni riguardo al tonnellaggio massimo di singole navi, i limiti sul tonnellaggio totale di ogni tipo di nave non potevano essere ecceduti. Di conseguenza molte corazzate o incrociatori in corso di costruzione (o in servizio) vennero convertite in portaerei. La prima nave ad avere un ponte piatto lungo tutta la sua lunghezza fu la HMS Argus la cui conversione venne completata nel settembre 1918.
La prima nave specificatamente designata come portaerei ad entrare in servizio fu la giapponese Hōshō nel 1922. La britannica HMS Hermes entrò in servizio l’anno successivo, sebbene la sua costruzione fosse iniziata prima di quella della Hōshō.
Alla fine degli anni 1930, le portaerei in attività nel mondo imbarcavano tipicamente tre tipi di aerei: aerosiluranti, usati anche per missioni convenzionali di bombardamento e di ricognizione; bombardieri in picchiata usati anche per missioni di ricognizione (nella US Navy questo tipo di aerei era chiamato “scout bombers”); e caccia per missioni di difesa della flotta e di scorta dei bombardieri

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Le portaerei volanti erano dirigibili equipaggiati per il trasporto e lancio di aeroplani. Come per esempio l’USS Akron e l’USS Macon. Vedi Caccia parassiti su dirigibili.
Le portaerei giocarono un ruolo significativo nella seconda guerra mondiale. All’inizio della guerra, con un totale di sette portaerei in attività la Royal Navy aveva un vantaggio numerico considerevole sugli italiani e sui tedeschi, che non ne possedevano alcuna. Comunque la vulnerabilità delle portaerei all’attacco delle corazzate venne rapidamente dimostrata dall’affondamento della HMS Glorious da parte di incrociatori da battaglia tedeschi durante la campagna norvegese del 1940.
Questa apparente debolezza nei confronti delle corazzate venne capovolta nel novembre 1940 quando la HMS Illustrious lanciò un attacco a lungo raggio contro la flotta italiana ancorata nel porto di Taranto. Questa operazione affondò una corazzata e ne mise fuori servizio altre due al costo di soli due dei 21 aerosiluranti Fairey Swordfish attaccanti. Le portaerei giocarono anche un ruolo fondamentale nel rinforzare Malta, sia trasportando aerei, che difendendo convogli di rifornimenti inviati all’isola. L’uso delle portaerei impedì alla Regia Marina ed all’aviazione terrestre tedesca di dominare il teatro del mediterraneo.
Nell’oceano Atlantico la HMS Ark Royal e la HMS Victorious ebbero il compito di rallentare la Bismarck nel maggio 1941. Successivamente durante la guerra le portaerei scorta dimostrarono il loro valore sorvegliando i convogli che attraversano l’oceano Atlantico e artico.
Basandosi sullo sviluppo nel 1939 dei siluri lanciati da aerei, con corsa a bassa profondità e sull’esempio britannico della Notte di Taranto, l’attacco giapponese contro Pearl Harbor fu un chiaro esempio della capacità di proiezione del potere permesso da una grande flotta di portaerei. Simultaneamente all’attacco i giapponesi iniziarono un’avanzata lungo tutta l’Asia sudorientale e l’affondamento della Prince of Wales e del Repulse da parte di aerei giapponesi decollati da terra dimostrarono ulteriormente il bisogno di questo tipo di navi per fornire copertura aerea. Nell’aprile 1942 la Japanese Fast Carrier Strike Force operò nell’Oceano Indiano affondando navigli, comprese la portaerei sottoriparata e sottoprotetta HMS Hermes. Le flotte alleate più piccole, sprovviste di un’adeguata copertura aerea furono forzate a ritirarsi o vennero distrutte. Nella Battaglia del Mar dei Coralli le flotte americane e giapponesi si scambiarono attacchi aerei nella prima battaglia nella quale nessuna nave entrò nel raggio visivo di una nave avversaria. La Battaglia delle Midway, dove aerei decollati da tre portaerei americane affondarono con un attacco a sorpresa quattro portaerei giapponesi è considerato il punto di svolta della guerra nel Pacifico.
Successivamente gli Stati Uniti crearono una diversificata flotta di portaerei leggere e di flotta, che giocarono un ruolo fondamentale nel vincere la guerra nel Pacifico. L’eclissi delle corazzate come componenti primarie della flotta venne chiaramente illustrata nel 1945 dall’affondamento della più grande nave da battaglia mai costruita, la Yamato, ad opera di aerei decollati da portaerei. Il Giappone costruì anche la più grossa portaerei della guerra, la Shinano

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. Significativamente si trattava della conversione di una nave inizialmente prevista come corazzata classe Yamato, una riprova di quale tipo di nave fosse più importante e prestigioso nelle nuove flotte che si combattevano nell’Oceano Pacifico.
L’esperienza di combattimento dimostrò che l’invenzione inglese dell’hurricane bow (le strutture dello scafo vennero prolungate fino al ponte di volo e la prua assunse nella parte estrema una forma triangolare) che migliora il comportamento della nave con mare tempestoso era l’uso migliore per il fronte della nave, sia rispetto all’installazione di mitragliatrici che all’installazione di un secondo ponte di volo. Questo divenne una caratteristica standard delle portaerei britanniche e statunitensi. La portaerei giapponese Taihō fu la prima nave giapponese a incorporarlo.
A cominciare dalla classe Midway le portaerei americane divennero così grandi che non era pratico continuare ad usare il ponte hangar come strength deck concept e tutte le successive portaerei americane usarono il ponte di volo come strength deck lasciando come unica superstruttura l’isola.
Le Corazzate portaerei furono create dalla Marina Imperiale Giapponese per compensare parzialmente la perdita delle sue portaerei alla Battaglia delle Midway. Due corazzate giapponesi classe Ise, la Ise e la Hyūga furono trasformate rimuovendo le torrette di poppa e rimpiazzandole con un hangar, ponte di volo e catapulta.
Inoltre molte corazzate, incrociatori e navi corsare vennero equipaggiati con idrovolanti per missioni di ricognizione.
Alcuni incrociatori e navi maggiori del periodo tra le guerre trasportavano spesso un idroplano che decollava grazie ad una catapulta per missioni di ricognizione e di avvistamento del punto di impatto dei proiettili dei cannoni. Veniva lanciato da una catapulta e recuperato dall’acqua mediante una gru dopo l’ammaraggio. Le gru e gli hangar per il trasporto furono generalmente rimossi durante la seconda guerra mondiale, ma durante le prime fasi della guerra ottennero qualche successo degno di nota, come dimostrato dal Supermarine Walrus del HMS Warspite nelle sue operazioni nei fiordi norvegesi del 1940.
Molte navi da guerra moderne sono equipaggiate per permettere l’atterraggio di elicotteri.
La moderna catapulta a vapore, alimentata dalle caldaie, o reattori, della nave è stata inventata dal comandante C.C. Mitchell della Royal Naval Reserve. Venne diffusamente adottata in seguito alle prove eseguite sulla HMS Perseus tra il 1950 ed il 1952, che dimostrarono come fosse più potente ed affidabile delle catapulte ad aria compressa introdotte negli anni 1930. Poiché attualmente solo le portaerei nucleari possiedono caldaie come parte integrante del loro sistema di propulsione la maggior parte delle portaerei sono ora equipaggiate con impianti di produzione del vapore per l’unico motivo di alimentare le catapulte.
Un’altra invenzione inglese fu l’indicatore glide-slope (“piano di planata). Questa è una lampada controllata giroscopicamente situata a babordo del ponte che può essere vista dal pilota in fase di atterraggio e gli indica se sta arrivando troppo alto o troppo basso in relazione al sentiero di discesa desiderato. Tiene anche conto degli effetti delle onde sul ponte di volo. Questo strumento divenne una necessità con l’aumento della velocità di atterraggio.
La US Navy tentò prematuramente di diventare una forza strategica nucleare con il progetto di costruzione della United States, classificata CVA, con la “A” che sta per “atomica”. Avrebbe dovuto trasportare bombardieri bimotori, ognuno dei quali armato con una bomba atomica. Il progetto venne cancellato su pressioni dell’appena creata United States Air Force, e la lettera “A” venne riciclata per significare “attacco”. Ma questo ritardò solo la crescita delle portaerei, nel 1955 le armi nucleari presero il mare nonostante le obiezioni della Air Force a bordo della USS Forrestal (CVA-59) (classe Forrestal), e per la fine degli anni 1950 la US Navy possedeva una serie di aerei d’attacco armati con armi nucleari.
La US Navy utilizzò il nucleare anche per costruire portaerei alimentate da reattori nucleari. La USS Enterprise fu la prima portaerei equipaggiata con motori nucleari e le successive portaerei sfruttarono questa tecnologia per incrementare l’autonomia. La sola altra nazione ad aver seguito l’esempio degli Stati Uniti è stata la Francia con la Charles de Gaulle.
Negli anni successivi alla seconda guerra mondiale videro lo sviluppo dell’elicottero, che a differenza degli aerei adatti al combattimento aria-aria e aria-superficie, venne destinato al trasporto di materiale e personale e può essere utilizzato nella guerra anti-sommergibile equipaggiandolo con sonar a immersione e missili.
Alla fine degli anni 1950 ed all’inizio degli anni 1960 l’Inghilterra convertì alcune sue vecchie portaerei in portaerei commando: portaelicotteri come la HMS Bulwark. Per mitigare le connotazioni costose relative alla parola portaerei, le portaerei inglesi di nuova costruzione classe Invincible vennero designate through deck cruisers (“incrociatori a ponte completo”) e inizialmente trasportarono solo elicotteri per operare come portaerei scorta. L’introduzione del Sea Harrier permise loro di trasportare aerei ad ala fissa nonostante il loro breve ponte di volo.
Gli usi più recenti delle portaerei includono la Guerra delle Falklands nella quale il Regno Unito vinse un conflitto distante 13.000 km dalle proprie acque in gran parte grazie all’uso della portaerei HMS Hermes e della più piccola HMS Invincible. Questa guerra dimostrò il valore di un aereo VSTOL come l’Hawker-Siddeley Harrier nel difendere la flotta e la forza d’assalto da aerei con basi a terra e nell’attaccare il nemico. Elicotteri basati sulle portaerei furono usati per scaricare truppe e recuperare i feriti.
Gli USA hanno utilizzato le portaerei nella Guerra del Golfo, in Afghanistan e per proteggere i propri interessi nell’Oceano Pacifico. Nella recente invasione dell’Iraq le portaerei sono state la base principale della potenza aerea americana. Sebbene privi della possibilità di piazzare un numero significativo di aerei nelle basi medio-orientali, gli USA furono in grado di lanciare significativi attacchi aerei eseguiti da squadroni basati su portaerei.
All’inizio del XXI secolo le portaerei in attività sono in grado di trasportare circa 1.250 aerei in zona di operazioni, il Regno Unito ne schierò circa 50. La Francia ed il Regno Unito hanno in corso un programma di espansione della flotta di portaerei, ma gli Stati Uniti mantengono comunque un grande margine di vantaggio.
L’Italia ha, da parte sua, 2 portaerei, anche se entrambe leggere: la prima è la Giuseppe Garibaldi, varata nel 1985, da meno di 14.000 tonnellate a pieno carico, era considerata, all’epoca della sua messa in mare, la più piccola portaerei del mondo ed in effetti è una portaeromobili; e l’ultima, consegnata alla marina militare nel 2009 è la Cavour, che possiede una stazza di circa 30.000 tonnellate a massimo carico (comunque non paragonabile alle stazze delle portaerei nucleari fra le 50.000 e le 100.000 tonnellate).
Come misura di emergenza, prima che un numero sufficiente di mercantili portaerei fossero disponibili, i britannici utilizzarono navi CAM ( Catapult aircraft merchantman – “mercantile [equipaggiato con] catapulta aerea”) per fornire supporto aereo ai convogli. Le navi CAM erano vascelli equipaggiati con un aereo, solitamente un usurato Hawker Hurricane che decollava assistito da una catapulta. Una volta lanciato l’aereo non poteva riatterrare sul ponte e doveva ammarare se non era ad una distanza sufficiente da terra. Nel giro di due anni meno di 10 lanci vennero effettuati, ottenendo comunque un limitato successo: 6 bombardieri contro la perdita di un singolo pilota.
Per proteggere i convogli atlantici i britannici utilizzarono le navi MAC (Merchant Aircraft Carrier – “Mercantili Portaerei”), navi mercantili equipaggiate con un ponte piatto di decollo per una mezza dozzina di aerei. Operarono con equipaggi civili, battendo bandiera mercantile e trasportando un carico normale, oltre a fornire supporto aereo al convoglio. Poiché erano prive di ascensore e hangar le operazioni di manutenzione erano limitate e gli aerei dovevano trascorrere tutto il viaggio esposti sul ponte.
L’equivalente americano delle navi MAC, furono le portaerei di scorta (designazione americana CVE Carrier Vessel Escort). Circa un terzo delle dimensioni di una portaerei di flotta, con la capacità di trasportare circa due dozzine di caccia per missioni antisommergibile. Oltre un centinaio vennero costruite o ricavate da navi mercantili convertite. Le portaerei scorta vennero costruite negli Stati Uniti secondo due modelli di scafo: uno a partire da una nave mercantile e l’altro da una lievemente più veloce nave cisterna. Oltre a difendere convogli furono usate per trasportare aerei attraverso l’oceano. Nonostante ciò alcune parteciparono all’attacco contro le Filippine, principalmente la battaglia del golfo di Leyte nella quale sei portaerei scorta ed i cacciatorpediniere che le accompagnavano bluffarono attaccando brevemente cinque corazzate giapponesi e forzandole a ritirarsi.
La perdita in rapida successione nella guerra del Pacifico di tre delle principali portaerei spinse la US Navy a sviluppare le portaerei leggere (designazione CVL) a partire da scafi di incrociatori leggeri già in corso di costruzione. Queste erano destinate ad aggiungere squadriglie di caccia ad una task force e vennero usate dalla US Navy solo durante la seconda guerra mondiale. La Royal Navy inglese realizzò un modello simile che utilizzò anche dopo la seconda guerra mondiale (così come altre nazioni del Commonwealth).
Una portaerei antisommergibile (dall’inglese: ASW carrier – Anti-Submarine Warfare carrier) è un tipo di piccola portaerei il cui ruolo principale è quello di cacciare e distruggere i sottomarini. Questo tipo di nave nasce durante la guerra fredda come uno sviluppo delle portaerei di scorta utilizzate nel ruolo ASW nel Nord Atlantico durante la seconda guerra mondiale. Il loro hull classification symbol è CVS. Alcuni esempi sono le portaerei della classe Essex e della classe Invincible, la Giuseppe Garibaldi (551) e la Príncipe de Asturias (R-11).
Una portaeromobili è una unità navale militare destinata al trasporto, al lancio ed al recupero di aeromobili. Il termine portaeromobili è traducibile in francese con porte-aéronefs, mantenendo quindi una distinzione da portaerei che viene tradotto con porte-avions; in inglese si usa in entrambi i casi il termine aircraft carrier. Si possono distinguere diverse tipologie di portaerei dal punto di vista della dimensione: le più grandi sono denominate superportaerei (supercarrier), quelle di dimensione standard portaerei (fleet carrier), e quelle più piccole con diverse denominazioni (alcune obsolete) portaerei leggera (light aircraft carrier), portaerei di scorta (escort carrier), portaerei antisommergibile (anti-submarine warfare carrier).
Durante la seconda guerra mondiale gli aerei dovevano atterrare sul ponte di volo parallelo all’asse dello scafo della nave. Gli aerei già atterrati venivano parcheggiati sul ponte all’estremità di prua del ponte di volo. Dietro di essi veniva sollevata una barriera antiurto per arrestare ogni aereo in fase di atterraggio che non riuscisse ad arrestarsi in tempo, nel caso che il gancio d’atterraggio mancasse i cavi d’arresto. Se questo succedeva, oltre al rischio per l’equipaggio, l’aereo in atterraggio causava seri danni agli aerei parcheggiati, e al peggio, nel caso che la barriera antiurto non fosse sufficientemente solida, poteva distruggerli e causare un incendio.
Un’importante innovazione britannica della fine degli anni quaranta fu l’introduzione tecnica del ponte angolato, in cui la pista di atterraggio era angolata di pochi gradi rispetto alla nave. Se un aereo mancava i cavi di arresto il pilota doveva solo incrementare al massimo la potenza del motore per riattaccare, senza rischiare di colpire gli aeroplani parcheggiati, dato che il ponte angolato puntava all’esterno verso il mare. L’immagine della USS John C. Stennis all’inizio di questa voce mostra il ponte d’atterraggio angolato.
Le navi portaerei possiedono un ponte piatto, il ponte di volo, che serve da pista per il decollo e l’atterraggio. Poiché gli aerei decollano ed atterrano controvento, per favorirne il decollo una portaerei viaggia a massima velocità, per esempio 30 nodi (55 km/h), con la prua orientata contro il vento, in modo da incrementare la velocità relativa del flusso dell’aria rispetto all’aereo. Stessa cosa per quanto riguarda l’appontaggio: procedendo controvento si riduce la velocità che l’aereo ha rispetto alla nave. Su alcune navi si utilizza una catapulta a vapore per accelerare l’aeroplano in modo da permettergli di decollare con una rincorsa più limitata di quella altrimenti richiesta o per consentire il decollo con un carico particolarmente elevato. Su altri modelli non è richiesta l’assistenza di una catapulta – la necessità di usarne una dipende dal tipo dell’aereo e dalle sue prestazioni.
Durante l’atterraggio alcuni aerei si affidano per arrestarsi in una distanza più breve del normale ad un “gancio per l’appontaggio” che ingaggia dei cavi in acciaio collegati a pistoni di compressione a vapore (gli stessi utilizzati per il lancio), al momento dell’aggancio il cavo trascina il pistone all’interno del suo cilindro aumentando la compressione e dando così modo al velivolo di fermarsi, i cavi sono generalmente 4 e sono disposti trasversalmente al ponte di atterraggio, i migliori piloti generalmente ingaggiano sempre il cavo numero 3. Altri aerei usano la loro capacità di atterraggio verticale e non richiedono assistenza per ridurre la loro velocità nell’atterraggio. Dalla fine della seconda guerra mondiale è diventato comune angolare la pista di atterraggio e decollo rispetto all’asse longitudinale della nave. Lo scopo è di permettere agli aerei che manchino le funi di arresto di decollare nuovamente senza rischiare di colpire gli aerei parcheggiati nella parte anteriore del ponte. Il ponte angolato permette inoltre il decollo di aerei contemporaneamente all’atterraggio di altri, le portaerei di classe NIMITZ hanno la possibilità di lanciare fino a 3 velivoli contemporaneamente shiftando il lancio del terzo velivolo soltanto di pochi secondi. (Shift Take Off o Split Take Off) Curiosità: Gli aerei al momento del contatto con il ponte portano le manette in posizione di Full AB (AB After Burner) dando piena potenza ai motori, questa manovra di sicurezza, qualora il pilota mancasse totalmente i cavi o addirittura un cavo cedesse, permetterebbe al velivolo di riattaccare e riprendere il volo.
Le aree sopra al ponte di volo (ponte di comando, torre di controllo, scarichi dei motori e così via) sono concentrate a tribordo del ponte in una zona relativamente piccola chiamata “isola”. Solo poche portaerei sono state progettate o costruite senza un’isola e questa configurazione non è mai stata vista in una portaerei di flotta.
Una configurazione più recente, usata dalla Royal Navy ha una ski-jump (trampolino di lancio) al termine della pista di decollo. Questo per aiutare il decollo di aerei VTOL (o STOVL) (aerei in grado di decollare e atterrare con poco o nessun movimento in avanti), come il Sea Harrier, sebbene questi aerei siano in grado di decollare verticalmente dal ponte, l’uso della rampa riduce il consumo di carburante. Poiché catapulta e funi di arresto non sono necessarie le portaerei con questa configurazione riducono il peso, complessità ed ingombro necessario per l’equipaggiamento.
Otto nazioni mantengono in servizio 18 portaerei al 2015, con gli Stati Uniti in possesso di un numero di portaerei (10) superiore alla somma di tutti gli altri paesi cioè Regno Unito, Francia, Russia, Cina, Brasile, Italia, India. Altre nazioni, pur avendo un’aviazione di marina dotata di aeromobili ad ala fissa non sono dotate di portaerei, ad esempio l’Argentina e la Spagna (che in passato però ne erano dotate). Anche l’Australia, il Canada, il Giappone e i Paesi Bassi in passato erano dotate di portaerei. Attualmente queste (e molte altre marine) sono dotate di navi d’assalto anfibio capaci di imbarcare elicotteri e, potenzialmente, aerei STOVL. La Thailandia possiede la portaeromobili HTMS Chakri Naruebet, ma dal 2006 non è più dotata di aerei.
São Paulo
Liaoning
Charles de Gaulle
Viraat
INS Vikramaditya
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Cavour
Admiral Kuznecov
Nimitz
La Marina militare italiana, dopo l’entrata in servizio nel 2009 della portaerei STOVL Cavour, che ha sostituito nel ruolo di nave ammiraglia la Garibaldi (comunque ancora in servizio nel 2012), non ha in programma la costruzione di ulteriori portaerei. La Cavour è entrata in servizio dopo alcuni ritardi dovuti a diverse migliorie applicate al progetto originale; è a propulsione convenzionale (non nucleare) con un dislocamento di 27.500 tonnellate. Grazie allo sky-jump inclinato di 12° è in grado di imbarcare una componente aerea, sia ad ala rotante che fissa, composta da elicotteri medi EH-101 e, se e quando disponibili, dai F-35 Lightning II del cui progetto l’Italia è partner di 2º livello. Si stima che il costo della Cavour sia stato di un totale di 1390 milioni di euro.
Nel dicembre 2008 il maggiore generale Qian Lihua del Ministero cinese della Difesa Nazionale, ha accennato che la marina sta cercando di acquisire una portaerei, sebbene la mossa potrebbe alimentare le tensioni con gli Stati Uniti e rispettivi alleati in Asia. In un’intervista pubblicata sul Financial Times di Londra, il Maggiore Generale Qian non ha esplicitamente dichiarato che la Cina ha deciso di costruire delle portaerei, ma ha affermato che la Cina ha tutto il diritto di possederne. La marina di qualsiasi grande superpotenza sogna di avere una o più portaerei. Egli ha detto nel colloquio che il fatto di averne almeno una è difatti il sogno di ogni grande potenza militare. Ha anticipato altresì che il destino delle eventuali nuove portaerei saranno strettamente per scopi difensivi: il generale ha sottolineato come la Cina non intende avere delle portaerei con intenti aggressivi.
Nel 2004 l’India ha comprato la portaerei sovietica Admiral Gorshkov ex Baku (classe Kiev) dalla Russia al costo di 1,5 miliardi di dollari; ci si aspettava che si sarebbe unita all’Indian Navy nel 2008, una volta revisionata. L’ingresso in servizio, inizialmente previsto per la fine del 2012 con il nome di INS Vikramaditya, fu in seguito ritardato a novembre 2013 da problemi tecnici verificatisi durante le prove a mare. La portaerei, dotata del sistema STOBAR, sarà equipaggiata con MiG 29K Fulcrum, BAE Sea Harrier e HAL Tejas navalizzati.
Il progetto per la portaerei convenzionale (non nucleare) del dislocamento di 27.079 tonnellate, lunga 231 metri, denominata Buque de Proyección Estratégica (“vascello di proiezione strategica”) Juan Carlos I (L-61) per l’Armada Española è stato approvato nel 2003 e la sua costruzione è cominciata nell’agosto 2005, nei cantieri navali statali di Navantia. La Buque de Proyección Estratégica è un vascello progettato per operare sia come nave d’assalto anfibio (LHD), sia come portaerei V/STOL, a seconda della missione. Il progetto è stato realizzato tenendo conto dei conflitti a bassa intensità nelle quali si prevede che saranno coinvolte le FF.AA. spagnole nel futuro. A rigore, infatti, la BPE deve essere considerata principalmente una nave d’assalto anfibio (da cui la L del pennant number), la quale all’occorrenza in determinati casi può anche fungere da portaerei leggera. Quando configurata per operare come portaerei STOVL potrà imbarcare Matador AV-8B+ e F-35 Lightning II. La nave è equipaggiata con uno sky-jump ed un sistema di combattimento equipaggiato con un radar tridimensionale, e sarà la seconda portaerei della marina spagnola dopo la Principe de Asturias (R11)

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. È stata costruita seguendo standard commerciali, più economici di quelli militari.
Diverse nazioni dotate di portaerei hanno in corso il progetto di nuove classi per rimpiazzare quelle correnti.
Nel giugno 2005 è stato riportato da boxun.com che la Cina avrebbe investito 362 milioni di dollari nella costruzione di una portaerei del dislocamento di 78.000 tonnellate, da costruirsi nei cantieri Jiangnan in Shanghai. La notizia è stata ufficialmente negata dall’ufficiale alla Difesa cinese Zhang Guangqin.
La Marine nationale francese ha in progetto la costruzione di una seconda portaerei, la PA 2, in aggiunta alla Charles de Gaulle. Il progetto prevede una portarei molto più grande, della Charles de Gaulle di circa 70-75.000 tonnellate di dislocamento, ma alimentata da un motore convenzionale, non nucleare. Ci sono piani per uno sviluppo congiunto con la Royal Navy, mediante la collaborazione tra la BAE Systems ed il Thales Group intorno al programma Carrier Vessel Future (CVF). La PA 2 sarà lunga 283 metri e larga 73 metri, e potrà imbarcare una quarantina di velivoli, tra cui 32 Rafale M. Il progetto è stato di fatto congelato nel 2009.
L’India ha iniziato la costruzione di una portaerei da 40.000 tonnellate, lunga 262 metri nell’aprile 2005, la INS Vikrant (classe Vikrant). La nuova portaerei STOBAR costerà 762 milioni di dollari e sarà equipaggiata con aerei MiG 29K Fulcrum e HAL Tejas navalizzati, oltre a elicotteri di costruzione russa ed indiana. La nave sarà alimentata da quattro motori a turbina ed una volta completata avrà un’autonomia di 14.000 km, porterà 160 ufficiali, 1.400 marinai e 30 aerei. Sarà realizzata in un arsenale navale statale nell’India meridionale ed è previsto che entrerà in servizio nel 2014. Nel 2017, dovrebbe entrare in servizio anche una seconda unità della classe Vikrant, la INS Vishal; questa portaerei sarà di 65.000 tonnellate e dotata del sistema CATOBAR.
La Royal Navy sta costruendo (la costruzione della prima è iniziata nel 2009) due portaerei per rimpiazzare le tre unità classe Invincible. Ci si aspetta che queste due navi, della Queen Elizabeth (ex Carrier Vessel Future) saranno chiamate Queen Elizabeth e Prince of Wales. Trasporteranno una forza di circa 50 aerei, con un dislocamento di circa 60-65.000 tonnellate. La loro entrata in servizio è prevista rispettivamente per il 2016 ed il 2018. Imbarcheranno principalmente F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, con un equipaggio di circa 1.000 unità. Le due navi formeranno il nucleo della Royal Navy e saranno le più grandi navi da guerra mai costruite per essa. Saranno progettate in modo adattabile per permettere la massima flessibilità operativa e saranno realizzate in configurazione STOVL con sky-jump, così come previsto originariamente. Questo in seguito a valutazioni del governo inglese durante le quali era stato ipotizzato di dotarle di un ponte più ampio e lungo, in modo da trasformarle in portaerei CATOBAR (con catapulta), per potervi appontare gli F-35 di tipo C.
La Voenno Morskoj Flot Rossijskoj Federacii possiede una sola portaerei in attività, la Admiral Kuznecov. Nel 2005, era stato annunciato un programma per la realizzazione di 2 o 4 portaerei da iniziare nel 2013/14 con un ingresso in servizio previsto per il 2017. Nel 2008, Dmitry Medvedev sosteveva la realizzazione di una portaerei nucleare nel successivo decennio. Nel 2011, il capo della Russia’s United Shipbuilding Corporation (una società statale di costruzioni navali) annunciò che la società avrebbe iniziato a lavorare ad un design per una portaerei nel 2016, con l’obiettivo di iniziare la costruzione nel 2018 e l’operatività nel 2023. Alcuni mesi dopo il quotidiano russo Izvestiya ha riportato il piano di costruzione navale, che include la costruzione di un nuovo cantiere navale in grado di costruire navi con scafo di grandi dimensioni, per costruire due portaerei a propulsione nucleare entro il 2027. Una portaerei dovrebbe essere assegnata alla Flotta del Nord a Murmansk e l’altra alla Flotta del Pacifico a Vladivostok. Una versione navalizzata del Sukhoi PAK FA dovrebbe costituire futuro il gruppo aereo imbarcato.
Le portaerei della classe Nimitz correntemente in servizio saranno seguite (ed in futuro rimpiazzate), dalle portaerei CVN-21/CVNX. Ci si aspetta che saranno più grandi ed in grado di operare più aerei degli attuali 80 della classe Nimitz e saranno anche progettate per una minore tracciabilità da parte dei radar.
A partire dal 30 ottobre 1963 il pilota della marina Lt. James H. Flatley III assieme al suo equipaggio composto dal Lt. Cmdr. W.W. Stovall, copilota; ADR-1 E.F. Brennan, tecnico di volo; e il pilota collaudatore della Lockheed Ted H. Limmer, Jr., ai comandi di un KC-130F Hercules da rifornimento in volo prestato dai Marine (nr. di matricola 149798 e ribattezzato “LOOK MA, NO HOOK.” ovvero: “Guarda mamma, senza gancio”), compì ben 29 “touch and go”, 21 appontaggi “full stop” e 21 decolli a bordo della portaerei USS Forrestal (CVA-59), manovre compiute con un peso lordo da 3.850 kg (85.000 libbre) a 5.900 kg (121.000 lb). Con 3.850 kg il KC-130F compì un arresto completo in 81,4 m (267 piedi), circa due volte l’apertura alare del velivolo. La Marina si stupì di scoprire che anche con un carico utile massimo, l’aereo necessitava di soli 227 m. (745 piedi) per il decollo, e di 140 m (460 piedi) per l’atterraggio. Per questa impresa la Marina militare statunitense conferì a Flatley la Distinguished Flying Cross, mentre a Stovall, Brennan e Seive (un altro tecnico di volo che si turnò con Brennan) furono conferite una Air Medal ciascuno.
Altri progetti

Hana Ichi Monme

Hana Ichi Monme (花一匁?) is a traditional Japanese children’s game. The game is similar to the game Red Rover in the Western world. This game is often played in kindergartens and elementary schools. The children split into two groups, and the members of each group hold hands discount Puma shoes outlet 2016, so that the teams face each other in two lines. One group steps toward the other in the rhythm of a song that is used only for the game, and the other steps back so that the team lines remain parallel. In each phrase of the song, the team that is stepping back changes, and the team creates a move that associates a swing. The name “Hana Ichi Monme” means “a flower is one monme.” A monme is an historical (Edo period) Japanese coin with a value of 3.75 grams of silver.
Each time the song ends, the team leaders step forward and do janken, a Japanese version of rock-paper-scissors

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. The winner goes back to his team, and they discuss who the team wants to add from the other team. After they have decided, they sing another song doing the same movement and announce the person they want. The game ends when one team loses all of its members.
Version 2: After the children line up, the team leader steps forward to janken. The winning team sings the first part (1) while they advance in line MAX & Co. Dresses Online. The opposing team retreats in parallel. As the words monME is sung, the children kick into the air as if to kick the dirt into the opponent’s face. Then it’s time for the second team to sing their part of the lyrics below (2) as they advance in line. The two teams alternate the verses.
Lyrics: (1) Katte ureshii hana ichi monme (2) Makete kuyashii hana ichi monme (1) Ano ko ga hoshii (2) Ano ko ja wakaran (1) Sōdan shiyō (2)Sō shiyō
Translation: We’re so happy we won, hana ichi monme We’re so upset we lost, hana ichi monme We want that kid We don’t understand which kid you mean Let’s talk about it Yes, let’s
The children then huddle to choose a person from the opposing team and return in line to call out…
(1) Yoshi-chan ga hoshii (2) Keiko-chan ga hoshii
Translation: We want We want
The two children then step forward to janken. The loser joins the winning team’s line. Game ends the same way

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Other traditional Japanese children’s games include Kagome Kagome and Dahrumasan ga Koronda. Many games have songs that go with them.

Snake-witch stone

The Snake-witch (Ormhäxan), Snake-charmer (Ormtjuserskan) or Smiss stone (Smisstenen) is a picture stone found at Smiss 2016 Billige Nike fodboldtrøjer, När parish, Gotland, Sweden. Discovered in a cemetery, it measures 82 cm (32 in) in height and depicts a figure holding a snake in each hand. Above the figure there are three interlaced creatures (forming a triskelion pattern) that have been identified as a boar, an eagle, and a wolf. The stone has been dated to 400–600 AD.
Although many scholars call it the Snake-witch, what the stone depicts—an accurate interpretation of the figures—and whether it derives from Celtic art or Norse art remain debated.

The figure on the stone was first described by Sune Lindquist in 1955. He tried unsuccessfully to find connections with accounts in Old Icelandic sources, and he also compared the stone with the Snake Goddess from Crete. Lindquist found connections with the late Celtic Gundestrup cauldron Cheap Sandro Clothing, although he appears to have overlooked that the cauldron also shows a figure holding a snake.
Arrhenius and Holmquist (1960) also found a connection with late Celtic art suggesting that the stone depicted Daniel in the lions’ den and compared it with a depiction on a purse lid from Sutton Hoo, although the stone in question does not show creatures with legs. Arwidsson (1963) also attributed the stone to late Celtic art and compared it with the figure holding a snake on the Gundestrup cauldron. In a later publication Arrhenius (1994) considered the figure not to be a witch but a male magician and she dated it to the Vendel era. Hauk (1983), who is a specialist on bracteates, suggested that the stone depicts Odin in the fetch of a woman, while Görman (1983) has proposed that the stone depicts the Celtic god Cernunnos.
It also has been connected to a nearby stone relief on a doorjamb at Väte Church on Gotland which shows a woman who suckles two dragons, but this was made five centuries later than the picture stone Ted Baker Ireland 2016.
The Snake Goddess from Crete c

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. 1600 BCE
The antlered figure on the Gundestrup cauldron c. 1 to 2 BCE found in Denmark
The purse lid c. 6th to 7th century Sutton Hoo burial site, England. British Museum
The relief at Väte of a woman suckling dragons
Snakes were popular as a motif on later picture stones which show snake pits, used as a painful means of execution; this form of punishment also is known through Norse sagas. Snakes are considered to have had an important symbolism during the passage from paganism to Germanic Christianity. They were frequently combined with images of deer, crustaceans, or supernatural beasts. The purpose may have been to protect the stones and to deter people who might destroy them.

The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings

The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings (polnisch Wiedźmin 2: Zabójcy Królów) ist ein Action-Rollenspiel des polnischen Entwicklers CD Projekt. Es erschien am 17. Mai 2011 und ist der Nachfolger von The Witcher. Wie im Vorgänger steuert der Spieler den Protagonisten und Meisterhexer Geralt von Riva durch eine abwechslungsreiche Fantasy-Spielwelt, die auf der Romanreihe des polnischen Schriftstellers Andrzej Sapkowski beruht. Die Handlung spielt unmittelbar nach dem ersten Teil. Der abschließende Teil, The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt, erschien im Mai 2015.

In den Nördlichen Königreichen herrschen im Jahre 1271 Kriege und Zwist, die Anderlinge (Elfen, Zwerge etc.) führen ein erbärmliches Leben in den Ghettos der menschlichen Siedlungen und Städte. Das Kaiserreich Nilfgaard mobilisiert eine neue Invasionsarmee zur Eroberung der Nördlichen Königreiche, nachdem es vor sechs Jahren von einer Streitmacht der Königreiche Aedirn, Kaedwen, Redanien und Temerien in der Schlacht bei Brenna vernichtend geschlagen worden war.
Zu Beginn begleitet man den Temerischen König Foltest bei einem Angriff gegen die Burg des verfeindeten Adelsgeschlechtes La Vallette. König Foltest wurde im ersten Teil beinahe von einem Assassinen ermordet. Der Assassine kam jedoch durch Geralts Klinge um. Nun wird mehrmals gegen die Verteidiger gekämpft und schrittweise die eindrucksvolle Burg erkundet. Nach Ende des Angriffs wird Foltest vor den Augen Geralts von einem Unbekannten von großer und muskulöser Statur erdolcht, der Attentäter flieht und Geralt wird wegen Königsmordes inhaftiert. Es gelingt ihm mithilfe von Vernon Roche, einem Agenten zur Bekämpfung der nichtmenschlichen Widerstandsgruppe Scoia´tael, aus den Verliesen zu fliehen. Im späteren Verlauf versucht Geralt mithilfe verschiedener Nebencharaktere wie Roche, Triss Merigold, Zoltan, die teilweise aus dem ersten Witcher bekannt sind, den Königsschlächter zu finden. Er besucht dabei mehrere verschiedene Schauplätze und erledigt dabei diverse Haupt- und Nebenquests. Im Spiel können viele Quests auf verschiedene Weise gelöst werden, die Dialoge sind vielseitig und gut vertont, man kann sie durch verschiedene Handlungen mit beeinflussen.
Wie schon im ersten Teil können während des Kampfes verschiedene Zauber/Zeichen gewirkt werden:
Geralt trägt zwei Nahkampfwaffen, die im Laufe des Spiels verbessert werden können. Ein Stahlschwert für menschliche Gegner und ein Silberschwert, welches besonders zur Monsterbekämpfung geeignet ist. Standardmäßig führt man mit der linken Maustaste einen schnellen und mit der rechten einen starken Angriff aus, geblockt wird mit der Taste “E”. Um Gegnern auszuweichen, kann Geralt eine Ausweichrolle ausführen. Die Kampfführung unterscheidet sich deutlich vom ersten Teil (z.B. drückte man dort in bestimmten Momenten die Angriffstaste, um noch stärkere Angriffe auszuführen). Die Gegner sind wie gewohnt ziemlich zäh, trotz mancher Fehler in der KI. Tränke können aus unterschiedlichen Zutaten (die man in der Spielewelt findet) gebraut oder von Händlern käuflich erworben werden. Geralt muss sie vor dem Kampf einnehmen (Meditation), um damit seine Kampfkraft zu erhöhen. Die Tränke haben eine eher kurzfristige Wirkung.
Zur Eigenerstellung von Tränken benötigt man Alchemierezepte. Um Waffen oder Rüstungsteile herzustellen, braucht man einen Schmied und das entsprechende Handwerksdiagramm, welches bei Händlern käuflich erworben oder in der Wildnis bzw. in Dungeons gefunden werden kann. Waffen können mit Runen dauerhaft, mit Ölen kurzzeitig verstärkt werden. Trophäen haben einen eigenen Platz im Inventar, um ihre Wirkung auf Geralt zu übertragen. Der Hexer erhält mit jedem Level-Up mindestens einen Talentpunkt. Im Verlaufe des Spieles können es auch zwei oder drei Punkte sein, die man für die Verbesserung der Talente hinzubekommt. Der maximal erreichbare Level liegt bei 35.
Im Spiel kommt die eigens entwickelte Grafik-Engine Red Engine zum Einsatz, welche zum Zeitpunkt der Veröffentlichung eine hohe Grafikleistung erbrachte Bogner Online Shop.
Zur Beseitigung der Programmfehler wurden mehrere Patches veröffentlicht, die teilweise auch neue Inhalte hinzufügten. Mit dem Patch v2.0 wurden ein Arena-Modus und ein neues Tutorial, an dessen Ende dem Spieler ein für ihn passender Schwierigkeitsgrad vorgeschlagen wird, integriert. Mit dem Patch v3.0 wurde das Spiel zur mehrere Gigabyte großen Enhanced Edition aufgewertet. Der letzte veröffentlichte Patch hat die Versionsnummer v3.4 und beinhaltet u.a. das Redkit, eine Entwicklungssoftware zum Erstellen eigener Inhalte für das Spiel nike footaball Strumpf und Kappe Auslass.
Bereits vor Veröffentlichung wurde The Witcher 2 vom deutschen Computerspielemagazin GameStar unter anderem als das „schönste Rollenspiel“ der Gamescom 2010 bezeichnet. Die finale Fassung wurde trotz einiger Bugs und technischer Mängel in der ersten Verkaufsversion (v1.0) positiv aufgenommen (Metacritic: 88 von 100 (Windows)/88 (Xbox 360)). Die Version für die Xbox 360 wurde vom Schweizer Onlinemagazin Gbase.ch für seinen Umfang und die gute Anpassung an die Konsole gelobt.
„Inhaltlich hui, technisch eher pfui.“
„Allein schon nike soccer Ausrüstungen Online-Shop 2016, dass eine unwichtige Nebenmission fünf unterschiedliche Enden und einen komplett non-linearen Missionsaufbau aufweist ist enorm.“
Im Juni 2014 erwähnte US-Präsident Barack Obama das Spiel im Rahmen eines Staatsbesuchs in Polen. Bei seiner Rede ging er auf The Witcher als Sinnbild für Polens wirtschaftliche Entwicklung ein:
“The last time I was here, Donald gave me a gift, the video game developed here in Poland that’s won fans the world over, The Witcher. I confess, I’m not very good at video games, but I’ve been told that it is a great example of Poland’s place in the new global economy. And it’s a tribute to the talents and work ethic of the Polish people as well as the wise stewardship of Polish leaders like Prime Minister Tusk fußballtrikots sale 2016.”
„Als ich das letzte Mal hier war, überreichte mir Donald [Tusk] ein Geschenk, das in Polen entwickelte Computerspiel, das weltweit Fans gewonnen hat, The Witcher. Ich gestehe, dass ich nicht gut im Computerspielen bin, aber ich habe mir sagen lassen, dass es ein großartiges Beispiel für Polens Stellung in der neuen globalen Wirtschaft sei. Und es ist eine Anerkennung der Talente und der Arbeitsethik des polnischen Volkes, sowie der weisen Führung durch die polnischen Anführer wie Premierminister Tusk.“
Das Politmagazin Salon.com zeigte sich amüsiert, da das Zitat darauf hinweise, dass der Präsident das Spiel nie gespielt habe. Das Spiel richte sich durch seine moralische Ambivalenz, einen Hauptcharakter im Stil der Fantasyverfilmung Game of Thrones und durch Alterseinstufungsmerkmale wie „Blood and Gore“, „Nacktheit“, „stark sexualisierter Inhalt“ und „Darstellung von Drogengebrauch“ gezielt an ein erwachsenes Publikum. Eine hohe Einstufung zur Altersfreigabe werde bereitwillig in Kauf genommen. In seiner Darstellungsweise stieße es daher in konservativen Kreisen auf Ablehnung bis hin zu Empörung. Der Präsident habe politischen Gegnern mit seiner Aussage demnach Material für eine kernige Schlagzeile geliefert. Gleichzeitig attestierte Artikelautor Garrett Martin der Reihe, ihre Einstufung als „erwachsenes Spiel“ nicht allein durch „Schlüpfrigkeiten“ erlangt zu haben. Sie rage dank ihres literarischen Hintergrunds aus dem niedrigen Standard der Computerspieldrehbücher heraus, weil sie – obwohl nicht gerade subtil – smarter und nuancierter als die Konkurrenz sei. Geralt sei als Figur „komplexer und faszinierender als die meisten anderen Spielehelden“, ein „tragischer Held in einem Drama, das blutiger und weitaus sexerfüllter sein könnte als ein jakobianisches Schauspiel“ (gemeint ist das Zeitalter des englischen Königs Jakob I.).
Bis August 2011 konnte CD Projekt 940.000 Kopien von The Witcher 2 verkaufen, davon 200.000 über digitale Distribution, und lag damit innerhalb des prognostizierten Absatzziels. Im November 2011 veröffentlichte CD Projekt eine Aufschlüsselung seiner digitalen Verkäufe. Demnach wurden auf Steam 200.000 Kopien verkauft, auf der hauseigenen Plattform GOG.com 40.000 und über die Anbieter Direct2Drive, Impulse und Gamersgate zusammengenommen weitere 10.000 Kopien. Im Mai 2012 erreichten die Gesamtverkaufszahlen 1,7 Million Exemplare.
Zusammen mit dem Vorgänger verkauften sich die Reihe bis Februar 2013 über fünf Millionen Mal, bis September 2014 stiegen die Verkaufszahlen auf acht Million Exemplare an.
The Witcher | The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings | The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt
The Witcher: Crimson Trail | The Witcher: Versus | The Witcher Adventure Game | The Witcher Battle Arena

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