Hurricane Betsy

Hurricane Betsy was an intense and destructive tropical cyclone that brought widespread damage to areas of Florida and the central United States Gulf Coast in September 1965. The storm’s erratic nature, coupled with its intensity and minimized preparation time contributed to making Betsy the first tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin to accrue at least $1 billion in damage.[nb 1] While the storm primarily affected areas of southern Florida and Louisiana, lesser effects were felt in The Bahamas and as far inland in the United States as the Ohio River Valley. Betsy began as a tropical depression north of French Guiana on August 27, and strengthened as it moved in a general northwestwardly direction. After executing a slight anticyclonic loop north of the Bahamas, Betsy proceeded to move through areas of South Florida on September 8, causing extensive crop damage. After emerging into the Gulf of Mexico, the cyclone strengthened and reached its peak intensity equivalent to that of a Category 4 hurricane on September 10 before making its final landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana shortly thereafter. Once inland, Betsy was slow to weaken, and persisted for two more days before degenerating into an extratropical storm; these remnants lasted until September 13.
As a developing tropical cyclone, Betsy tracked over the northern Leeward Islands, producing moderate gusts and slight rainfall, though only minimal damage was reported. After tracking over open waters for several days, Betsy had significantly strengthened upon moving through the Bahamas. There, considerable damage occurred, particularly to crops on the archipelago’s islands. For the island chain, Betsy was considered the worst hurricane since a tropical cyclone impacted the region in 1929. Widespread power outage and property damage ensued due to the storm’s strong winds. Overall, damage on the Bahamas amounted to at least $14 million, and one fatality occurred. From there Betsy tracked westward and made landfall on southern Florida, where it was considered the worst tropical cyclone since a hurricane in 1926. Betsy’s strong storm surge inundated large portions of the Florida Keys, flooding streets and causing widespread damage. The only route out of the Keys onto the mainland was cut off by the storm. In the state alone, Betsy caused $139 million in damage and five deaths.
Further inland, effects wrought by Betsy were considerably weaker, though precipitation caused by the storm extended as far northeast as Pennsylvania. Rainfall was primarily beneficial in Arkansas, though localized flooding impacted rice and cotton crops. In Kentucky and Illinois, strong winds caused moderate property damage. By the time the remnants of Betsy moved into the northeastern United States, the storm’s winds and rainfall had substantially lessened, and as such resulting wind damage was negligible while precipitation benefited crops. In total, the damage wrought by Betsy throughout its existence equated to roughly $1.42 billion, making it the costliest Atlantic hurricane until it was surpassed by Hurricane Camille four years later. In addition the hurricane caused 81 deaths, primarily in Louisiana. After the season, the United States Weather Bureau retired the name Betsy from their rotating lists of tropical cyclone names.

The origins of Hurricane Betsy can be traced back to an area of disturbed weather southwest of Cape Verde that first identified via TIROS satellite imagery on August 23. Tracking westward, the tropical wave was intercepted by a United States Navy reconnaissance airplane early on August 27, which concluded that the disturbance had become a tropical cyclone of moderate intensity. Based on information from the flight, it was estimated that the system had organized into a tropical depression by 0000 UTC on August 27, 350 mi (560 km) east-southeast of Barbados. Although operationally the United States Weather Bureau office in San Juan, Puerto Rico upgraded the disturbance to tropical storm intensity three hours after their first tropical cyclone bulletin that same day,[nb 2] post-analysis indicated that the tropical depression had remained at the same intensity up until 1200 UTC on August 29. Nonetheless, the tropical cyclone was given the name Betsy for a period of time as a tropical depression, contrary to typical tropical cyclone naming procedure. As Betsy approached the Windward Islands, it began to move in a more northwesterly direction, and was briefly located in the Caribbean Sea during the overnight hours of August 28 before re-emerging into the Atlantic Ocean the following day, after which Betsy was upgraded to tropical storm classification in post-analysis.
Upon moving to the northwest of the Leeward Islands, Betsy entered conditions favorable for marked development. An upper-level trough centered a short distance north of the tropical storm enhanced outflow conditions and speed divergence. Under these conditions, Betsy proceeded to quickly intensify, and reconnaissance missions tasked by the United States Air Force[nb 3] and Weather Bureau indicated that the tropical storm had reached hurricane intensity by 0000 UTC on August 30, centered roughly 200 mi (320 km) north-northeast of Puerto Rico. By coincidence, forecast responsibilities were transferred to the Weather Bureau Office in Miami, Florida at the same time; however, the hurricane was still under the purview of the Weather Bureau per se. Due to increasing atmospheric pressure heights to the north, Betsy drastically slowed in forward speed and intensification, and remained stationary for a period of time on August 31 before it began to drift westward. On September 2, Betsy began to quickly intensify, and after strengthening to a Category 3 hurricane-equivalent – a major hurricane on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale[nb 4] – the small hurricane attained Category 4 intensity and reached an initial peak intensity with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) at 0000 UTC on September 4, while situated well north of the Turks and Caicos.
However, on September 5, a blocking ridge of high pressure situated over the Eastern United States forced Betsy to make a tight, clockwise loop and track in an unusual southwesterly path, redirecting it towards Florida and The Bahamas. At roughly the same time, the hurricane weakened to Category 2 intensity, though it later restrengthened to Category 3 intensity on September 6. Betsy’s atypical southwesterly path brought it directly over several islands in the northern Bahamas, including Great Abaco Island. After stalling for a third time over portions of the central Bahamas, the major hurricane resumed its prior westward track towards South Florida. Early on September 8, Betsy made landfall on Key Largo in extreme southeastern Florida with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 953 mbar (hPa; 28.15 inHg). Without much change in strength, the intense hurricane quickly traversed the Upper Keys and Florida Bay before emerging midday on September 8 into the Gulf of Mexico.
Situated in the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico on September 8, Betsy began to strengthen and accelerate towards the west and then northwest, under the influence of the same ridge of high pressure that had forced it southwestward three days prior. At roughly the same time, hurricane forecast operations were handed over the Weather Bureau Office in New Orleans, Louisiana. During its trek through the gulf, Betsy accelerated to a maximum forward speed of 22 mph (35 km/h), a speed anomalously high for a tropical cyclone traversing the Gulf of Mexico. At 0600 UTC on September 9, the hurricane was estimated to have regained Category 4 intensity, and continued to strengthen as it neared the Central United States Gulf Coast. At 0000 UTC the next day, Betsy reached its primary peak intensity with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 941 mbar (hPa; 27.79 inHg) shortly before moving ashore a rural area of Louisiana coastline adjacent to Houma and Grand Isle early on September 10. Once inland, Betsy quickly weakened, and paralleled the Mississippi River before degenerating into a tropical depression by 0600 UTC the following day. Afterwards, it began to track northeastward along the Ohio River before it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 12. The remnant extratropical circulation of Betsy persisted into southern Ohio before dissipating entirely by 0000 UTC on September 13.
At Cape Kennedy, NASA delayed the erection of an Atlas-Centaur rocket which was to be used to launch a craft towards the Moon as part of the Surveyor Program on September 2. Several other prepared rockets on the site’s launch pads were readied for potential emergency scramble should the hurricane impact the area. Other American space personnel stationed in Grand Turk Island and Mayaguana began preparatory measures after the United States Air Force issued a No. 1 alert for the region. Personnel from a small outpost on Allan Cay were evacuated to Grand Bahama, despite indications at the time that Betsy would curve away from the Bahamas or the East Coast of the United States. At Brunswick, Georgia’s Naval Air Station Glynco, 21 jet fighter-bombers were evacuated inland. On September 4, helicopters arrived at the Frying Pan Shoals Light to evacuate the lighthouse’s operators due to the impending threat of a hurricane strike. In the Palm Beach area, a group composed of regional Red Cross disaster chairman Forest W. Dana and nearby town officials held a nearly nonstop radio vigil service. Red Cross volunteers in The Carolinas set up three district headquarters to prepare shelters, first aid programs, and communications. The relief agency also readied seven first aid and food vans in the cities of New Bern and Wilmington in North Carolina and Charleston, South Carolina. The United States Department of Agriculture prepared food supplies in the event of an emergency for the two states.
After Betsy stalled and assumed a southwesterly course towards southern Florida, precautionary measures ceased in the Carolinas but were initiated in Florida and The Bahamas. Mackey Airlines assisted in the evacuation of 227 residents of West End Island to Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach, Florida, over the course of three flights. Three additional Douglas DC-10 airliners from Mackey Airlines evacuated 240 people, primarily American tourists, from Nassau to Miami. Various commercial flights between the archipelago and Florida were cancelled due to the impending storm. In Florida, various relief agencies prepared 9,000 hot dogs, 8,000 hamburgers, and 6,000 servings of chicken, to be donated to local hospitals and charitable organizations. The United States Weather Bureau urged for the reopening of grocery stores and lumbers yards which had been closed for Labor Day in order to increase availability of hurricane preparedness materials to potentially affected populations. In downtown Miami, a traffic coordination plan for the evacuation of vehicles and aquatic craft through the Brickell Avenue Bridge was set in place. Homestead Air Reserve Base went into Phase 2 of its hurricane preparedness plan, in which aircraft stationed at the base were serviced for potential evacuation to bases in Michigan and Indiana. Upon Betsy’s recurvature southwestward toward the peninsula on September 7, the Weather Bureau strongly advised evacuation procedures between Fort Lauderdale and Key Largo. Evacuation was strongly advised in the Florida Keys, where rising water as a result of the storm could potentially flood over portions of U.S. Route 1 – the only primary access route from the Keys to the mainland. Overall, an estimated 50,000 residents were within coastal regions where evacuations were advised. The U.S. Navy abandoned its housing project on Big Pine Key to avoid the hurricane, while sheriff deputies in Marathon, Tavernier, and Islamorada strongly advised evacuation in those respective cities. Various offices, businesses, and schools were closed in advance of the hurricane. Airlines cancelled service to Fort Lauderdale and Miami. In the latter, city crews dismantled traffic lights along Biscayne Boulevard; such procedure was influenced by the damage wrought by Hurricane Cleo a year prior.
On September 7, the United States Weather Bureau predicted that Betsy would make landfall in Matanzas Province in Cuba. The National Observatory of Cuba expressed concern for the island’s northern coast from the provinces of Havana to Camagüey, and in particular the provinces of Matanzas and Las Villas.[nb 5] Cuban radio alerted residents along the country’s northern coast, potentially threatened by the hurricane, to take the necessary precautions in the event of an emergency. Radio services in Havana alerted residents along the shores of Pinar del Río Province of potentially dangerous storm surge, and urged immediate precautionary measures.
Upon the operational development of Betsy into a tropical storm on August 27, the San Juan Weather Bureau Office issued gale warnings for Barbados, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Martinique. The weather office advised for small craft in the Windward and Leeward Islands to remain in port until the storm passed. These gale warnings were later expanded to include Dominica and Guadeloupe the next day. Midday on August 28, warnings were lowered for Barbados and St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and raised for areas of the northern Leeward Islands and later Puerto Rico. Late that day, warnings in Dominica and Guadeloupe were discontinued. All warnings associated with the developing tropical cyclone were discontinued for a period of time on August 29, as Betsy was pulling away from any landmasses. After the hurricane temporarily stalled and began to track westward on September 1, the Weather Bureau began to warn interests in the Bahamas. Though no warnings were specified, the tropical cyclone tracking agency forecasted winds of potentially hurricane-force and strong surf to impact the Turks and Caicos Islands and Mayaguana; such forecasts were changed after Betsy began tracking northwest. Threatening the coasts of Georgia and The Carolinas on September 4, the Weather Bureau announced the possibility of a hurricane watch for those coastal areas, but decided to delay the issuance of such watches due to Betsy’s slow movement at the time. Nonetheless, the organization advised for small craft in coastal waters adjacent to the coast between Cape Kennedy to Sandy Hook, New Jersey to remain in port, and other small craft north of Miami, Florida and into Bahamian waters to exercise caution. As a result of Betsy executing a loop and beginning to tracking southwestward, these watches were never issued, however, the Weather Bureau advised extreme caution in several Bahamian islands, though once again no warnings were specified. However, general emergency hurricane warning was issued early on September 16 for islands in the northern Bahamas, as well as adjacent waters. Hurricane watches and gale warnings were also issued for surrounding islands at the same time. These warnings and watch products for the Bahamas held until late on September 7.
Early on September 6, as Betsy was tracking through the Bahamas, a hurricane watch and gale warning were issued for portions of the Southeastern Floridian coast from Cape Kennedy to Key West. Late that day, however, areas of the watch zone from Palm Beach to Key West and Everglades City were upgraded to hurricane emergency warning status. Additional hurricane watches were hoisted for areas of Florida’s western coast from Everglades City to Punta Gorda. The following evening, the hurricane emergency warning zone was expanded to include areas of the east coast northward to Fort Pierce and on the west coast northward to Venice. Gale warnings were also expanded to include coastal areas from Jacksonville to St. Marks. Hurricane watches were similarly extended to include coastal regions of Florida from the boundaries of the hurricane warnings to Daytona Beach and Cedar Keys on the peninsula’s eastern and western coasts, respectively. Once Betsy began moving through the peninsula, however, warning and watch products began to be discontinued by regions, with all products pertaining to Florida discontinued by midday on September 8. After leaving the Florida area, the first hurricane watch pertaining to the Central Gulf Coast of the United States was occurred late on September 8, when the Weather Bureau office in New Orleans issued a hurricane watch for coastal areas from Matagorda Bay to the Mississippi River Delta. Early the following day, hurricane emergency warnings were issued for areas stretching from Galveston, Texas to the Mississippi River Delta and gale warnings elsewhere from Mobile Bay to Matagorda Bay. Upon completing its northwestward recurvature, hurricane emergency warnings were shifted eastward to include areas from the mouth of the Mississippi River Delta to Mobile, Alabama. Gale warnings were effected by this change, and as such were also extended to include areas west of Panama City, Florida. On September 9, hurricane warnings were once again extended eastward to Pensacola, Florida, while they were lowered for the Texas coast. These warnings remained in effect until September 10 ted baker dresses 2016, by which time Betsy had weakened sufficiently enough not to warrant such warnings and watches.
The effects of Hurricane Betsy were of far-reaching and unprecedented severity. Though the extent of impacts were limited to the Bahamas and portions of the United States, the damage in these respective regions were considerable. According to the Hurricane Research Division of the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Betsy produced Category 3 winds (111 mph (179 km/h) or greater) in Southeastern Florida and Southeastern Louisiana. However, winds of such intensity were also reported in the Bahamas. The final, enumerated damage figure of $1.425 billion in damage costs made Betsy the first tropical cyclone in the United States to accrue more than $1 billion in damage

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, unadjusted for inflation. For this reason, the tropical cyclone was nicknamed “Billion Dollar Betsy.” The damage cost remained unsurpassed for four years until Hurricane Camille struck similar regions in 1969. Betsy remains the 27th costliest hurricane in U.S. history.
During Betsy’s initial approach of the Bahamian archipelago on September 2, strong surf and high swells were reported in the southeastern islands, though no damage was reported. Much of the damage inflicted to the Bahamas by Betsy occurred between September 6–8, when the tropical cyclone moved across the northern Bahamas as a Category 3 hurricane. The preceding track was similar to that of another major hurricanein 1929, which had also drastically curved southwestward before causing significant damage to the island group. Likewise, Betsy was considered the worst hurricane to strike the region since then. Stalling over the Bahamas for a period of time as it moved through the islands, several locations sustained the Betsy’s effects for prolonged periods of time, despite the tropical cyclone’s relatively small size. Widespread power outage and communication blackouts ensued, preventing the flow of reports between the northern Bahamas and other outlets as the storm took place. This included NASA communication centers in Cape Kennedy, which had lost contact with downrange missile tracking stations in the archipelago. Over the duration of the hurricane, the lowest pressure measured was 961 mbar (hPa; 28.40 inHg) in Dunmore Town on Harbour Island. However, no wind measurement was recorded alongside the pressure reading due to a resulting power failure.
Offshore, the Dutch freighter Sarah Elizabeth was caught in rough seas and had lost control of its rudder while it was pulled by continuous wave action towards Egg Island. As a result, the ship’s operators relayed a SOS signal, to which the United States Coast Guard responded by dispatching a cutter and several merchant ships to assist in escorting the stricken freighter to safety. However, roughly five hours later the crew of the Sarah Elizabeth was able to navigate to safer waters within the Providence Channel. Two luxury yachts within the harbor were destroyed, with dozens of smaller craft damaged, as a result of the wind and waves.
Passing to the south of Nassau, Betsy caused considerable damage to the capital city and the rest of New Providence Island as the hurricane’s eyewall stalled over the area. The last message received by the Miami Weather Bureau office from communication operators in Nassau during the storm was a report of 80 mph (130 km/h) winds and rough seas late on September 6. The strong winds downed power lines, trees, and destroyed homes, while the heavy rainfall, having accumulated over several days, flooding city streets. Other streets were littered with coconuts, palm fronds, and other debris blown or felled by the strong winds. Heavy loss of shrubbery was also reported due to the storm’s effects. A strong storm surge estimated at 10 ft (3.0 m) swept into the Bay Street waterfront shopping district, inundating the renowned shopping area. The local police detachment, which had been holed up within a waterfront barracks, was forced to take refuge in a nearby high school due to the storm surge. Along the coast, 500 American tourists remained stranded in waterfront hotels. Despite the severe effects, only one person died in the Nassau area after his ship was destroyed and capsized in Nassau Harbor; this would be the only fatality associated with Betsy in the Bahamas.
On West End on Grand Bahama, a weather station reported maximum sustained winds of 89 mph (143 km/h), with other locations elsewhere on the island experiencing gusts of at least 60 mph (97 km/h). However, no damage was reported. Out of all the islands, the strongest winds were reported on Abaco Island, where areas were within Betsy’s swath of hurricane-force winds for over 20 hours. In Green Turtle Cay, a station clocked winds of 151 mph (243 km/h), well into Category 4 intensity on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. Another station in Hope Town measured a peak wind gust of 178 mph (286 km/h). The entirety of Hope Town was covered with sand to a depth of 2 ft (0.61 m), and the local harbor club was extensively damaged. Other docks were either damaged or completely destroyed. Though there was relatively little rainfall, coastal flooding damaged many houses to a point beyond repair. In Marsh Harbour, a majority of homes were unroofed. Heavy crop and fruit tree losses were reported in Little and Northern Abaco, with damage enumerated at well over a million dollars.
Across the northern portion of Eleuthera Island, Betsy wrought considerable damage. Communications from the island’s missile tracking center were lost, with the last transmitted message indicating winds of 130 mph (210 km/h) which subsequently destroyed an anemometer. A submarine communications cable connecting the missile tracking center to Cape Kennedy was cut by the strong wave action. In Tarpum Baya police station sustained heavy damage after being hit by storm surge. Other coastal installments and property were severely damaged by the waves. The Glass Window Bridge was also damaged by the storm surge. Elsewhere, vehicles were damaged by fallen debris kicked up by the strong winds associated with Betsy. Overall, Hurricane Betsy caused an estimated $14 million in damage across the Bahamas, primarily to crops. Insurance claims were estimated at $4 million. The low death toll from the hurricane was accredited by the United States Weather Bureau to the relatively low storm tide, which, although rough, was negligible in areas including in Nassau, and the heeding of posted hurricane warnings by the affected populations.
Beginning on September 7, intermittent squalls associated with Betsy’s outer rainbands began affecting the coast, producing gusts in excess of 60 mph (97 km/h). One of these squalls toppled trees and damaged awnings in Stuart. Early the following day, Betsy made landfall on the southeastern Florida coast near Key Largo with a strength equivalent to that of a Category 3 hurricane. Intense winds were felt across the region, with the highest officially wind speed clocked at 125 mph (201 km/h) in Big Pine Key; the same station also recorded the strongest gust documented while Betsy was over southern Florida at 165 mph (266 km/h). The lowest barometric pressure recorded was 952 mbar (hPa; 28.12 inHg) at a station in Tavernier while it was within the eye of the storm.
The strong winds knocked down utility poles, causing widespread power outage and a telecommunications blackout. At one point, an estimated 25,000 telephones were knocked out of service, with half of the central telephone exchange operating on emergency backup power. Some transformers that were blown down sparked localized fires. One person was killed after being electrocuted by a fallen power line. The blackouts cut electric service to 80 percent of customers in the Miami and Fort Lauderdale areas. House trailers were smashed by flying debris in the same areas. Several roads were blocked by debris thrown by the wind

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. U.S. Highway 1 in Florida was cut off by fallen telephone poles, preventing land access from the mainland to the Florida Keys. Similarly, numerous portions of the Tamiami Trail were blocked by fallen trees. A person was killed after a prostrated tree fell, crushing the individual. At the Miami International Airport, two twin-engine cargo craft were blown off the airport’s perimeter. Heavy agricultural losses resulted from the strong winds as well. Approximately 25 to 50 percent of Florida’s citrus crop was damaged after being blown down by strong winds. In addition, 90 percent of Dade and Broward counties’ avocado crop, valued at $2 million, was destroyed.
Much of the damage inflicted in the state was caused by an unusually strong storm surge, which inundated the coastal and low-lying areas of Florida. Although the strongest storm surge was positioned north of the eye, away from the more densely populated regions of Greater Miami, an abnormally high storm tide still prevailed and caused extensive damage along the southern coast of the peninsula. Northerly winds well in advance of Betsy’s landfall forced water from Florida Bay onto the Florida Keys, and the resulting damage was then further exacerbated when southerly winds during and after the hurricane’s approach forced water from the Atlantic onto the isolated Keys. Though storm surge was estimated to have peaked along the coast of North Key Largo at 9 ft (2.7 m), a measurement of 7.7 ft (2.3 m) in Tavernier was the highest measured total. However, a high water mark of 9 ft (2.7 m) on a highway west of Sugarloaf Key indicated that such estimations in North Key Largo were valid. The strong storm surge caused severe beach erosion, mostly to areas south of Clearwater on the state’s western coast while Betsy was traversing the Gulf of Mexico. In Fort Pierce, the waves washed away up to 10 ft (3.0 m) of beach.
Coastal flooding in the Upper Keys was severe, with areas being inundated under several feet of seawater. Along the Miami Beach waterfront, a storm tide measuring 6.1 ft (1.9 m) caused extensive damage to shoreline property alongBiscayne Bay. Eight people on the beach were injured, primarily due to flying glass shards. Roads were inundated, with water exceeding the first floor heights of some buildings. As a result of the waves and wind, three barges were torn out of their moorings, and later drifted downwind before severing a portion of the Rickenbacker Causeway, rendering it impassable and isolating Key Biscayne from the mainland. Along the waterfront, the waves blew into hotels and shoreline residences.
Offshore, the strong waves caused a freighter to run aground near Palm Beach, and nine people became stranded in houseboats near a mangrove island in Biscayne Bay. Another cargo ship, the Panamanian, ran aground within Lake Worth Inlet. At Key Largo, a 50 ft (15 m) sailboat was blown out of the water onto an adjacent neighborhood. Elsewhere in Key Largo, homes were unroofed by the strong winds, with other buildings damaged by flying debris. Water forced into the Miami River caused it to overflow its banks and spread inland for several city blocks in Miami. In the Miami area, Betsy caused the most severe seawater inundation since a major hurricane struck in 1926; this record was attributed to the highest storm surge reported in as many years. A 5 mi (8.0 km) section of State Road A1A, which runs adjacent to Miami and the nearby beach, was blocked by sand dunes piled inland by the strong winds. The high tide also washed out a some portions of the road between Fort Lauderdale and Pompano Beach.
Precipitation was localized, albeit heavy, in South Florida. Rainfall peaked at 11.80 in (300 mm) in Plantation Key on September 8. The weather station in Big Pine Key observed the second highest state rainfall total at 10.52 in (267 mm). Elsewhere, rainfall spread as far northward as Tampa Bay. Although intense, the rains helped partially alleviate a concurrent drought in the Everglades. No damage was reported in association with the rainfall. A total of three tornadoes formed in association with Betsy, of which two occurred while the major hurricane was landfalling in South Florida. On September 8, a tornado developed and track near Marathon, while another occurred near Big Pine Key; both tornadoes caused no reported damage. However, a waterspout formed near Fort Walton Beach off the Florida Panhandle the following day and later destroyed a marina with twelve boats. The relatively low number of tornadoes that formed as a result of Betsy was due to the anomalously rapid forward motion that Betsy traveled at during its traverse of the Florida peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico. Overall, five people were killed in the state, and damage totaled $139 million, primarily due to the strong storm surge generated by Betsy.
Eight offshore oil platforms were destroyed during Betsy, with others experiencing damage. A Shell oil platform off the Mouth of the Mississippi river was not seen again. The oil rig Maverick, owned by future president George H. W. Bush’s Zapata corporation also disappeared during the cyclone. It was insured by Lloyd’s of London for US$5.7 million (1965 dollars).
Hurricane Betsy slammed into New Orleans on the evening of September 9, 1965. 110 mph (180 km/h) winds and power failures were reported in New Orleans. The eye of the storm passed to the southwest of New Orleans on a northwesterly track. The northern and western eyewalls covered Southeast Louisiana and the New Orleans area from about 8 pm until 4 am the next morning. In Thibodaux winds of 130 mph (210 km/h) to 140 mph (230 km/h) were reported. The Baton Rouge weather bureau operated under auxiliary power, without telephone communication. Around 1 am, the worst of the wind and rain was over.
Betsy also drove a storm surge into Lake Pontchartrain, just north of New Orleans, and the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet, a deep-water shipping channel to the east and south. Levees for the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet along Florida Avenue in the Lower Ninth Ward and on both sides of the Industrial Canal failed. The flood water reached the eaves of houses in some places and over some one story roofs in the Lower Ninth Ward. Some residents drowned in their attics trying to escape the rising waters.
These levee breaches flooded parts of Gentilly, the Upper Ninth Ward, and the Lower Ninth Ward of New Orleans as well as Arabi and Chalmette in neighboring St. Bernard Parish. President Lyndon Johnson visited the city, promising New Orleans Mayor Vic Schiro federal aid.
It was ten days or more before the water level in New Orleans went down enough for people to return to their homes. It took even longer than that to restore their flooded houses to a livable condition. Those who did not have family or friends with dry homes had to sleep in the shelters at night and forage for supplies during the day, while waiting for the federal government to provide emergency relief in the form of trailers. In all, 164,000 homes were flooded at the second landfall.
Evidence suggests that cheap construction and poor maintenance of the structures led to the failure of the levees. However, popular rumor persists that they were intentionally breached, possibly as a means of salvaging the more prosperous French Quarter.[full citation needed] This is, however, unlikely; even though the French Quarter is one of the geographically highest neighborhoods in the city, during the first eighty years of the 20th century, the French Quarter was, in fact, an unfashionable neighborhood, populated mostly by lower income people, who were not priced out of the market until well into the 1980s.
Many of the barges that had been traveling on the Mississippi River were engulfed by the hurricane. One of the barges contained 602 tons of deadly chlorine gas contained in cylinders. Chlorine gas, which was used frequently as a chemical weapon in World War I, is a powerful irritant that can inflict damage to the eyes, nose, throat and lungs, and (at high concentrations and prolonged exposure) cause death by asphyxiation. It was estimated that the amount of chlorine loaded on the barge was enough to kill 40,000 people. The barge had sunk near Baton Rouge, where an estimated 300,000 people lived. The residents in the harbor area were evacuated until the barge was recovered. President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered the Navy and Army Engineers to find and raise the barge. While it took months to locate and make the appropriate plans for raising the barge, the actual process of raising it took around two hours. The barge was reportedly recovered, without any problems, on November 18, 1965.
The storm produced rainfall, high tides, and strong winds in Mississippi. Near the border with Alabama, tides of 7 feet (2.1 m) were reported, while ranging as high as 15 feet (4.6 m) near the state line with Louisiana. Wind speeds also varied greatly throughout the state. In Pascagoula, winds between 40 and 65 mph (64 and 105 km/h) were recorded. By contrast, winds were in excess of 100 mph (160 km/h) in Bay St. Louis. Despite the winds, much of the property damage in the state was caused by tides along the Gulf Coast. Strong winds and heavy rainfall caused significant crop damage in Harrison, Hancock County, Mississippi, and Jackson County, Mississippi. Throughout the state, 25,000 people lost electricity and more than 22,641 disruptions to telephone service occurred. Overall, damage in the state of Mississippi totaled to $80 million (1965 USD).
Though Betsy remained well south and east of Alabama throughout its existence, its outer rainbands and strong storm surge caused damage in some areas of the state, particularly in the southern portions of the state. At the coast, the storm tide caused by Betsy were the highest since 1916. High tides peaking at 4.7 ft (56 in) in Mobile destroyed and damage some private piers and waterfront buildings. The Mobile Bay Causeway and adjacent infrastructure was flooded by the storm surge; as a result the causeway was closed between September 9–10. Strong winds were also reported in southern Alabama

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. Gusts of 80 mph (130 km/h) were reported on Dauphin Island just off the Alabama coast; these would be the strongest winds or gusts reported statewide. Similarly, gusts of 75 mph (121 km/h) were estimated at Alabama Port. In the former, minor damage was reported to residences and other buildings, and numerous homes sustained minor roof and carport damage. Mobile County reported similar damage. Extensive damage to utility lines in those same regions also occurred. The strong winds also resulted in the tearing of 20–25 percent of the state pecan crop from their trees. Damage to other crops was negligible.
Although rainfall occurred throughout Alabama, precipitation was more numerous in the northern part of the state after Betsy passed the region to the north as a weakening tropical cyclone. Rainfall peaked at 3.39 in (86 mm) in Guntersville. Betsy’s outer rainbands also produced two tornadoes in the state. The first occurred in a remote area near Theodore and as such did not cause any damage. However, the second tornado, which touched down near Cullman late on September 11, destroyed several acres of corn and uprooted over 300 fruit trees. The tornado, described as one of “narrow” length, also slightly damaged some buildings and uprooted a number of other trees. Though no exact damage total could be calculated, the tornado caused anywhere between $5,500–$55,000 in damage. Statewide, Hurricane Betsy caused $500,000 in damage.
In its early formative stages, Betsy forced the shortening of NASA’s Gemini 5 mission by one orbit due to the tropical storm’s forecasted track over the initial target splashdown zone near Grand Turk Island. As a result, the spacecraft, which had been orbiting the Earth since August 1965, had its target splashdown zone shifted northward to an area of the Atlantic Ocean well east of Jacksonville, Florida, away from the storm’s projected path. In Martinique, the precursor tropical depression caused marginal rainfall and light gusts, and no damage was reported. In Sint Maarten, winds and their associated gusts peaked at 35 mph (56 km/h) for several hours on August 28. Throughout the rest of the Windward Islands, gusts peaked at 40 mph (65 km/h), though the resultant wind damage was marginal. As the hurricane was passing near the southeastern Bahamas, high swells were reported along the northern coast of Hispaniola, though no damage ensued.
Although the more significant effects of Hurricane Betsy in the United States were limited to coastal regions, areas further inland received rainfall and strong winds from the weakening tropical cyclone and its remnants, with precipitation extending inland as far northeast as Pennsylvania. Far offset from where Betsy made landfall, effects in Texas were minimal, despite the large scale evacuations in Sabine Pass prior to landfall. In Port Arthur a station received just 0.02 in (0.51 mm) of rain, coupled with storm tides 2.4 ft (0.73 m) above mean sea level. From September 10–11, Betsy passed through Arkansas, which experienced the worst effects in the United States outside of states adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico. The highest reported rainfall total from the hurricane in the state was in Wynne, where 8.02 in (204 mm) of rain was recorded. Surrounding regions in northeastern Arkansas reported at least 6 in (150 mm) of rain. The heavy precipitation and resulting flooding there damaged cotton and rice crops. Much of the rice crop in the eastern and southern portions of the state were flattened by the rains, and thus were highly susceptible to future rainfalls. A third of cotton, much of which defoliated, was lost to the rain. However, these losses were offset by the increased soybean yield resulting from the same rainfall. A number of pecan tree limbs were torn down, though relative to the overall pecan production for the state these losses were negligible. The rains also caused both the Black and White Rivers in the eastern part of the state to rise from 3 ft (0.91 m) to 7 ft (2.1 m); however, they did not exceed flood stage. Betsy’s remnants were estimated to have brought winds of 50–70 mph (80–113 km/h) throughout the state. Most of the stronger winds were in the northern quadrant of the weakening tropical cyclone as it progressed through Arkansas. However, the highest measured wind gusts were only clocked at 45 mph (72 km/h) in stations at Pine Bluff and Walnut. The strong winds tore down power lines, leaving hundreds of electricity customers without power for several days. However, regional electrical crews were able to restore most power by the night of September 11. Four people were killed by the weakening hurricane statewide.
In Illinois, the remnants of Hurricane Betsy brought heavy rainfall to the extreme southern portions of the state over a period of three days, ranging anywhere from 3–6 in (76–152 mm); the highest recorded total was 6.25 in (159 mm) in Cairo, Illinois. The same station recorded 6.25 in (159 mm) of rain in a 24-hour period. The resulting damage, if any, was minimal, though minor damage occurred to cotton and soy crops in the Cario area. Hail and strong winds in Kentucky’s Bluegrass region damaged tobacco fields and caused damage to 35 mobile homes and a number of other roofs. Though no deaths were directly associated with Betsy’s effects, a car lost control during a rainstorm in Gallatin County and subsequently crashed; the two occupants later went missing and were presumed dead. Strong wind in Montgomery County downed trees. In western Tennessee, moderate to heavy rains in conjunction with gusts as strong as 40 mph (65 km/h) were reported. Precipitation peaked in the state at 6.01 in (153 mm) in Ripley. Though much of the rainfall was beneficial to the region’s agricultural sector, localized flooding was also reported. Winds estimated between 25–35 mph (40–56 km/h) blew down some cotton and corn crops. Other opened cotton bolls were damaged, while soybeans were blown down, making mechanical harvesting difficult.
Further north and east, the rains Betsy produced were mostly beneficial as the storm had substantially weakened by the time it had approached these regions. The outer fringes of Betsy caused moderate rainfall in the southeastern states of North Carolina, Georgia, and South Carolina, where state precipitation totals peaked at 3.64 in (92 mm) in Randleman, 3.48 in (88 mm) in Ailey, and 2.21 in (56 mm) in Laurens, respectively. Waves cresting as high as 7 ft (2.1 m) off of South Carolina caused minor beach damage during Betsy’s initial approach of the South Atlantic States on September 7. In West Virginia, the rains helped to saturate soils used for growing crops, benefiting crop production. From September 11–13, Betsy’s rains were felt throughout Pennsylvania. Rainfall peaked at 1.5 in (38 mm) in the central and northeastern regions of the state. Further south, in Maryland and Delaware, the rains were also beneficial to arable land. Precipitation in the former peaked at 2.55 in (65 mm) in Bittinger, while precipitation in the latter peaked at 1.83 in (46 mm).
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Hurricane Protection Program came into existence as a result of Betsy. The Corps built new levees for New Orleans that were both taller and made of stronger material, designed specifically to resist a fast-moving Category 3 hurricane like Betsy. The resulting levee improvements failed when Hurricane Katrina, a large, slow-moving, intense hurricane made landfall near New Orleans on August 29, 2005.
Due to the storm’s extent and severity of impacts, the name Betsy, which had also been used in 1956 and 1961, was retired from the set of rotating lists used to name tropical cyclones in the Atlantic upon its third usage. This made the Betsy the only retired tropical cyclone in the Atlantic in 1965 and fifteenth since the retirement of tropical cyclone names officially began in 1954. Consequently, the name was replaced with Blanche for the 1969 season. Conversely, the name Blanche was used again in 1975 before the National Hurricane Center, still in its infancy at the time, handed control of tropical cyclone naming in its area of responsibility to the World Meteorological Organization in 1977, after which the name Blanche was no longer used.

Flumexadol

Flumexadol (INN) (developmental code name CERM-1841 or 1841-CERM) is a drug described and researched as a non-opioid analgesic which was never marketed

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. It has been found to act as an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A (pKi = 7.1) and 5-HT2C (pKi = 7.5) receptors and, to a much lesser extent, of the 5-HT2A (pKi = 6.0) receptor. According to Nilsson (2006) in a paper on 5-HT2C receptor agonists as potential anorectics, “The (+)-enantiomer of this compound showed […] affinity for the 5-HT2C receptor (Ki) 25 nM) […] and was 40-fold selective over the 5-HT2A receptor in receptor binding studies. Curiously, the racemic version [.

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..], also known as 1841 CERM, was originally reported to possess analgesic properties while no association with 5-HT2C receptor activity was mentioned.” It is implied that flumexadol might be employable as an anorectic in addition to analgesic. Though flumexadol itself has never been approved for medical use

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, oxaflozane (brand name Conflictan) is a prodrug of the compound that was formerly used clinically in France as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent The Kooples Couples.

Hermann Freese

Johann Oskar Hermann Freese

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, a painter of animals and hunting scenes, was born in Pommerania in 1813. He was destined by his father to be a farmer, in spite of his early inclination to art, but in his 34th year he devoted himself, after many heavy misfortunes, to painting as his vocation. He visited for a short time the atelier of Wilhelm Brücke, then that of Carl Steffeck in Berlin. In 1857 his first work, Stags Fighting, appeared. His subjects of study were field and wood, and principally hunting, which he loved passionately. He died at Hessenfelde, near Fürstenwald, in 1871, of brain fever

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, which he contracted whilst out shooting in trying to cross a river when in a heated state. He is very happy in his bolder designs, but less so in his idyllic representations. Among his works are especially to be mentioned, Deer Fleeing, Stags attacked by Wolves goedkope Adidas voetbal truien , and a Boar Hunt, all in the Berlin National Gallery.
This article incorporates text from the article “FREESE, Johann Oskar Hermann” in Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers by Michael Bryan

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, edited by Robert Edmund Graves and Sir Walter Armstrong, an 1886–1889 publication now in the public domain.

Antoinette Nana Djimou

Antoinette Nana Djimou Ida (née le 2 août 1985 à Douala au Cameroun) est une athlète française spécialiste des épreuves combinées. Licenciée au CA Montreuil, elle est entraînée successivement par Hélène Bosse et Christophe Letellier puis par Sébastien Levicq avec qui elle arrête sa collaboration en avril 2014.

Native de Douala (Cameroun), Antoinette Nana Djimou pratique de nombreux sports durant sa jeunesse (football, handball et basket-ball notamment) maillots de foot, mais pas l’athlétisme qu’elle découvre à treize ans peu après son arrivée en France où elle suit son père, chef d’entreprise. Sur ses premiers pas en athlétisme, elle déclare : « J’ai commencé l’athlétisme parce que je m’ennuyais et c’est comme ça qu’ils se sont rendus compte que j’étais douée » . Détectée dans le cadre scolaire, elle est dirigée vers le CA Montreuil, club auquel elle restera toujours fidèle. Elle s’oriente rapidement vers les épreuves combinés, ses premiers résultats en attestent : 5e de l’heptathlon des championnats de France cadets en 2001, .
Sa première performance internationale est réalisée à Grosseto lors des Championnats du monde juniors 2004, peu après sa naturalisation française, où elle termine au pied du podium, après avoir chuté à quelques mètres de l’arrivée lors de la dernière épreuve, le 800 m. En 2006, elle devient championne de France en signant un nouveau record personnel (5 981 points), record qu’elle améliore en 2008 avec 6 205 points.
Le 6 mars 2009, Antoinette Nana Djimou remporte la médaille de bronze du pentathlon lors des Championnats d’Europe en salle de Turin en réalisant un total de 4 618 points au terme de la cinquième épreuve. Elle débute l’heptathlon des Mondiaux de Berlin en battant son record en 13 s 44 (1 059 points) et finit à une très honorable septième place, apportant à la France sa première finaliste des championnats avec un total de 6 323 points (record personnel).
Le 4 mars 2011, lors de la première journée des Championnats d’Europe en salle de Paris-Bercy, Antoinette Nana Djimou remporte son premier titre international majeur en enlevant le concours du pentathlon devant la Lituanienne Austra Skujytė et la Néerlandaise Remona Fransen. Elle réalise à cette occasion la meilleure performance mondiale de l’année avec 4 723 points et améliore le record de France de la discipline détenu depuis 2003 par Marie Collonvillé (4 644 points). Elle est la première athlète féminine française depuis Muriel Hurtis et Linda Ferga en 2002 à obtenir un titre continental en salle.
À la suite de ce titre, elle part en stage à Boulouris afin de se préparer à la saison estivale de 2011. Elle fait sa rentrée lors du premier tour des interclubs à Tremblay-en-France et court un 100 mètres haies lors du meeting de Montgeron. Elle vise ensuite réaliser les minima pour les championnats du monde dès l’Hypo-Meeting de Götzis en plaçant son objectif de saison à 6 500 points. Elle parvient à accrocher une 3e place derrière Jessica Ennis et la Russe Tatyana Chernova mais n’atteint pas son objectif tout en réalisant tout de même 6 409 points.
Antoinette Nana Djimou participe au concours de l’heptathlon des Championnats d’Europe 2012 d’Helsinki. Lors de la première journée de compétition, elle bat son record personnel au 100 m haies en 13 s 11, avant de franchir 1,77 m au saut en hauteur

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, de lancer 13,48 m au lancer du poids, et d’établir son meilleur temps de l’année sur 200 m en 24 s 52. Le lendemain, la Française bat deux nouveaux records personnels en atteignant la marque de 6,42 m au saut en longueur et en réalisant un jet à 55,82 m au lancer du javelot. Elle conclut son heptathlon en signant, sous la pluie, le temps de 2 min 17 s 99 sur 800 m, établissant là encore sa meilleure marque de l’année. Totalisant 6 544 points à l’issue des sept épreuves, elle améliore de 135 points son précédent record datant de mai 2011, et devient championne d’Europe de l’heptathlon, devant les Lettones Laura Ikauniece et Aiga Grabuste .
Elle participe début août 2012 aux Jeux olympiques de Londres. Classée quatrième avant la septième et dernière épreuve, après avoir notamment amélioré ses records personnel sur 100 m haies (12 s 96) et au lancer du javelot (55,87 m) maillots de foot 2016, elle bat sa meilleure performance sur 800 m en 2 min 15 s 94 et termine à la cinquième place du classement général final avec 6 576 points, améliorant de 32 points son meilleur total réalisé quelques semaines plus tôt lors des Championnats d’Europe d’Helsinki.
Antoinette Nana Djimou participe en mars 2013 à ses 3e Championnats d’Europe en salle maillots de foot. Au terme de son pentathlon, la Française parvient à garder son titre de justesse en réalisant 4 666 unités. Elle devancera de 8 points la Biélorusse Yana Maksimava et de 58 points l’Ukrainienne Hanna Melnychenko.
Pourtant pami les favorites aux Championnats du monde de Moscou grâce à ses 6 576 points réalisés l’année passée aux Jeux olympiques de Londres et des forfaits de la Britannique Jessica Ennis et de la Russe Tatiana Chernova, Nana Djimou ne parvient pas à monter sur le podium, se classant 8e avec 6 326 points. Le titre est remporté par Hanna Melnychenko, devant la Canadienne Brianne Theisen-Eaton et la Néerlandaise Dafne Schippers.
Antoinette Nana Djimou participe à la Coupe d’Europe des épreuves combinées à Torun en Pologne où elle se classe deuxième en individuel avec 6 212 pts et troisième par équipes (40 761). Elle réalise les minimas pour les Championnats d’Europe de Zürich où elle est sacrée championne d’Europe pour la seconde fois consécutive avec 6 551 points, le second meilleur total de sa carrière. Elle améliore notamment son record personnel sur le 800 m en 2 min 15 s 30, épreuve qu’elle a beaucoup travaillée pour avoir un bon niveau,.
Durant l’hiver 2015, la Française ne glane pas un troisième titre européen en salle, ni même une quatrième médaille consécutive (bronze en 2009) : malgré un honorable 60 m haies (8 s 25) et d’un bon concours de saut en hauteur (1,80 m), elle ne se classe que cinquième avec 4 591 points notamment dû à une contre-performance en longueur (6,13 m, moins bon saut depuis 2008). Le titre est remporté par la Britannique Katarina Johnson-Thompson, seconde femme à franchir la barre des 5 000 points (5 000 tout juste).
Fin mai, Nana Djimou participe à l’Hypo-Meeting de Götzis (Autriche) mais ne termine pas son heptathlon à cause d’une blessure. Opérée début juin au niveau de l’utérus, elle déclare finalement forfait pour les Championnats du monde de Pékin, insuffisamment remise.
Après sa blessure, Antoinette fait son retour sur les pistes le 13 février 2016 lors du Meeting Femina du Val d’Oise à Eaubonne où elle boucle son 60 m haies en 8 s 32. Elle participe ensuite aux Championnats de France en salle le week-end du 27 et 28 février où elle remporte lors de la première journée la médaille de bronze du lancer du poids (15,28 m). Lors de la seconde journée, elle s’aligne sur son premier pentathlon depuis mars 2015 dans l’objectif de réaliser les 4 558 points requis pour être sélectionnée pour les Championnats du monde en salle de Portland : elle commence par un 60 m haies en 8 s 39 puis saute 1,73 m au saut en hauteur, lance 14,66 m au poids et réalise 5,83 m en longueur mais est disqualifiée lors de la dernière épreuve, le 800 m.
Elle a également remporté le trophée fédéral des internationaux en 2010 qui récompense les athlètes ayant plus de 20 sélections internationales.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Bibel TV

Bibel TV ist ein deutschsprachiger Fernsehsender mit einem 24-Stunden-Programm, der seinen Sitz in Hamburg hat und sich im Wesentlichen durch Spenden finanziert. Es ist der erste christliche digitale Fernsehsender in Deutschland.
Geschäftsführer war bis Anfang 2013 Henning Röhl, der zuvor Chefredakteur von ARD-aktuell (Tagesschau und Tagesthemen) und Fernsehdirektor des MDR war. Seit Anfang 2013 ist Matthias Brender alleiniger Geschäftsführer von Bibel TV. Der Binnenpunkt in der Schreibweise „bibel.tv“ ist lediglich Bestandteil des Logos und nicht des Programm- oder Veranstalternamens.

Das 24-Stunden-Programm besteht aus Bibellesungen, Spielfilmen, Gesprächsrunden, Kindersendungen und zu großen Teilen aus Musik von Klassik bis Pop, die größtenteils günstig bis kostenlos erworben wurden. Es gibt nur wenige Eigenproduktionen, wie etwa Bibel TV das Gespräch. Den überwiegenden Teil des Programms bilden unterschiedliche Sendungen mit christlicher Musik von Klassik bis Pop. Teil des Programms von Bibel TV sind Reportagen, Dokumentationen und Ratgebersendungen sowie Talkshows, die Themen aus allen christlichen Bereichen behandeln. Es werden Kinderserien, Fernseh- und Spielfilme gesendet (meist aus italienischer und deutscher, z. T. aus US-Produktion). Auch Besinnliches, Bibellesungen sowie Sendungen mit christlicher Musik werden angeboten. Einzelne Sendungen werden mit Partnern produziert.
Zum Standardprogramm gehören die zwei Jesusfilme nach Lukas (1979) und nach Matthäus (Südafrika 1993, in vier Teilen).
Die Gesellschafter von Bibel TV vertreten unterschiedliche konfessionelle und theologische Strömungen. Um daraus resultierende Konflikte zu vermeiden, haben sie anfangs beschlossen, keine Gottesdienste zu übertragen. Regelmäßige Gottesdienstaufzeichnungen gehören erst seit März 2009 zum Programm und werden derzeit von den Zieglerschen Anstalten durchgeführt.
Ein Großteil des Programms wird von verschiedenen kleinen Programmpartnern mit zum Teil volkskirchlichem und freikirchlichem Hintergrund bestritten. Die Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (EKD) stellt eine größere Anzahl von Programmbeiträgen bereit. Hinzu kommen Beiträge von katholischen Produktionsfirmen.
Bibel TV bietet einen eigenständigen Teletext sowie einen EPG an.
Bibel TV versendet monatlich ein Programmheft, das auf der Website des Senders kostenlos interessierten Personen angeboten wird. Die Auflage lag im Juli 2014 bei 209.100. Es ist auch Teil des „Botschafter-Pakets“, das der Sender an Zuschauer verschickt, die den Sender durch die Auslage von Informationsmaterial bei Gemeindebüchertischen und anderen Veranstaltungen bekannt machen.
Im Newsletter vom 30. August 2013 erklärte Andreas Schletter billig Puma Fußballschuhe Steckdose 2016, der das Screendesign des Senders mitentwickelt hat, die Symbolik der einzelnen Elemente. Demnach stehen die Farbe Blau für die Größe und Weite Gottes und Orange für die Menschen und die Wüste, durch die das Volk Gottes habe ziehen müssen; die Farbschattierungen für die Programmvielfalt des Senders. Der Stern symbolisiere den Morgenstern der Propheten und die Sternennavigation der Seefahrer. Die zwölf Wellenlinien stünden für die zwölf Stämme Israels und im übertragenen Sinn für Gottes verschlungene „Wege mit seinem Volk und mit uns“.
Bibel TV geht auf eine Initiative des Verlegers Norman Rentrop zurück. Der Sender wurde am 11. Januar 2001 in Bonn-Bad Godesberg von 15 Gesellschaftern gegründet. Seit Mai 2001 ist sein Sitz in Hamburg. Der Sendestart war im Oktober 2002. Im Februar 2003 erschien das erste Programmheft mit einer Auflage von 2.000 Stück.
2004 bis 2006 verlieh Bibel TV zusammen mit der Fernseharbeit der evangelischen und der katholischen Kirche sowie der christlichen Hilfsorganisation World Vision Deutschland den Gospel-Award im Fernsehen.
Der frühere Vorsitzende des Programmbeirats Bernd Merz (vormaliger Medienbeauftragter der EKD) wurde ab dem 1. Oktober 2007 zum zusätzlichen Geschäftsführer für zwei Jahre berufen. Röhl und Merz leiteten Bibel TV bis September 2009 gleichberechtigt. Merz war in dieser Zeit unter anderem für den Aufbau des Jugendsenders Tru Young Television verantwortlich.
Im Juni 2006 hat die für Bibel TV zuständige Hamburgische Anstalt für neue Medien die im Dezember 2001 erfolgte Zulassung des Senders um fünf Jahre bis Ende 2011 verlängert. Bibel TV verfügt laut der Medienanstalt über ein differenziertes Programmschema.
Im Mai 2007 erteilte die Medienanstalt Hamburg Schleswig-Holstein Bibel TV die Lizenz für einen weiteren Sender. Der ehemalige Mitgeschäftsführer Bernd Merz sah im Jahr 2007 Bedarf in der Altersgruppe der Zehn- bis 29-jährigen, die unter den regelmäßigen Bibel TV-Zuschauer einen Anteil von rund 37 Prozent ausmachten. Der Jugendsender (siehe Hauptartikel Tru Young Television) ist am 26. Dezember 2009 auf Sendung gegangen, inzwischen aber nurmehr als Live-Stream zu empfangen.
Um das Jahr 2010 war Bibel TV von rund 40 Mio. Haushalten in Europa erreichbar. Neben dem Verbreitungsweg über Satellit und IP-TV gehörte von Anfang an auch der Livestream auf der eigenen Homepage dazu, aber auch die terrestrische Verbreitung via DVB-T MCM Rucksack 2016, die lange Zeit überall ausgebaut wurde, wo der Sender den Zuschlag für einen neuen Sendeplatz erhielt. Vor allem in München mit seinem ausgeprägten Freizeitverhalten (rund 30 Prozent DVB-T-Nutzung) sah Röhl ein großes Potential von DVB-T, dessen Verbreitung auch weiterhin ausgebaut werden soll. Inzwischen ist dieser Verbreitungsweg auf dem Rückzug. So wurden die Sender Nürnberg und München im Mai 2013 abgeschaltet, Schleswig-Holstein und Saarland folgen aufgrund der zeitlichen Befristung Ende August 2014.
Im Januar 2011 beanstandete die Kommission für Zulassung und Aufsicht Schleichwerbung im von Hademar Bankhofer moderierten Format „Der gesunde Weg“ in Sendungen von September 2010. Die ausgestrahlten Interviews sind Zweitverwertungen der Sendung „Einfach Bankhofer“ des Privatsenders Austria 9 TV. Bibel TV wies die Vorwürfe zurück. Die Produzentin und Herr Bankhofer hätten ausdrücklich versichert, für diese Sendereihe keine Zuwendungen, Gefälligkeiten oder Vorteile entgegengenommen zu haben. Der Sender gehe nur aus Kostengründen nicht gegen die Beanstandung vor und strahlt die Sendereihe weiter aus.
Am 14. Juni 2012 wurde Matthias Brender einstimmig zum Nachfolger Röhls gewählt. Röhl bat darum, seinen im Januar 2013 auslaufenden Vertrag nicht zu verlängern. Brender wurde im November 2012 Mitgeschäftsführer und wurde im Februar 2013 Röhls Nachfolger.
Am 14. Oktober 2013 wurde via Astra 19,2 °Ost Bibel TV HD aufgeschaltet. Bis März 2014 erreichte das Programmheft die Grenze von 200.000 Exemplaren.
Bibel TV ist je nach Ort über Satellit, als Livestream (IPTV), DVB-T oder Kabelfernsehen zu empfangen.
Bibel TV ist digital über den Satelliten Astra 1H auf Transponder 108 mit der Frequenz 12.552 MHz in vertikaler Polarisation zu empfangen (nach einem Frequenzwechsel am 30. September 2009), sowie in zahlreichen digitalen Kabelnetzen, z. B. bei Kabel Deutschland und Unity Media. Im Raum Hamburg und Kiel, in Hannover und Braunschweig, in Leipzig und Berlin und im Saarland ist Bibel TV auch über das digitale Antennenfernsehen DVB-T zu empfangen. Bibel TV HD startete am 22. November 2013 einen (laut Einblendung) Testbetrieb mit regulärem Programm über Astra 1L auf 11.244 MHz horizontal, 22.000 kSymbole, FEC 5/6 starten. Die Übertragung erfolgt in DVB-S, sodass der Sender am Computer bei Verwendung von HD-fähiger Software auch mit alten DVB-S-Karten empfangen werden kann.
Seit Mai 2007 wird das Programm des Senders online über einen Live-Stream übertragen, jedoch aus lizenzrechtlichen Gründen mit Unterbrechungen. In den Übertragungspausen wird auf das Archiv verwiesen (Video-on-Demand-Bereich). Ein Live-Stream des kompletten Programms wird über Zattoo angeboten. Seit Mai 2008 kann Bibel TV auch bei OnlineTVRecorder aufgezeichnet werden.
2006 wurden die Zuschauer auf 150.000 bis 200.000 geschätzt. 2010 konnten nach eigenen Angaben 27 Millionen Haushalte in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz Bibel TV empfangen.
Die technische Gesamtreichweite gibt Bibel TV mit ca. 40 Millionen Haushalten in Europa an. Das seien nach Angabe von Senderchef Röhl über 20 Millionen in Deutschland, davon zwölf Millionen über Satellit, sechs Millionen über Kabel analog und digital, zwei Millionen über DVB-T (Stand: 2010) und 0,7 Millionen über IPTV.
Die einmalige Anschubfinanzierung der Gesellschafter wurde 2006 aufgebraucht. In dieser Startphase gehörte Bibel TV nach eigenen Aussagen zu den Fernsehsendern mit dem niedrigsten Budget. Das Spendenvolumen lag im Jahr 2005 bei 1,4 Millionen Euro, gegenüber 757.000 Euro im Jahr 2004. Damit hat der Sender nach eigenen Angaben die Kostendeckung erreicht. Die Werbung wird durch Digital Marketing übernommen, das sich auf digitales Fernsehen spezialisiert hat.
Im Jahr 2006 schrieb der Sender nach eigenen Angaben zum ersten Mal schwarze Zahlen. Seitdem finanziert sich die Bibel TV Stiftung gGmbH hauptsächlich über Spenden von Freunden und Zuschauern. Das Ausgaben- und Einnahmenvolumen des Senders hat im Jahr 2007 ca. 4,5 Millionen Euro betragen. Das Spendenaufkommen stieg um 52 Prozent auf 2,08 Millionen Euro, durch Werbung, Sponsoring und andere Einnahmequellen wurden 517.000 Euro verbucht, der Umsatz erhöhte sich auf 2,6 Millionen Euro. Es wurden von 17.000 Spendern Beiträge zwischen 1 Euro und 30.000 Euro gespendet. Damit stieg der Spendenanteil stärker als die Werbeeinnahmen und lag bei 80,1 Prozent.
Der von den Gesellschaftern verabschiedete Etat von Bibel TV für 2008 sieht Einnahmen und Ausgaben in Höhe von 5,5 Millionen Euro vor. Etwa 80 Prozent dieser Summe sollten 2008 durch Spenden der Zuschauer aufgebracht werden

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, die restlichen 20 Prozent durch Werbung und andere Einnahmen. 2010 wurde der Sender zu 90 Prozent durch Spenden finanziert und zu 10 Prozent durch Werbung. Ein wesentlicher Teil des jährlichen Budgets wurde im Jahr 2010 für die terrestrische Verbreitung über DVB-T aufgewendet. Allein für die drei Verbreitungswege Satellit, Kabel- und Antennenfernsehen waren 3,3 Mio EUR budgetiert. Durch den Wegfall einiger terrestrischer Standorte stehen inzwischen wieder mehr Mittel für Programminhalte zur Verfügung.
Die Bibel TV Stiftung ist eine gemeinnützige GmbH mit Sitz in Hamburg.
Die Katholische Kirche und die Evangelische Kirche haben über die jeweiligen Film- und Fernsehfirmen “Astratel Radio- und Televisions-Beteiligungsgesellschaft” und der in Besitz der “EKD Media” befindlichen “Orbitel Medien GmbH” jeweils 12,75 Prozent der Anteile an der Bibel TV Stiftung und haben damit zusammen eine Sperrminorität fußballtrikots verkauf 2016, da gemäß der Satzung wichtige Entscheidungen mit einer Mehrheit von 75 Prozent der Stimmen gefällt werden müssen.
Rund die Hälfte der Anteile sind im Besitz der Norman Rentrop Stiftung, benannt nach dem Gründer von Bibel TV. Die evangelische und die katholische Kirche halten über hauseigene Medienfirmen zusammen 25,5 %. Außerdem gehören Missionswerke, freikirchliche Organisationen und christliche Medienunternehmen zu den Gesellschaftern.
Die Gesellschafter setzen die Geschäftsführung ein. Sie überwachen die Geschäftsführung und unterstützen den Sender bei der inhaltlichen Gestaltung des Programms.
Die Gesellschafterversammlung soll erfahrene Experten aus Medien und Kirchen in den Bibel-TV-Programmbeirat wählen.
Die ehrenamtlichen Mitglieder beraten die Geschäftsführung von Bibel TV in allen Programmfragen. Dabei achten sie besonders auf die Einhaltung des satzungsgemäßen Zwecks der Gesellschaft.
Der Bibel-TV-Programmbeirat wird alle vier Jahre neu von den Gesellschaftern gewählt. Gegenwärtig ist Oberkirchenrat Udo Hahn (Geschäftsführer der EKD-media) der Vorsitzende des Programmbeirates. Seit 2011 gehören erstmals auch ein Österreicher und ein Schweizer zum Beirat. Weiter besteht dieser aus:
Bis 2008 wurde eine Liste mit der Abfolge der Sendungen zusammen mit den Filmbändern zur Luxemburger Firma BCE geschickt, die das Playout, das Ausstrahlen zum Satelliten Astra selbstständig besorgte. Bei BCE wurden 1000 Stunden Sendezeit angemietet, die gleichzeitig noch ausreichten, das Onlinearchiv bereitzuhalten. Durch dieses einfache Verfahren entstanden nur geringe Kosten bei hoher Zuverlässigkeit. Seit Oktober 2008 transferiert Bibel TV das Sendematerial über eine Standleitung und programmiert und überwacht den Sende-Server in Luxemburg selbst.

Curtis Edward Amy

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Curtis Amy (Curtis Edward Amy) est un saxophoniste ténor, soprano, alto, un clarinettiste et flûtiste américain, né à Houston au Texas le 11 décembre 1929.
De mère pianiste, il reçoit une initiation musicale précoce (clarinette à l’école, puis la direction de big bands de collégiens de 1950 & 1952).
En 1955, à Los Angeles. Il joue dans des orchestres de rhythm and blues sandro robe, puis avec les organiste Perri Lee Blackwell et Paul Bryant. Il enregistre sous son nom régulièrement depuis 1961, et participe à quelques enregistrements en grand orchestre (avec Gerald Wilson, Jack Wilson, Lou Rawls, Onzy Matthews). Il a travaillé comme instrumentiste free-lance notamment avec Dizzy Gillespie, Roy Ayers, Johnny Almond et Amos Easton karen millen france 2016. Il se produit aussi avec sa femme la chanteuse Merry Clayton.
Il utilise surtout le ténor, avec une sonorité légèrement « growlée » et « dirty » (volontairement sale, impure) avec une volonté expressionniste imitée de Gene Ammons et de Sonny Stitt, puis plus tard sandro robe, de John Coltrane : exemple typique de « ténor velu ». Il jouait aussi du saxophone soprano.
Depuis la fin des années 60, il semble avoir abandonné la carrière musicale, si l’on excepte un disque en 1974. Il a de nouveau enregistré en 1994 avec Steve Huffsteter (trompette), Bob McChesney (trombone) soccer jerseys 2016 outlet, Donn Wyatt ou Frank Strazzeri au piano, John B. Williams à la basse, Leon Ndugu Chancler à la batterie. Il est mort le 5 juin 2002 à Los Angeles.

Agaja

Agaja (also spelled Agadja and also known as Trudo Agaja or Trudo Audati) was a King of the Kingdom of Dahomey, in present-day Benin, who ruled from 1718 until 1740. He came to the throne after his brother King Akaba. During his reign, Dahomey expanded significantly and took control of key trade routes for the Atlantic slave trade by conquering Allada (1724) and Whydah (1727). Wars with the powerful Oyo Empire to the east of Dahomey resulted in Agaja accepting tributary status to that empire and providing yearly gifts. After this, Agaja attempted to control the new territory of the kingdom of Dahomey through militarily suppressing revolts and creating administrative and ceremonial systems. Agaja died in 1740 after another war with the Oyo Empire and his son Tegbessou became the new king. Agaja is credited with creating many of the key government structures of Dahomey, including the Yovogan and the Mehu.
The motivations of Agaja and his involvement with the slave trade remain an active dispute among historians of Dahomey with some arguing that he was resistant to the slave trade but agreed to it because of the need to defend his kingdom, while others argue that no such motivation existed and the wars against Allada and Whydah were simply for economic control.

Agaja served a crucial role in the early development of the Kingdom of Dahomey. The kingdom had been founded by Agaja’s father Houegbadja who ruled from 1645 until 1685 on the Abomey plateau. Although there were some limited military operations outside of the plateau, the kingdom did not significantly expand before the eighteenth century.
Oral tradition says that Agaja was born around 1673, the second oldest son to Houegbadja. Houegbadja’s first two children were the twins Akaba and Hangbe. Agaja was originally called Dosu, a traditional Fon name for the first son born after twins. When Houegbadja died, Akaba became the king and ruled from 1685 until about 1716. Akaba died during a war in the Ouémé River valley and since his oldest son, Agbo Sassa, was a minor, his twin sister Hangbe may have ruled for a brief period of time (alternatively given as either three months or three years). Hangbe supported a faction that wanted Agbo Sassa to be the next king, but Agaja contested this and became the ruler in 1718 after a brief, violent struggle.
Agaja led the most important expansions of the kingdom in the 1720s with the conquest of the Kingdom of Allada in 1724 and the Kingdom of Whydah in 1727. Allada and Whydah, both Aja kingdoms, had become important coastal trading centers in the early 1700s, with trade connections to multiple European countries. The two powers made a 1705 agreement where both agreed not to interfere in the trade of the other kingdom. The King of Whydah, Huffon, grew increasingly connected through trade with the British Royal African Company while the king of Allada, Soso, made his ports outposts for the Dutch West India Company. In 1712, a British ship attacked a Dutch ship in the harbor at Allada, triggering economic warfare between Allada and Whydah that lasted until 1720. Upon coming to the throne, Agaja and Soso made an agreement to attack Whydah and remove Huffon from power; however, this plan was halted for unknown reasons.
In 1724, Soso died and a contest for the throne in Allada followed. On March 30, 1724, Agaja’s army entered Allada in support of the defeated candidate, named Hussar. After a three-day battle Agaja’s army killed the king and set the palace on fire. Rather than place Hussar on the throne, though, Agaja drove him out of the city after establishing his own power. Agaja then turned his forces against the other Aja kingdoms. In April 1724, Agaja conquered the town of Godomey and in 1726 the King of Gomè transferred his allegiance from the King of Whydah to Agaja.
Agaja planned his attack on Whydah in February 1727. He conspired with his daughter, Na Gueze, who was married to Huffon, to pour water on the gunpowder stores in Whydah. He also sent a letter to all of the European traders in the port of Whydah encouraging them to remain neutral in the conflict, in return for which he would provide favorable trade relations at the conclusion of the war. On February 26, 1727, Agaja attacked Whydah and burned the palace, causing the royal family to flee from the city. During the five-day battle, reports say that five thousand people in Whydah were killed and ten to eleven thousand were captured. In April, he burned all of the European factories in the Whydah capital.
In the three years between 1724 and 1727, Agaja had more than doubled the territory of Dahomey, had secured access to the Atlantic coast, and had made Dahomey a prominent power along the Slave Coast.
The Aja kingdoms had been tributaries to the Oyo Empire since the 1680s. After Agaja had conquered Allada, it appears that he sent a smaller tribute and so on April 14, 1726, the Oyo Empire sent its army against Dahomey. The Oyo conquered Abomey and burned the city while Agaja and his troops escaped into the marshes and hid until the Oyo armies returned home.
Agaja rebuilt Abomey and when he conquered Whydah the next year he provided many gifts to the King of Oyo. Despite these gifts, tributary terms acceptable to Oyo were not agreed to and so the Oyo Empire returned on March 22, 1728. As part of a strategy, Agaja buried his treasure, burned food resources, and made all the residents of Abomey abandon the city. The Oyo army found it difficult to remain in that situation and so they returned to Oyo in April. This strategy was repeated in 1729 and 1730, with Oyo sending increasingly larger armies and Agaja and his troops retreating into the marshes. The 1730 invasion was particularly devastating as the Oyo feigned acceptance of gifts from Agaja but then ambushed Dahomey’s forces when they returned to Abomey. With the regular destruction of Abomey, Agaja moved the capital to Allada and ruled from there (his son Tegbessou would later move the capital back to Abomey while appointing a puppet king in Allada).
After the 1730 attack by the Oyo Empire, Agaja’s forces were particularly depleted. Huffon and the deposed royal family of Whydah, with support from the British and the French, attempted to reconquer the city. With depleted forces, Agaja created a special unit of women dressed in war armor to assemble at the back of his remaining army to make his forces look larger. The ploy worked as the Whydah forces saw a huge force marching toward the city and fled before any fighting happened. After this attack, Agaja asked the Portuguese leader in the area to negotiate a peace agreement between Dahomey and Oyo. The agreement set the boundaries between Oyo and Dahomey at the Ouémé River and made Dahomey a tributary state of Oyo, a status which would remain until 1832. As a guarantee, Agaja had to send a son, Tegbessou, to Oyo.
For the last ten years of his reign, from 1730 until 1740, Agaja worked on consolidating his kingdom and increasing trade with Europeans.
Having come to terms with the Oyo empire, Agaja sought to militarily destroy other rivals in the region. This started in 1731 with a successful war against the Mahi people to the north of Abomey for supplying the Oyo with food and support during the wars. Attempts by the Portuguese and the Dutch to establish forts in Godomey, which Agaja had conquered in 1724 but whose leader had recently renounced his allegiance to Dahomey, caused a large war in 1732 in which Agaja burned the town and took thousands of people captive. In addition, regular warfare continued between Agaja and the exiled Whydah population under Huffon. In July 1733 Huffon died and a civil war broke out in the exiled community. A defeated prince went to Agaja to ask for assistance and seeing the opportunity, Agaja agreed to support the prince against the leadership of Whydah and allowed the prince to resettle after the war was successful. The other Whydah faction was defeated by Agaja in 1734 with assistance of the French.
Agaja also undertook significant administrative reforms to govern the newly conquered areas 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor. Many of the chiefs and officers in Allada were retained, while Agaja dispatched his trade officers and kept active military control over Whydah. The old chiefs, retained for necessity, often caused problems for Agaja by resisting his rule or even revolting. Agaja also appointed three different trade directors, one to manage relations with each different European power (Britain, France, and Portugal). When the Europeans complained about these directors in 1733, Agaja replaced them with one person, thus creating the important position of Yovogan. The Dutch, in contrast, were held in high contempt by Agaja and he spent much of this period trying to destroy their interests in the region. This led the Dutch to organize a significant army of many tribes to the west of Dahomey which destroyed Agaja’s forces in 1737 but did not destroy the kingdom.
Starting in 1730 but becoming formal in 1733 all slaves could only be sold through representatives of the king. This royal monopoly led to some revolts by important chiefs who were not receiving full prices for their goods and Agaja crushed multiple rebellions between 1733 and 1740. The royal monopoly proved unpopular and, following the defeat of Agaja’s forces in 1737, he was forced to allow the free trade of slaves through Dahomey.
As part of his efforts against the Dutch, Agaja organized a war against Badagry in 1737. This war, while marginally successful, was possibly considered by the Oyo Empire to be against the terms of the 1730 agreement. Conversely, it is possible that Agaja simply refused to continue paying the tribute to Oyo. Whatever the reason, war between Oyo and Dahomey resumed in 1739 and Agaja repeated his earlier strategy of withdrawing into the wild to wait for the Oyo troops to leave.
Agaja was the first king of Dahomey to have significant contact with European traders. Although Dahomey had been known to European traders in the 1600s, largely as a source for slaves, because it was an inland kingdom contact was limited 2016 billig Adidas fotboll jacka utlopp. When Agaja expanded the kingdom, he came into contact with the Dutch, British, French, and Portuguese traders. Agaja opposed the Dutch and largely excluded them from trade along the coast after he had conquered it. However, he created direct officers to manage contacts with the other European powers.
One important contact began in 1726 when Agaja sent Bulfinch Lambe (a British trader captured in the 1724 attack on Godomey) and a Dahomey ambassador known as Adomo Tomo or Captain Tom on a mission to Britain. Lambe was meant to deliver a “Scheme of Trade” to King George I. The “Scheme of Trade” outlined a plan for King George I to work with King Agaja in the creation of a plantation in Dahomey, exporting goods such as sugar, cotton, and indigo. However, Lambe was aware that the English had already abandoned plans to set up a plantation in Dahomey; he left Dahomey with no intention of following through on Agaja’s plan. Lambe initially sold Adomo Tomo into slavery in Maryland, but after a few years came back to free Tomo and bring him to England. Lambe and Tomo carried a letter claimed to be from Agaja and received an audience with King George II. The letter from Agaja was dismissed as a fraud and Tomo was returned to Dahomey where Agaja appointed him the assistant to the chief of trade with the British.
Agaja died in Allada a few months after returning following the war with Oyo in 1740. Oral traditions say that Tegbessou 2016 Puma fotbollsskor på nätet, who was the fifth oldest son of Agaja, was told by Agaja earlier that because he had saved Dahomey from the Oyo Empire he was going to be the king rather than any of his older brothers, although that tradition may have been created by Tegbessou to legitimize his rule. Regardless, the result was a contest between him and his brothers upon Agaja’s death. In the end, Tegbessou was victorious and became the new king of Dahomey.
Agaja’s motivations for taking over Allada and Whydah and his involvement in the slave trade have been a topic for debate among historians. The debate centers largely around Agaja’s conquest of Allada and Whydah and an observed decrease in the slave trade in the area after this conquest. Complicating attempts to discern motivation is that Agaja’s administration ended by creating a significant infrastructure for the slave trade and participated actively in it during the last few years of his reign.
The debate over Agaja’s motivations goes back to John Atkins’ 1735 publication of A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West Indies. In that book, Atkins argued that Allada and Whydah were known for regular slave raiding on the Abomey plateau and that Agaja’s attacks on those kingdoms were primarily to release some of his people who had been captured. A key piece of evidence for Atkins was a letter purported to be from Agaja and carried by Bulfinch Lambe to England in 1731 which expressed the willingness of Agaja to establish agricultural exports to Great Britain as an alternative to the slave trade. The authenticity of this letter is disputed and it was widely used in abolition debates in Great Britain as a letter by a purported indigenous African abolitionist.
Later historians have continued this debate about the role of Agaja in the slave trade, but with the need to account for the fact that in the last years of Agaja’s life (and after Atkins’ book was published) the Kingdom of Dahomey was a major participant in the Atlantic slave trade.
Robert Harms writes that Agaja’s participation in the slave trade was a self-perpetuated necessity. Agaja had increasingly made his kingdom more and more dependent on foreign wares that could only be paid for by slaves. He writes:
He noted that by converting his army from bows and arrows to guns, he needed a steady supply of gunpowder from the Europeans. He also described the fine clothing of his wives and the opulence of his royal court, implying that he needed a reliable supply of imported cloth and other luxury goods in order to maintain the court lifestyle. Finally, he noted that, as king of Dahomey, he had an obligation to distribute cowry shells and other common goods periodically among the common people. The cowry shells for the common people, like the silk cloth for the royal wives and the gunpowder for the army, could be obtained only through the slave trade.
Basil Davidson contended that Dahomey was drawn into the slave trade only as a means of self-defense against slave raiding by the Oyo Empire and the kingdoms of Allada and Whydah. He argued that Agaja took over the coastal cities to secure access to European firearms to protect the Fon from slave raiding. He writes:
Dahomey emerged “at the beginning of the seventeenth century, or about 1625, when the Fon people of the country behind the Slave Coast drew together in self-defense against the slave-raiding of their eastern neighbor, the Yoruba of Oyo. No doubt the Fon were interested in defending themselves from coastal raiders too…But the new state of Dahomey could defend itself effectively only if it could lay hold on adequate supplies of firearms and ammunition. And these it could obtain only by trade with Ardra [Allada] and Ouidah [Whydah] — and, of course, only in exchange for slaves…In the end, Dahomey found their exactions intolerable. They refused to allow Dahomey to sell its captives to the Europeans except through them, and this was the immediate reason why the fourth king of Dahomey, Agaja, waged successful war on them in 1727 and seized their towns.”
I.A. Akinjogbin has pushed the argument the farthest arguing that Agaja’s primary motivation was to end the slave trade in the region. He writes that although Agaja participated in the slave trade, this was primarily a means of self-defense and that his original motives were to end the slave trade. The Bulfinch Lambe letter plays a prominent role in Akinjogbin’s analysis as a declaration of Agaja’s willingness to stop the slave trade. Akinjogbin writes:
“It immediately becomes clear that Agaja had very little sympathy for the slave trade when he invaded the Aja coast [Allada and Whydah]. His first motive appears to have been to sweep away the traditional political system, which had completely broken down and was no longer capable of providing basic security and justice…The second motive would appear to have been to restrict and eventually stop the slave trade, which had been the cause of the breakdown of the traditional system in Aja, and to substitute other ‘legitimate’ items of trade between Europe and the new kingdom of Dahomey.”
Historian Robin Law, in contrast, argues that there is no clear evidence of motivation by Agaja opposing the slave trade and that the conquests of Allada and Whydah may have been simply done to improve Agaja’s access to economic trade. Law contends that the disruption in slave trade that followed the rise of Dahomey was not necessarily related to any efforts on their part to slow the slave trade, but was simply due to the disruption caused by their conquests. Law believes in the authenticity of the Bulfinch Lambe letter, but contends that Atkins misinterprets it. In addition, Law doubts the self-defense motivation highlighted by Davidson and Akinjogbin, writing:
“It is true that the kings of Dahomey subsequently claimed credit for having freed the Dahomey area from the threat of invasion by neighbouring states, but there is no suggestion that this was a motive for either the original foundation or the subsequent expansion of the kingdom, or indeed that such invasions were seen (to any greater degree than Dahomey’s own wars) as slave raids 2016 lågpris Nike fotbollsskor.”
Similarly, David Henige and Marion Johnson question Akinjogbin’s argument. While agreeing with the evidence from Akinjogbin that trade did slow after Agaja’s rise, they find that the evidence does not support any altruistic or moral opposition to the slave trade as the reason for this. In terms of the Bulfinch Lambe letter, they maintain that its authenticity remains “not proven” but that since Lambe was provided 80 slaves when he was released, it is unlikely that Agaja’s motivations were clear. Instead, they argue that the evidence supports Agaja trying to get involved in the slave trade but being unable to do so because of war with the exiled royal family of Whydah and the Oyo Empire. They write:
“Agaja’s actions, insofar as we know them, suggest a willingness to participate in the external trade—be it slaves, goods, or gold—in a way that suited the perceived needs of Dahomey. At the same time, he was unable to implement this opportunity immediately because of the persistent warfare that threatened the existence of his state. During such a transitional and troubled period, trade inevitably languished. Such a view may not necessarily be correct, but it has the clear advantage of being both plausible and congenial to the available evidence.”
Edna Bay assesses the debate by writing:
“Though the possibility that an African monarch tried to put an end to the slave trade is obviously attractive in the twentieth century, historians who have closely considered the evidence from Dahomey suggest, as did the eighteenth-century slave traders, that Dahomey’s motive was a desire to trade directly with Europe, and that the kingdom was willing to provide the product most desired by European traders, human beings. Akinjogbin’s thesis therefore is not likely. However, both Atkin’s idea that Dahomey wanted to stop raids on its own people and the argument that the Dahomeans were seeking direct overseas commerce in slaves are conceivable.”
Agaja is credited with introducing many features of the Dahomey state that became defining characteristics for future kings. It is often said that Agaja created the Mehu (a prime minister), the Yovogan (chief to deal with Europeans), and other administrative positions. However, oral traditions sometimes ascribe these developments to other kings. In addition, Agaja is sometimes credited as the king who created the Dahomey Amazons, a military unit composed entirely of women. Multiple histories account that Agaja did have armed female bodyguards in his palace and that he did dress women in armor in order to attack Whydah in 1728; however, historian Stanley Alpern believes that the Amazons were not likely fully organized during his reign.
Agaja also had a large impact on the religion of Dahomey, largely by increasing the centrality of the Annual Customs (xwetanu or huetanu in Fon). Although the Annual Customs already existed and each family had similar celebrations, Agaja transformed this by making the royal Annual Customs the central religious ceremony in the kingdom. Family celebrations could not occur until after the royal Annual Customs had occurred.
Agaja is often considered one of the great kings in Dahomey history and is remembered as the “great warrior”. His expansions of Dahomey and connections with European traders led to his depiction in Dahomey art as a European caravel boat.

Perfect group

In mathematics, more specifically in the area of modern algebra known as group theory, a group is said to be perfect if it equals its own commutator subgroup, or equivalently, if the group has no nontrivial abelian quotients (equivalently, its abelianization, which is the universal abelian quotient, is trivial). In symbols, a perfect group is one such that G(1) = G (the commutator subgroup equals the group), or equivalently one such that Gab = {1} (its abelianization is trivial).

The smallest (non-trivial) perfect group is the alternating group A5. More generally

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, any non-abelian simple group is perfect since the commutator subgroup is a normal subgroup with abelian quotient juicy couture online sale. Conversely, a perfect group need not be simple; for example, the special linear group SL(2,5) (or the binary icosahedral group which is isomorphic to it) is perfect but not simple (it has a non-trivial center containing ).
More generally, a quasisimple group (a perfect central extension of a simple group) which is a non-trivial extension (i.e., not a simple group itself) is perfect but not simple; this includes all the insoluble non-simple finite special linear groups SL(n,q) as extensions of the projective special linear group PSL(n,q) (SL(2,5) is an extension of PSL(2,5), which is isomorphic to A5). Similarly, the special linear group over the real and complex numbers is perfect, but the general linear group GL is never perfect (except when trivial or over F2, where it equals the special linear group), as the determinant gives a non-trivial abelianization and indeed the commutator subgroup is SL.
A non-trivial perfect group, however, is necessarily not solvable; and 4 divides its order (if finite), moreover, if 8 does not divide the order, then 3 does.
Every acyclic group is perfect, but the converse is not true: A5 is perfect but not acyclic (in fact, not even superperfect), see (Berrick & Hillman 2003). In fact, for n ≥ 5 the alternating group An is perfect but not superperfect, with H2(An, Z) = Z/2 for n ≥ 8.
Any quotient of a perfect group is perfect. A non-trivial finite perfect group which is not simple must then be an extension of at least one smaller simple non-abelian group. But it can be the extension of more than one simple group. In fact, the direct product of perfect groups is also perfect.
Every perfect group G determines another perfect group E (its universal central extension) together with a surjection f:E → G whose kernel is in the center of E, such that f is universal with this property. The kernel of f is called the Schur multiplier of G because it was first studied by Schur in 1904; it is isomorphic to the homology group H2(G).
As the commutator subgroup is generated by commutators, a perfect group may contain elements that are products of commutators but not themselves commutators. Øystein Ore proved in 1951 that the alternating groups on five or more elements contained only commutators, and made the conjecture that this was so for all the finite non-abelian simple groups. Ore’s conjecture was finally proven in 2008. The proof relies on the classification theorem.
A basic fact about perfect groups is Grün’s lemma from (Grün 1935, Satz 4,[note 1] p. 3): the quotient of a perfect group by its center is centerless (has trivial center).
Proof: If G is a perfect group, let Z1 and Z2 denote the first two terms of the upper central series of G (i.e., Z1 is the center of G, and Z2/Z1 is the center of G/Z1). If H and K are subgroups of G, denote the commutator of H and K by [H, K] and note that [Z1, G] = 1 and [Z2, G] ⊆ Z1

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, and consequently (the convention that [X, Y, Z] = [[X, Y], Z] is followed):
As a consequence, all higher centers (that is, higher terms in the upper central series) of a perfect group equal the center.
In terms of group homology, a perfect group is precisely one whose first homology group vanishes: H1(G, Z) = 0, as the first homology group of a group is exactly the abelianization of the group, and perfect means trivial abelianization. An advantage of this definition is that it admits strengthening:
Especially in the field of algebraic K-theory, a group is said to be quasi-perfect if its commutator subgroup is perfect; in symbols, a quasi-perfect group is one such that G(1) = G(2) (the commutator of the commutator subgroup is the commutator subgroup), while a perfect group is one such that G(1) = G (the commutator subgroup is the whole group). See (Karoubi 1973, pp. 301–411) and (Inassaridze 1995 2016 clothes online, p. 76).

West, Mississippi

West is a city in northeastern Holmes County, Mississippi. The population was 220 at the 2000 census.

West is located at 33°11′50″N 89°46′45″W / 33.19722°N 89.77917°W / 33.19722; -89.77917 (33.197266, -89.779288).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2), all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 220 people, 94 households, and 64 families residing in the town. The population density was 394.6 people per square mile (151 bogner online.7/km²). There were 113 housing units at an average density of 202.7 per square mile (77.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 56.36% White, 42.73% African American, 0.45% Asian, and 0.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.27% of the population.
There were 94 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the town the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64 Sandro Botticelli, and 25

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.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $25,625, and the median income for a family was $45,625. Males had a median income of $22,083 versus $12,396 for females. The per capita income for the town was $18,398. About 14.9% of families and 20.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.9% of those under the age of eighteen and 31.2% of those sixty five or over Ted Baker Dresses UK.
West made national news in 1989 when all-white East Holmes Academy initially refused to play a football game against Heritage Academy because Heritage had a black player. After seven East Holmes players quit the team, two board members resigned and the Mississippi Private School Association threatened to eject the school, East Holmes relented.
The town of West is served by the Holmes County School District.
Official Website to Konigun Ninjutsu

Kongō-class ironclad

The Kongō-class ironclads (金剛型?) were a pair of armored corvettes built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) by British shipyards in the 1870s. A British offer to purchase the two ships during the Russo-Turkish War in 1878 was refused. They became training ships in 1887 and made training cruises to the Mediterranean and to countries on the edge of the Pacific Ocean. The ships returned to active duty during the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95 where one participated in the Battle of the Yalu River and both in the Battle of Weihaiwei. The Kongō-class ships resumed their training duties after the war, although they played a minor role in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05. They were reclassified as survey ships in 1906 and were sold for scrap in 1910 and 1912.

Tensions between Japan and China heightened after the former launched its punitive expedition against Taiwan in May 1874 in retaliation of the murder of a number of shipwrecked sailors by the Paiwan aborigines. China inquired into the possibility of buying ironclad warships from Great Britain and Japan was already negotiating with the Brazilian government about the purchase of the ironclad Independencia then under construction in Britain. The Japanese terminated the negotiations with the Brazilians in October after the ship was badly damaged upon launching and the expeditionary force was about to withdraw from Taiwan. The crisis illustrated the need to reinforce the IJN and a budget request was submitted that same month by Acting Navy Minister Kawamura Sumiyoshi for ¥3.9–4.2 million to purchase three warships from abroad. No Japanese shipyard was able to build ships of this size so they were ordered from Great Britain. This was rejected as too expensive and a revised request of ¥2.3 million was approved later that month. Nothing was done until March 1875 when Kawamura proposed to buy one ironclad for half of the money authorized and use the rest for shipbuilding and gun production at the Yokosuka Shipyard. No response was made by the Prime Minister’s office before the proposal was revised to use all of the allocated money to buy three ships, one armored frigate and two armored corvettes of composite construction to be designed by the prominent British naval architect Sir Edward Reed, formerly the Chief Constructor of the Royal Navy. Reed would also supervise the construction of the ships for an honorarium of five percent of the construction cost. The Prime Minister’s office approved the revised proposal on 2 May and notified the Japanese consul, Ueno Kagenori, that navy officers would be visiting to negotiate the contract with Reed.
Commander Matsumura Junzō arrived in London on 21 July and gave Reed the specifications for the ships. Reed responded on 3 September with an offer, excluding armament, that exceeded the amount allocated in the budget. Ueno signed the contracts for all three ships on 24 September despite this problem because Reed was scheduled to depart for a trip to Russia and the matter had to be concluded before his departure. Ueno had informed the Navy Ministry about the costs before signing, but Kawamura’s response to postpone the order for the armored frigate did not arrive until 8 October. The totals for all three contracts came to £433,850 or ¥2,231,563 and did not include the armament. These were ordered from Krupp with a 50 percent down payment of £24,978. The government struggled to provide the necessary money even though the additional expenses had been approved by the Prime Minister’s office on 5 June 1876, especially as more money was necessary to fully equip the ships for sea and to provision them for the delivery voyage to Japan.
The Kongō class was 220 feet (67.1 m) long between perpendiculars and had a beam of 41 feet (12.5 m). They had a forward draft of 18 feet (5.5 m) and drew 19 feet (5.8 m) aft. The ships displaced 2,248 long tons (2,284 t) and had a crew of 22 officers and 212 enlisted men. To reduce biofouling, their hulls were sheathed with copper.
The Kongō-class ships had a single two-cylinder double-expansion horizontal return connecting rod-steam engine made by Earle’s Shipbuilding and Engineering, driving a single two-bladed 16-foot (4.9 m) propeller. Six cylindrical boilers provided steam to the engine at a working pressure of 4.22 bar (422 kPa; 61 psi). The engine was designed to produce 2,500 indicated horsepower (1,900 kW) to give the ships a speed of 13.5 knots (25.0 km/h; 15.5 mph). During sea trials, the ships reached maximum speeds of 13.75–13.92 knots (25.47–25.78 km/h; 15.82–16.02 mph). They carried a maximum of 345–390 long tons (351–396 t) of coal, enough to steam 3,100 nautical miles (5,700 km; 3,600 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).
The ironclads were barque-rigged and had a sail area of 14,036 square feet (1,304 m2) Maje Dresses shop 2016. To reduce wind resistance while under sail alone, the funnel was semi-retractable. Their topmasts were removed in 1895.
Both ships were reboilered at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in 1889: Hiei received two steel double-ended cylindrical boilers while Kongō’s new boilers were of the same type as her original ones ted baker uk outlet. The new boilers proved to be less powerful for both ships during sea trials, Kongō reached a maximum speed of 12.46 knots (23.08 km/h; 14.34 mph) from 2,028 ihp (1,512 kW) while Hiei was significantly slower at 10.34 knots (19.15 km/h; 11 juicy couture outlet sale.90 mph) from 1,279 ihp (954 kW).
The ships were fitted with three 172-millimeter (6.8 in) Krupp rifled breech-loading (RBL) guns and six RBL 152-millimeter (6.0 in) Krupp guns. All of the 172-millimeter guns were positioned as chase guns, two forward and one aft. The forward chase guns were pivot-mounted and could traverse 122 degrees from straight ahead on their side of the ship. The aft gun could traverse a total of 125 degrees to each side. The 152-millimeter guns were mounted on the broadside. Each ship also carried two short 75-millimeter (3.0 in) guns for use ashore or mounted on the ships’ boats.
The armor-piercing shell of the 172-millmeter gun weighed 132 pounds (59.9 kg). It had a muzzle velocity of about 1,500 ft/s (460 m/s) and was credited with the ability to penetrate 10.3 inches (262 mm) of wrought iron armor at the muzzle. Data for the 152-millimeter gun is not available.
During the 1880s, the armament of the Kongō-class ships was reinforced with the addition of four quadruple-barreled 25-millimeter (1.0 in) Nordenfelt and two quintuple-barreled 11-millimeter (0.4 in) Nordenfeldt machine guns for defense against torpedo boats. Around the same time the ships each also received two 356-millimeter (14.0 in) torpedo tubes for Schwartzkopff torpedoes. The tubes were mounted above the waterline and one torpedo was provided for each tube. Their anti-torpedo boat armament was again reinforced in 1897 by the addition of a pair of 2.5-pounder Hotchkiss guns. After the end of the Russo-Japanese War, their armament was reduced to six ex-Russian 12-pounder guns and six 2.5-pounders Red Wing shoes online.
The Kongō-class corvettes had a wrought-iron waterline armor belt 4.5 inches (114 mm) thick amidships that tapered to 3 inches (76 mm) at the ends of the ship.
In February 1878, during the Russo-Turkish War, the British were not willing to accept the occupation of the Ottoman Turkish capital of Constantinople by Russian forces and began to prepare for war. The British government made informal inquiries about purchasing the two corvettes, but this was firmly rejected by the Japanese government. The ships sailed from Britain in February–March and arrived in Yokohama two months later. They were sailed to Japan by hired British crews as the IJN lacked the necessary experience. The ships were not formally turned over to the navy until 10 July when a formal ceremony was held in Yokohama attended by the Meiji Emperor and many senior government officials. The ships were opened for public tours after the ceremony.
Kongō hosted the Duke of Genoa when he visited Japan in late 1879. Hiei made port visits in China and in the Persian Gulf the following year. In 1885–86 both ships were assigned to the Small Standing Fleet. They became training ships in 1887 and they both made a training cruise to the Mediterranean in 1889–90 with cadets from the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy. Hiei and Kongō ferried the 69 survivors of the wrecked Ertuğrul back to Turkey where the ships’ officers were received by Sultan Abdul Hamid II. The ships also carried a class of naval cadets. Until the end of the century, one or the other of the Kongō-class ships made the annual cadet cruise, usually to countries bordering the Pacific Ocean. Kongō was in Honolulu on one of these cruises during the Hawaiian Revolution of 1893, although the ship played no part in the affair. She returned to Hawaii the next year and briefly became the patrol ship there until the start of the First Sino-Japanese War later in 1894. Kongō did not participate in the Battle of the Yalu River, but Hiei was there. She was heavily engaged by Chinese ships and was damaged enough that she was forced to break off the action. Hiei was repaired after the battle and both ships were present during the Battle of Weihaiwei in early 1895, although neither saw any significant combat.
The Kongō-class ships were redesignated as 3rd-class coast defense ships in 1898 although they continued their training duties. They played a minor role in the Russo-Japanese War before they were reclassified as survey ships in 1906. Kongō was stricken from the Navy List in 1909 and sold the next year for scrap. Hiei was struck from the Navy List two years after her sister ship and was sold before 25 March 1912.

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