Fort Saint-Jean (Marseille)

Fort Saint-Jean is a fortification in Marseille, built in 1660 by Louis XIV at the entrance to the Old Port. Since 2013 it is linked by two thin bridges to the historical district Le Panier and to the first French national museum to be located outside Paris; called Musée des Civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée.

Fort Saint-Jean was built on a site earlier occupied by the Military Order of the Knights Hospitaller of Saint John, from which the new building deprived its name. Fort Saint-Nicolas was constructed at the same time on the opposite side of the harbour. Commenting on their construction, Louis XIV said

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, “We noticed that the inhabitants of Marseille were extremely fond of nice fortresses. We wanted to have our own at the entrance to this great port.” In fact, the two new forts were built in response to a local uprising against the governor, rather than for the defence of the city: their cannons pointed inwards towards the town, not outwards towards the sea.
Two earlier buildings were incorporated into the structure of the fort: the twelfth century Commandry of the Knights Hospitaller of St John of Jerusalem, which served as a monastic hospice during the crusades; and the fifteenth century tower of René I, King of Provence.
In April 1790 Fort Saint-Jean was seized by a revolutionary mob who decapitated the chevalier de Beausse, commander of the royal garrison, when he was captured after refusing to surrender the fortress. During the subsequent French Revolution the fort was used as a prison, holding Louis Philippe II

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, Duke of Orléans, and two of his sons, Louis-Charles, Count of Beaujolais, and Antoine Philippe, Duke of Montpensier. Following the overthrow of Robespierre in 1794 about a hundred Jacobin prisoners held in the fort were massacred.
Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries Fort Saint-Jean was in the possession of the French Army, who utilised it as a barracks and clearing station for the Army of Africa. During the years when the French Foreign Legion was based mainly in North Africa (1830 to 1962), the fort was a final stop-off point for recruits for the Legion destined for basic training in Algeria.
During World War II Fort Saint-Jean was occupied by the German military in November 1942. In August 1944 during the liberation of Marseilles, the explosion of a munitions depot within the fort destroyed much of its historic battlements and buildings. Although returned to the French Army, Fort Saint-Jean remained in a neglected and disused state until it was passed to the Ministry of Cultural Affairs in 1960. Classified as a historical monument in 1964, the damaged portions of the fort were reconstructed between 1967 and 1971

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From 2013 the Fort Saint-Jean is to be a part of the MuCEM. Of the major buildings comprising the complex:

Trevor Goodchild

Trevor Goodchild is a fictional character featured in the 1990s animated television series, Æon Flux, the 2005 Æon Flux live-action film, and the 2005 Æon Flux video game. He is played by voice actor John Rafter Lee in the half-hour series (the Liquid Television series of shorts had no dialogue). In the 2005 film, he is portrayed by Marton Csokas. In the 2005 video game, he is voiced by Troy Baker.

Chairman Trevor Goodchild is usually seen as the villain of the series, although creator Peter Chung has occasionally said in interviews that the character is meant to be morally ambiguous.
He is the self-appointed leader of the nation of Bregna; it is suggested he rose to power in a coup over his insane predecessor. Though his title is Chairman, it is not clear what exactly this means. His predecessor was referred to as the President, and in one episode an upper house of parliament is mentioned. In another episode, he refers to the government as a republic.
He is usually depicted as a cold and calculating scientist or as an opposite to “terrorist” Æon Flux of the free-spirited Monican people. Goodchild’s motives are left ambiguous; on many occasions he seems genuinely interested in improving the human condition, but at others he is only concerned with retaining or increasing his power.
His own people seem to have dramatically changing opinions of him. In the first episode, he is referred to as “Our most beloved public official,” and the people cheer at seeing him defeat an assassin. Others however, seem completely disgusted by him and attempt to kill him or escape from his control. In general, the Breen soldiers he commands seem loyal, if often very confused by him.
As is typical of the Æon Flux series’ style of storytelling, there is much ambiguity and inconsistency as to the nature of his position. While he is usually depicted as a complete autocrat, the episode “Thanatophobia” suggests that there are other individuals in the Breen government that Trevor must answer to, or at least give the impression of being accountable to. Though his official title seems to be Chairman, Goodchild often takes a much more hands-on approach to his work than a typical administrator. He is shown at the forefront of armed operations on at least two occasions, as well as conducting other tasks such as performing medical checkups on patients wounded by his own fiendish security systems (a house call, no less). However, he is far from brave, as he has an array of escape devices to get him out of danger. The most likely explanation for his curious penchant for field work is his desire to get close to Æon Flux.
Trevor also has a tendency to delve into deep, Orwellian rants, which often serve as narration for the episodes. These musings appear to be in the form of soliloquies, but in the episode “The Purge,” they are shown to be out loud. His musings tend to be confusing, often running the full length without actually saying anything, and lend to the series’ own ambiguous nature.
Æon and Trevor have a love-hate relationship, in which he consistently tries to protect her despite violently thwarting most of her operations. This relationship is less developed in the original Liquid Television shorts, in which he occasionally attempts to kill her. Trevor is often frustrated by Æon’s apparent lack of understanding of his own occasionally nebulous motives; he will be invariably heard to say “You just don’t get it, do you?” Aeon is generally not impressed with his grand plans, going so far as to call him a deranged individual in one episode.
In one of the Liquid Television shorts, Æon actually appears to be working for or with Trevor. In the episode “Thanatophobia,” Trevor mentions that he lets Aeon sneak across the border and bomb a factory, thus allowing him to implant ever stricter security measures. This implies that, though Aeon may not work directly for him, it seems as though he uses her actions to his advantage. The pair’s relationship reaches its apex in the series finale, “End Sinister”, in which Æon pursues Trevor on a one-way trip 1,000 years into the future. It could be said that Trevor and Æon are attracted to each other but are separated by their goals, as evidenced in “The Demiurge”, where they fight over the Demiurge’s fate but have a brief but intimate encounter in the midst of a conflict.
The episodes “Pilot” through “War” are standalone episodes broadcast as short films on the series Liquid Television. There is intentionally no continuity between the episodes (which all include the death of the Æon Flux character). Beginning with “Utopia or Deutoronopia” episodes are a half-hour in length and maintain a loose continuity. The episodes are fully covered in List of Æon Flux episodes.
An insect is spreading a fatal disease. After Æon fails to stop him, Trevor cures the disease. Thereafter, Trevor’s visage appears on the country’s currency (which is when his name is revealed for the first time).
While French kissing Æon, Trevor uses his tongue in order to insert a tiny picture into a hidden compartment in one of Æon’s teeth. The picture, of a man and a briefcase, is apparently Æon’s ‘target.’
Trevor enters an assassination target’s mansion one minute before Æon does. Trevor completes the assassination, and then shoots Æon in the neck. Before she dies, Æon sees on the security camera that it was Trevor. This is the only time Trevor himself intentionally kills Æon (this would not happen in the half-hour series given their relationship’s development).
What appears to be Trevor is seen chained in Æon’s cupboard ravenously eating the eggs of an alien creature.
From an elevator that is on the 7th floor, Trevor presses buttons 1-6. He also throws a key for a door that is on level 2 behind some pipes. Æon handcuffs him in the elevator while she attempts to find the door Bogner Jas sale. (She checks on every floor.) On the 2nd floor, after another woman has killed Æon, a guard enters and shoots Trevor. Only the guard escapes as the facility sinks. While it is common for Æon to be killed in each installment of these early episodes, this is the only time Trevor himself is killed

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Trevor is not seen in this episode, though a Breen soldier who removes his helmet resembles him, albeit with a different hair style.
Trevor rises to power by kidnapping Clavius, the elected president of Bregna. Trevor also constructs an extradimensional space inside Clavius’ body for himself and Æon, introducing his obsession with her. He institutes a panopticon of citizen surveillance claiming that “only an open society can be a just society.” Gildemere, a Breen soldier, tries to expose Trevor’s treasonous acts but ends up murdering Clavius in the process, easing Trevor’s ascent to autocracy.
Trevor captures a pair of seraf-trevs—beautiful, winged creatures whose ability to give humans sexual ecstasy is legendary. His love affair with the female seraf-trev is cut short when Ilbren, a jealous Breen, tries to liberate her and kills her in the process.
In this episode, Trevor appears repeatedly to treat the spinal injuries of Sybil, who was shot during an attempted border crossing (her lover, Onan, succeeded.) Trevor provides Sybil with a box of ampoules (which are inserted into the gap in her spine, allowing her to function normally,). Trevor also repeatedly sexually stimulates Sybil by manipulating the nerves in her spinal column at the location of the aforementioned gap. At one point, Trevor mentions that he lets Aeon bomb a factory, implying that he uses her terrorist actions as justification for cracking down even harder on the populace.
Trevor has developed a method for creating exact human duplicates. Æon tricks him into making a copy of her in a plan to manipulate his emotions towards her. In the end Æon decides (with difficulty) to remain loyal to herself (i.e. her copy) and not Trevor, allowing herself to be killed by the gun turrets of the Breen border containment system. While this episode is mainly focused on Æon’s personality, it also gives some great insights into Trevor’s character. For instance, we see that his obsession with Æon is such that he keeps an entire harem of girls done up to look like her in his home. Following Aeon’s death, Trevor is seen to fall to his knees with tears streaming down his face, implying that there is more to him than the cold, calculating politician.
Trevor tries to prevent the Monicans from launching a god-like being known as the Demiurge from the planet, ridding Earth of its influence. He fails, but the Demiurge impregnates a Monican male with its child. Trevor captures the Monican and takes him to his Tower, where he gives birth to a being similar (if not identical) to the original Demiurge, re-introducing the Demiurge’s influence on humanity. This being later saves the Monican’s lover from certain death, although it is unclear whether or not the Demiurge survives. It should be noted that perception was a major theme of this episode. At the beginning of the episode, Trevor is heard speaking of perception and significance, and when the lover of the Monican implanted with the Demiurge’s offspring tries to crush a box with a glowing, three-eyed cat inside fails to do so and walks away from it, it is shown to the audience that it stopped glowing when no one was looking at it. The Demiurge’s true power may only be the ability to alter perception and emotion.
Trevor is attempting to collect the entire world’s population of the cannibalistic, immortal frog-like creatures known as Nargyles for his experiments. He enlists the help of a woman whose lover, Rordy, is collecting the Nargyles in a plot to exterminate them by shooting them into the sun in revenge for losing his memories as a side-effect of Bliss, the potent narcotic the Nargyles produce. Things get complicated however, when Æon Flux inadvertently kills Rordy’s lover and takes her place, unaware of her involvement in Trevor’s scheme.
Trevor and his cohorts explore the jungle in search of an underground laboratory complex that Aeon comes across, attempting to uncover experimentation involving a virus that causes human madness . Trevor attempts to capture the exposed subjects such as Æon, a boy, and a baby that has grown into some sort of crawling beast that erases memories and induces sleep. Aeon undergoes continuously bizarre experiences/visions that involve a recurrent dream of a maze and the photograph of the baby girl she carries from the beginning of the episode. The ending vision (or is it reality?) is of Aeon as a suburban mom taking her son (the boy) to a litlle league baseball game.
Trevor Goodchild creates an isolated ecosystem in the shape of a giant cube suspended in a sea of paralytic fluid. The city is populated by various engineered creatures, many of which resemble humans. Æon enters the cube with the girlfriend of the chief scientist working under Goodchild only to accidentally start a chain chemical reaction that eventually destroys the entire complex. At first, Trevor is fully dedicated to protecting the project and what it represents at all costs. However, he quickly seems to become bored with it and gives up on the project entirely.
Trevor is implementing a system of “artificial conscience” for citizens of Bregna who appear to lack one of their own, by implanting a robotic entity called a “Custodian”. Æon joins a secretive group which opposes this, and eventually confronts Trevor. The effectivness of Trevor’s intelligence network is displayed, as he seems to know everything about the secret group, and ambushes and captures each of its members, including Aeon. Whether or not Æon is herself implanted with a Custodian in the interim is left somewhat ambiguous.
Trevor, in this episode, has in his possession a device which would fire a ray at the Earth, killing much of humanity but furthering the progress of evolution. Before he can accomplish this, an alien-like being is found near Trevor’s compound, which he becomes obsessed with, and which agrees to take Trevor to their homeworld. Æon, after sealing herself away for centuries in suspended animation, finds that Bregna is now populated by these beings and that Trevor is still alive, attempting (in a rather ascetic manner) to emulate them. Æon, not realizing that the creatures were actually humanity’s further-evolved state, uses the aforementioned ray to destroy them, leaving only herself, Trevor, and a very few “alien” survivors. The episode (and series) ends with the both of them in the same suspended-animation chamber Æon used.
In the 2005 film adaptation of the series, numerous changes have been made to Trevor’s character. He is still chairman of Bregna, and still an idealistic scientist whose methods are sometimes suspect. Among the major changes is that he is shown to be in a power struggle with his brother (a character not featured in the TV series), and as part of the film’s cloning-related plotline, it is revealed that Trevor is a seventh-generation clone created from DNA from the original Trevor Goodchild of the early 21st century, who had been married to a pre-clone version of Æon Flux. Unlike the TV series, which casts him in a morally ambiguous role (as it does all its characters), the film version makes Goodchild to be a heroic figure, whose sole motive seems to be to save the human race from extinction.
Trevor Goodchild at the Internet Movie Database

Danny Mac

Danny Mac (born Danny Mac Greene on 26 February 1988 in Bromley, England) is an English actor best known for playing Mark “Dodger” Savage in the Channel 4 soap opera Hollyoaks from 2011 to 2015.
Mac was born in Bromley, then grew up in a seaside town Bognor Regis. He wanted to act from a young age toms shoes uk 2016, and enjoyed watching Grease, Michael Jackson and James Bond. He trained at the Arts Educational Schools in London, before getting a part in the West End musical Wicked. He appeared in the West End musical Wicked for four years.
In 2011, Mac and his Hollyoaks co-stars, Stephanie Davis (Sinead O’Connor), Andrew Moss (Rhys Ashworth) and Abi Phillips (Liberty Savage) performed ‘Forget You’ by CeeLo Green for Children in Need.
He is a fan of Chelsea F.C. and used to live with former Hollyoaks co-star James Atherton, who played Will Savage.
On 13 July 2013, Mac appeared on the ITV game show All Star Family Fortunes
Danny Spent Several years understudying the role of Boq in London Performance of wicked.

François Bassil

François Semaan Bassil (born March 15, 1934) is a prominent Lebanese banker. He was Chairman and General Manager of Byblos Bank, one of Lebanon’s top three banks from July 1979 to July 2015, and has served as Chairman of the Board of the Association of Banks in Lebanon (ABL) for four terms. He currently holds the position of Chairman of Byblos Bank Group, an entity composed of banks and subsidiaries of Byblos Bank S bogner ski jacket.A.L. In 2015, Bassil was named in Global Finance Magazine’s first annual list of Who’s Who in The Middle East.

Bassil was born in Fidar, north of Beirut in 1934. His father, Semaan Bassil, was a well-known businessman who founded in 1950 the “Société Commerciale et Agricole Byblos Bassil Frères & Co.”, a Lebanese company specialized in natural silk, leather tanning, and agricultural credit activities. In 1963, this company became Byblos Bank S.A.L.
Bassil holds a Doctoral Degree in Law (Ph.D.) from the Catholic University of Louvain, in Belgium. In 2008, Bassil was awarded an honorary doctoral degree “Doctorate Honoris Causa” in the humanities by the Lebanese American University (LAU), and in 2010 the Université Saint-Esprit Kaslik (USEK) awarded him an honorary degree “Doctorate Honoris Causa” in Business.
Throughout his professional career, he received many honorary distinctions, among them the Order of the Crown awarded by H.M. King Albert II of Belgium; and Knight in the Order of St. Gregory the Great, awarded by Pope John Paul II. In 2012, Lebanese President Michel Sleiman awarded Bassil the title of Commander in the National Order of the Cedar. In 2015, Bassil was awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the First Class of the Order of St. Gregory the Great by Pope Francis.
Bassil started his career in the Banking sector in 1962 by contributing to the establishment of Byblos Bank S.A.L. and became chairman and general manager of the bank in 1979. He then lead the success and growth of Byblos Bank in Lebanon, transforming it from a mid-sized locally based entity to one of Lebanon’s top three banks, with total assets of USD 19 billion, and customer deposits reaching USD 15.7 billion as at 31 December 2014.
Under his guidance, Byblos Bank established numerous international partnerships and received many distinctions, while maintaining its position as Lebanon’s most solid Bank. Byblos Bank is listed on the Beirut Stock Exchange (BYB) and became in 2009 the first Lebanese issuer to list in the London Stock Exchange for twelve years.
Today, Byblos Bank actively operates in 12 countries worldwide including: Lebanon, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Armenia, Cyprus, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Iraq, Sudan, Nigeria, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, 1st Baron Hesketh

Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, 1st Baron Hesketh (17 November 1881 – 20 July 1944), known as Sir Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, Bt, from 1924 to 1935, was a British peer, soldier and Conservative Member of Parliament.
Hesketh was the son of Sir Thomas George Fermor-Hesketh, 7th Baronet, and Florence Emily Sharon, daughter of U.S. Senator William Sharon

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. He was educated at Eton, the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and Trinity College, Cambridge.
He achieved the ranks of 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Horse Guards bogner sale, Captain in the Lancashire Hussars Yeomanry and Honorary Major in the Territorial Army and also served as a Justice of the Peace for Lancashire and for Northamptonshire. Hesketh sat briefly as a Member of Parliament for Enfield from 1922 to 1923 and was later High Sheriff of Northamptonshire in 1932.
He succeeded his father as eighth Baronet of Ruffield in 1924 and in 1935 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Hesketh, of Hesketh in the County Palatine of Lancaster.
Lord Hesketh married Florence Louise Breckinridge, of Kentucky, daughter of John Witherspoon Breckinridge, and granddaughter of General John C Breckinridge, Vice-President of the United States, in 1909. They had three sons and two daughters (Flora and Louise). Their eldest son Lieutenant the Hon. Thomas Sharon Fermor-Hesketh was killed in an aeroplane accident in France in 1937. Lord Hesketh died in July 1944, aged 62, and was succeeded in his titles by his second son Frederick

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. His third son John married Patricia Macaskie Cole in 1946. His grandson Alexander Fermor-Hesketh, 3rd Baron Hesketh, is a former Conservative government minister. Florence, the Dowager Lady Hesketh died 1956.

American Wrestling Association

The American Wrestling Association (AWA) was an American professional wrestling promotion based in Minneapolis, Minnesota that ran from 1960 to 1991. It was owned and founded by Verne Gagne and Wally Karbo. The territory was originally part of the National Wrestling Alliance (NWA), becoming an independent territory in the late 1950s.

Anton Stecher was a founding member of the NWA in 1948 and had promoted wrestling in Minneapolis since 1933 through his Minneapolis Boxing and Wrestling Club. In 1952, he sold a one third interest in the promotion to his son Dennis and Wally Karbo. Stecher died on October 9, 1954 and control of the promotion passed to Karbo and Dennis. Verne Gagne, a former amateur wrestling champion, had become a well known and popular wrestler nationally in the 1950s as a result of his appearances on the DuMont Network. He aspired to become NWA World Champion, but for various reasons to do with politics inside the NWA, he never became champion. In 1959, Dennis Stecher sold his majority stake in the Minneapolis Boxing and Wrestling Club to Karbo and Gagne. They became co-owners of the promotion from that point onward.
In 1960, after unsuccessfully lobbying the NWA for a title match between Gagne and the NWA World Champion Pat O’Connor, Gagne and Karbo led certain territories out of the NWA forming the AWA. The AWA unilaterally recognized NWA World Champion Pat O’Connor as AWA World Champion and gave him 90 days to defend the AWA title against Gagne. The NWA ignored the challenge. O’Connor was stripped of the AWA title and it was awarded to Gagne on August 16, 1960. While O’Connor was considered the first AWA Champion, he never wrestled in the AWA until later in the 1960s (when he teamed with Wilbur Snyder to win the AWA World Tag Team Championship).
Gagne was a former amateur-wrestling champion who had earned a spot on the U.S. team at the 1948 Summer Olympics; he ran the AWA with a traditionalist sensibility, firmly believing that sound technical wrestling should be the basis of a pro-wrestling company. Starting in the 1970s, Gagne trained his newcomer wrestlers from his farm in Chanhassen, Minnesota.
Under Gagne and Karbo, the AWA became one of the most successful and expansive single territories in the country, promoting shows in such major cities as Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Chicago, Omaha, Winnipeg, Denver, Salt Lake City, Las Vegas, San Francisco, Phoenix and throughout the Midwest region. Relationships were also developed with existing promotions in Houston, Memphis and San Antonio. Gagne’s westward expansion into traditional NWA territories was made possible due to relationships and business partnerships he had forged for decades—more the result of other promoters struggling to survive rather than by purchase or hostile takeover by Gagne.
After Gagne’s retirement in 1981, he focused the promotion on Nick Bockwinkel Ted Baker Canada 2016, a loyal employee of several years who was a mat-wrestling technician like Gagne had been. Bockwinkel faced numerous challengers for the title during the early 1980s including eventual champions Rick Martel and Otto Wanz, former champion Mad Dog Vachon, and perennial contenders Wahoo McDaniel, and Brad Rheingans, but perhaps his most famous opponent would be Hulk Hogan. Starting in 1982 and accelerated by a role in the hit film Rocky III, Hogan rapidly caught on as a babyface with AWA fans, and became the AWA’s top draw. But even as his popularity grew to unprecedented levels, Gagne refused to make him the AWA World Heavyweight Champion, as Hogan was a powerhouse wrestler. He recognized Hogan’s showmanship and charisma and was well aware of his potential drawing power, but still believed a wrestling company should be built around one of its best technical wrestlers (e.g., himself and Bockwinkel). On the Spectacular Legacy of the AWA DVD, Gagne denied bias against Hogan and defended his actions by reasoning that he believed that Hogan’s pursuit of the title was the draw for the audience and that “we really didn’t need him to be champion”.
On two occasions, Gagne went so far as to tease AWA title wins for Hogan, only to return the title to Bockwinkel via technicalities. The first was on April 18, 1982. Hogan defeated Bockwinkel with the help of a foreign object that Bockwinkel’s manager Bobby Heenan had interjected into the match. After the three count the belt was awarded to Hogan and he was announced as the new champion. Heenan informed the referee of the object and the ref questioned Hogan about this

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, but the blood on Hogan’s face was evidence that the object had also been used on him. The ref stood by his decision and Hogan left the arena as the new AWA World champion. Six days later on AWA television, AWA President Stanley Blackburn stripped Hogan of the title and returned it to Bockwinkel.
The second such occasion was on a “Super Sunday” card in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1983. Hogan again pinned Bockwinkel, was awarded the belt and announced as the new champion. This time Blackburn came to the ring moments after the match and tried to have Hogan retroactively disqualified for throwing the champion over the top rope a few minutes before the pinfall occurred. However this match had been booked as a no disqualification match, which prevented this, so Blackburn simply stripped Hogan of the title and once again handed it back to Bockwinkel. The crowd (which had exploded in cheers when Hogan appeared to have won) almost rioted when learning that Hogan was once again cheated out of the title, and Bockwinkel later had to do damage control with the rabid crowd, telling the audience to calm down afterwards as well. Hogan attacked Bockwinkel and his manager Bobby Heenan. On the DVD The Spectacular Legacy of the AWA, it was revealed that Verne Gagne planned to have Hogan win the belt that night, but only if he would give Gagne the bulk of the revenues that Hogan was earning from merchandise and his periodic main-event performances in New Japan Pro Wrestling. Outraged at being strongarmed, Hogan refused, but nonetheless offered a 50/50 split instead. Gagne refused, and kept the belt from him.
As Vince McMahon and his northeastern-based World Wrestling Federation (WWF) attempted to end pro wrestling’s regional era in the mid-1980s (by establishing the WWF as a national promotion), Gagne made several decisions that caused his AWA to lose momentum in the emerging wrestling promotion war, including overemphasizing his son Greg Gagne in AWA storylines (which led to charges of nepotism within the company) and failing to make Hulk Hogan the top star of his company when he had the chance.
Frustrated by Verne Gagne’s business decisions, Hogan accepted an offer from rival promoter McMahon to wrestle for the WWF, in December 1983. One month later, Hogan became the World Heavyweight champion. He and the WWF soon became a mainstream media phenomenon and virtually synonymous with professional wrestling in much of the national consciousness, vaulting past the AWA and NWA as the premier promotion in wrestling. Hogan wasn’t alone in leaving the AWA. Some of the AWA’s other top talent, including announcer “Mean Gene” Okerlund, manager Bobby “The Brain” Heenan, and wrestlers Adrian Adonis, Ken Patera, Jim Brunzell, David Schultz, Wendi Richter and Jesse Ventura, also jumped to the WWF. As the AWA required talent to place a six-week notice upon leaving the company for booking and syndication-based reasons, most of the talent reportedly told Gagne that McMahon offered them more money to not work out their notices and previously-scheduled appearance dates, which has been disputed by McMahon today. Of the talent to leave AWA for the WWF in this time, only Heenan worked out his notice in good faith to the Gagne family.
The sting of the WWF expansion was not shouldered by the AWA alone. The Mid-Atlantic, Georgia, and Florida territories of the NWA also lost top stars such as “Rowdy” Roddy Piper, Greg “The Hammer” Valentine, Jack Brisco, Jerry Brisco, Ricky “The Dragon” Steamboat, “Cowboy” Bob Orton, Barry Windham, and Mike Rotunda to the WWF during that same time.
Despite this talent raid, the AWA went on to have another successful year in 1984, mainly because of the arrival of The Road Warriors and an angle uniting longtime heel Jerry Blackwell with Greg Gagne and feuding with former manager Sheik Adnan El-Kaissey. Although aging, most of the AWA’s longtime core talent still remained. Stars like Nick Bockwinkel, Ray “The Crippler” Stevens, The Crusher, Dick the Bruiser, Baron von Raschke, Mad Dog Vachon, and Larry Hennig were all still active at this time despite all being in their 40s or 50s.
In response to McMahon’s expansion, the AWA forged an alliance with several NWA promoters, including Jim Crockett Promotions (Charlotte, NC), Mid-South Wrestling (Oklahoma City, OK), Pacific Northwest Wrestling (Portland, OR), World Class Championship Wrestling (Dallas, TX), and the Continental Wrestling Association (Memphis, TN). This new promotion was known as Pro Wrestling USA and came about in an attempt to establish a national presence to compete against the WWF. The AWA was also able to sign top wrestlers like Sgt. Slaughter and Bob Backlund. By 1985, however, the AWA began to lose audiences, as the WWF was gaining wrestling superiority in the wake of WrestleMania I. Later in the year, as this struggle against the WWF progressed, Wally Karbo also sold all his stock to Gagne as well. In September 1985, Pro Wrestling USA would respond to McMahon’s rising success by promoting the first SuperClash. Despite this success, the Pro Wrestling USA collaboration did not last, as Gagne accused David Crockett of trying to sign away AWA talent over to the NWA backstage at numerous Pro Wrestling USA shows.
The AWA released an AWA Remco Action Figure line with the toy company Remco and a series of 30 minute videos entitled “Wrestling Classics”, primarily featuring wrestlers such as Sgt. Slaughter, the Road Warriors, Jimmy Garvin & Steve Regal, and World Champion Rick Martel.
Despite falling behind the WWF and NWA as a major promotion throughout 1986 and 1987, Gagne still managed to find and/or develop legitimate young talent like Scott Hall, The Midnight Rockers (Shawn Michaels and Marty Jannetty), “Bull Power” Leon White (later known as Big Van Vader), The Nasty Boys (Brian Knobs and Jerry Sags), and Madusa Miceli during that timeframe.
With the retirement of Nick Bockwinkel, Gagne tapped Curt Hennig as his next champion and future of the company. Hennig, a talented and popular second generation wrestler, defeated Bockwinkel at Super Clash 2. The overall card was relatively weak, but the title match was a critical success, although the title change was not without controversy, involving Larry Zbyszko and a roll of dimes. After further review by on-air AWA President Stanley Blackburn, and following weeks of speculation by AWA fans, the decision was upheld and Hennig was the new champion

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. Gagne pushed Hennig and The Midnight Rockers throughout 1987 and into 1988, but the WWF came calling and all three of his top stars would soon be gone.
During 1987, in an attempt to remain relevant and survive, Gagne renewed a relationship with Memphis-based promoter Jerry Jarrett and the CWA and even allowed Mid-Southern territory legend Jerry “The King” Lawler to win the AWA World Title from Curt Hennig in May 1988. This was after the AWA flirted for months with the idea of giving Greg Gagne the belt, even awarding the belt to Gagne at a couple of house shows, only to return it to Hennig on a technicality. It was widely speculated that the idea of the younger Gagne as heavyweight champion did not play well with AWA fans, who seemed more interested in the involvement of Verne Gagne and Larry Hennig in the feud than they did with Greg Gagne actually winning the title, so Verne decided to go with Lawler instead. Michaels and Jannetty would drop the titles to Badd Company around that same time.
Facing financial trouble of their own, WCCW then allied themselves with the AWA and CWA, and Jerry Lawler would challenge WCCW Heavyweight champion Kerry Von Erich to a title unification match at SuperClash III in December. Super Clash III was the AWA’s first venture into the Pay-Per-View market and wrestling’s first collaborative PPV between several promotions. However, after months of hype, the end results were somewhat contentious and relatively unsuccessful. Following the event, the collaborative effort was over and Lawler was stripped of the title in January 1989. Lawler kept the AWA Title belt and continued promoting himself in Tennessee, Texas, and on the independent circuit as the unified World Heavyweight Champion. Lawler did this in an attempt to leverage PPV revenue from Gagne that was owed to him, but Gagne never paid him and eventually commissioned a new title belt of similar design.
In February 1989, Larry Zbyszko, a one-time employee and Verne’s son-in-law, returned to the AWA and won the vacated World Title in an 18-man Battle Royal, eliminating Tom Zenk to end the match. It was also during this time that Joe Blanchard replaced Stanley Blackburn as AWA President. Zbyszko’s first title reign would last for a little over one year. During this time he would defend the title against Zenk, Greg Gagne, Wahoo McDaniel, Ken Patera, Nikita Koloff, Brad Rheingans, The Trooper Del Wilkes, and Masa Saito. Zbyszko would eventually lose the title to Saito in February 1990 in front of 65,000 fans at the Tokyo Dome at the NJPW/AJPW Supershow. Zbyszko would regain the title in May 1990 at SuperClash IV. During 1989 and 1990, the AWA also pushed Mike Enos and Wayne Bloom as the top tag team. In early 1989, Eric Bischoff, who was performing office work for the AWA at the time, mostly in sales and syndication, was placed in front of the camera to replace Larry Nelson as interviewer and occasional commentator. The AWA was Bischoff’s first exposure to the world of pro wrestling. He would later become a dominant force in the industry, leading World Championship Wrestling to prominence in the 1990s.
The AWA would become inactive in the fall of 1990 (the last television taping occurred on August 11). As a result, Zbyszko signed with WCW. As his last official act, Verne Gagne stripped the already-departed Zbyszko of the AWA World Title in December 1990. In 1991, Gagne and his inactive promotion officially filed for bankruptcy. Gagne did promote two cards in Minnesota in May 1991, featuring the return of Greg Gagne and Wahoo McDaniel and other stars such as Baron von Raschke, Buck Zumhofe, and The Destruction Crew (Mike Enos & Wayne Bloom), but he was unable to revive the promotion. Despite this, the AWA continued re-running matches in their weekly ESPN time slot, and on their syndicated All-Star Wrestling show. The company also managed to release a commercial tape (Hulk Hogan Highlights) during 1991.
On the Spectacular Legacy of the AWA DVD, Eric Bischoff revealed that one of the main reasons the AWA shut down was that Verne Gagne was leveraging money against a valuable property he owned along Lake Minnetonka. Local officials wanted to turn the property into a park. Gagne fought the decision for several years, but eventually lost the eminent domain case, leading to the creation of Lake Minnetonka Regional Park. As a result, he lost the financial resource he was using to keep the AWA up and running and had no choice but to shut down the promotion. In an interview during the late 1990s with KARE 11, an NBC affiliate out of Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Gagne spoke of the devoted fan base in Minnesota and joked about how he may promote again some day, but nothing ever materialized.
Abroad, the AWA had working agreements with Japanese promotions International Pro Wrestling (1969 to 1980), then All Japan Pro Wrestling (1980 to 1988, although the relationship was strained in 1986 by the AWA Title debacle surrounding Stan Hansen), and, near the end, New Japan Pro Wrestling.
On June 29, 1986, in Denver, Colorado, Hansen refused to lose the AWA World Title to Nick Bockwinkel prior to a tour of Japan and left with the championship belt. Hansen argued that he was booked as AWA Champion in Japan and was therefore fulfilling his commitment. Gagne disagreed and awarded the AWA Championship to Bockwinkel, using one of the tag team title belts on a temporary basis. Gagne threatened legal action if Hansen continued to keep the belt and it was returned to the AWA as a result (although according to Nick Bockwinkel on The Spectacular Legacy of the AWA, Hansen had run over the belt with his truck before returning it).
The AWA also had a brief relationship with the European promotion Catch Wrestling Association, through which its promoter, wrestler Otto Wanz, was given a brief AWA World Title reign in 1982.
The AWA held a “Team Challenge Series” from October 1, 1989 through August 11, 1990. All of the available wrestlers were divided into three teams: “Larry’s Legends”, headed by Larry Zbyszko, “Sarge’s Snipers”, originally headed by Sgt. Slaughter, and “Baron’s Blitzers”, headed by Baron von Raschke. Slaughter left the AWA to return to the World Wrestling Federation shortly after WrestleMania VI, and Colonel DeBeers took over as the team captain for the Snipers (the team name was changed to “DeBeers’ Diamondcutters” and Slaughter was said on air to have “gone AWOL” to explain his departure).
Babyfaces and heels alike were assigned to teams, forcing bitter rivals to work together. The winners of Team Challenge matches would earn points for their team; at some unspecified point the highest scoring team would share one million dollars, within the story line. Some of the earlier TCS matches took place in a TV studio without an audience; the announcers claimed it was part of an effort to stop wrestlers from interfering, but it was actually due to poor ticket sales for arena shows. The remainder of the matches took place at the Rochester Civic Center, where the AWA taped live matches for its television program from 1989-1990.
The final match in the TCS was a Royal Rumble-style battle royal featuring Brad Rheingans, The Destruction Crew, Colonel DeBeers, the Texas Hangmen, the Trooper Del Wilkes, and several others. Jake Milliman again came away with the win by eliminating DeBeers at the end, winning the series and the supposed one-million-dollar check for Larry’s Legends.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, AWA television production was headquartered at Minneapolis independent station WTCN-TV, then owned by Metromedia. The ring announcer was longtime Minneapolis – Saint Paul sports broadcaster Marty O’Neill, who also conducted the post-match interviews. O’Neill announced the matches for the local WTCN audience. But fans watching the syndicated version of the show heard commentary provided by Rodger Kent. In the mid-1970s, during a prolonged illness, O’Neill was occasionally replaced as ring announcer by program producer Al DeRusha and interviews were conducted by both Kent and Gene Okerlund. By 1979, Okerlund had permanently replaced O’Neill, who died a couple of years later, and production was transferred to Minneapolis station KMSP-TV. During the AWA’s existence, it produced or had a hand in production of several TV programs:
In 1985, Gagne began airing weekly programming on ESPN, hoping to help the promotion compete with the national exposure already enjoyed by the WWF (on USA Network) and the NWA’s Georgia/World Championship Wrestling (although much less successful than the WWF at the time) (on TBS). However, weekly AWA shows were not treated with any priority by the cable network, sometimes being delayed, preempted by live programming, or suffering from occasional changes in time slot, making it difficult for fans to tune in on a regular basis.
On February 26, 2008, ESPN Classic began reairing AWA Championship Wrestling episodes, circa 1986-1990.
The AWA ran only one pay-per-view card, SuperClash III, during its 30-year run. However, From 1999 to 2002, a series of AWA-related pay-per-views were produced. Titled AWA Classic Wrestling, they featured compilations of old AWA footage, hosted by Greg Gagne and Todd Okerlund (son of Gene Okerlund), with occasional appearances by Verne Gagne. The pay-per-views ceased following the acquisition of the AWA tape library by World Wrestling Entertainment.
All footage of the AWA is owned by WWE. WWE released The Spectacular Legacy of the AWA on November 21, 2006. The DVD includes a documentary on the amateur and professional career of Verne Gagne, the rise and fall of the AWA over its 30-year history, along with numerous interviews and features with Gagne, Hulk Hogan, Jim Brunzell, Michael Hayes, Baron von Raschke, Greg Gagne, Eric Bischoff, Bobby Heenan, Gene Okerlund and Nick Bockwinkel.
In 1996, Dale Gagner, a former AWA employee, began using the AWA name in the state of Minnesota and formed an organization known as AWA Superstars of Wrestling, infringing on the AWA name. In April 2007, WWE filed a lawsuit against Gagner, citing trademark infringement, as WWE owned all AWA properties due to their purchase after the AWA’s closure. In a move to sidestep WWE, former AWA wrestler Jonnie Stewart trademarked the name “American Wrestling Alliance” instead. However, the United States Patent and Trademark Office later indicated that the request was abandoned in February 2008.
In October 2008, the court ruled in favor of WWE. The court ruling prohibits Gagner and his associate from exploiting or trading on the AWA name or any other derivatives. As a result, the organization was renamed to Wrestling Superstars Live.

Хлябово (Московская область)

Хлябово — деревня в городском округе Мытищи Московской области России.
Расположена на севере Московской области bogner одежда, в северо-западной части Мытищинского района, примерно в 26 км к северо-западу от центра города Мытищи и 24 км от Московской кольцевой автодороги, на берегу Икшинского водохранилища системы канала имени Москвы.
В деревне 30 улиц, 3 переулка и 1 проезд, приписано садоводческое товарищество. Связана автобусным сообщением с железнодорожной станцией Катуар, находящейся в посёлке городского типа Некрасовский Дмитровского района. Ближайшие населённые пункты — деревни Большая Чёрная, Большое Ивановское, Ларёво, посёлки Менжинец и Трудовая.
В XV—XVI вв. в Хлябове существовал небольшой вотчинный Воскресенский монастырь, после него — уничтоженная в Смутное время церковь, на месте которой стояла деревянная часовня, приписанная к церкви в Троице-Сельце, а ныне поставлен памятный крест.
В 1585 году село Хлябово с существовавшей в нём деревянной церковью Воскресения Христова с приделом Рождества Пресвятой Богородицы принадлежало митрополиту. В 1646 году значится деревней, в 1678 году в ней 6 крестьянских дворов с 26 жителями, 13 дворов бобылей с 38 жителями и дворы кузнеца и плотника с 7 жителями.
— Нистрем К. Указатель селений и жителей уездов Московской губернии, 1852
В «Списке населённых мест» 1862 года — казённая деревня Московского уезда на Дмитровском тракте (из Москвы в Калязин), в 40 верстах от губернского города и 25 верстах от становой квартиры, при речке Черноземихе, с 38 дворами и 298 жителями (140 мужчин, 158 женщин).
По данным на 1899 год — сельцо Марфинской волости Московского уезда с 168 жителями.
В 1913 году — 29 дворов.
По материалам Всесоюзной переписи населения 1926 года — деревня Черновского сельсовета Трудовой волости Московского уезда в 1,5 км от Дмитровского шоссе и 5,5 км от станции Катуар Савёловской железной дороги, проживало 232 жителя (99 мужчин, 133 женщины), насчитывалось 41 крестьянское хозяйство.
С 1929 года — населённый пункт в составе Коммунистического района Московского округа Московской области. Постановлением ЦИК и СНК от 23 июля 1930 года округа как административно-территориальные единицы были ликвидированы.
1929—1935 гг. — деревня Черновского сельсовета Коммунистического района.
1935—1939 гг. — деревня Черновского сельсовета Дмитровского района.
1939—1954 гг. — деревня Черновского сельсовета Краснополянского района.
1954—1959 гг. — деревня Сухаревского сельсовета Краснополянского района.
1959—1960 гг. — деревня Сухаревского сельсовета Химкинского района.
1960—1963, 1965—1994 гг. — деревня Сухаревского сельсовета Мытищинского района.
1963—1965 гг. — деревня Сухаревского сельсовета Мытищинского укрупнённого сельского района.
1994—2006 гг. — деревня Сухаревского сельского округа Мытищинского района.
2006—2015 гг. — деревня сельского поселения Федоскинское Мытищинского района.
Административный центр — город Мытищи
сёла Виноградово · Марфино · Троицкое · Федоскино • деревни Аббакумово · Аксаково · Афанасово · Беляниново · Болтино · Большая Чёрная · Большое Ивановское · Бородино · Бяконтово · Вешки · Витенёво · Высоково · Голенищево · Горки · Грибки · Данилково · Долгиниха · Драчёво · Еремино · Жостово · Зимино · Капустино · Коргашино · Красная Горка · Крюково · Ларёво · Лысково · Малое Ивановское · Манюхино · Муракино · Никульское · Новоалександрово · Новогрязново · Новосельцево · Осташково · Пирогово · Погорелки · Подольниха · Подрезово · Поседкино · Протасово · Пруссы · Пчёлка · Рождественно · Румянцево · Свиноедово · Сгонники · Семенищево · Семкино · Сорокино · Степаньково · Сумароково · Сухарево · Терпигорьево · Троице-Сельцо · Ульянково · Фелисово · Фоминское · Хлябово · Ховрино · Челобитьево · Чиверёво · Шолохово · Юдино · Юрьево • посёлки Борец · Вешки · Жостово · Здравница · Кардо-Лента · леспаркхоза Клязьминский · Лётчик-Испытатель · Мебельной фабрики · Менжинец · Нагорное · Николо-Прозорово · Новоалександрово · Пестово · Пирогово · Пироговского лесопарка · Поведники · Покровская Гора · Птицефабрики · Свиноедово · совхоза «Марфино» · Торфоболото · Трудовая · Туристический Пансионат «Клязьминское водохранилище»

The Jade

The Jade est un groupe finlandais de rock’n’roll créé en 2004 et ayant des influences de punk rock et de pop originaire d’Helsinki.

The Jade s’est formé à l’été 2004 avec Wille Rosen

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, Pekko Mantzin, Sirpa Immonen et Jann P.H. Tous avaient déjà participé à d’autres projets auparavant. Leur premier EP, Heatwave EP sort à l’automne de cette même année. Puis suivra en 2006 Slow Motions on the Fast Lanes. Cet album est très bien accueilli et passe même en radio, ce qui contribue à faire connaître le groupe. Mais c’est surtout MySpace qui permettra à The Jade d’atteindre un public plus large. Les fans constitueront des street teams et des Fan Pages.
Les premiers albums étaient produits en indépendants

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, mais grâce au succès grandissant, le groupe signe sur le label North & South en 2008. Leur premier album officiel, produit par Petri Majuri et Hannu Leiden, s’appelle Seconds Away From Salvation. ‘Wille Rosen quitte le groupe en 2010 pour des raisons personnelles.
Trois singles en sont issus : Drowning, leur version rock de It´s A Sin des Pet Shop Boys et King´s Cross

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Le 3 mars 2011, The Jade annonce sur leur MySpace qu’ils ne continuent pas ensemble. Pekko et Sirpa vont former un nouveau groupe et Jann continuera probablement la musique également.
Site officiel

Mondeville (Essonne)

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Essonne
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Essonne
Géolocalisation sur la carte : France
Géolocalisation sur la carte : France
Mondeville (prononcé [mɔ̃d̪ǝvil]  Écouter) est une commune française située à quarante et un kilomètres au sud-est de Paris dans le département de l’Essonne en région Île-de-France.
Ses habitants sont appelés les Mondevillois.

Mondeville est située à quarante et un kilomètres au sud-est de Paris-Notre-Dame, point zéro des routes de France, seize kilomètres au sud-ouest d’Évry, vingt kilomètres au nord-est d’Étampes, cinq kilomètres à l’est de La Ferté-Alais, onze kilomètres au nord-ouest de Milly-la-Forêt, quatorze kilomètres au sud-ouest de Corbeil-Essonnes, seize kilomètres au sud-est d’Arpajon, vingt kilomètres au sud-est de Montlhéry, vingt-huit kilomètres au sud-est de Palaiseau, trente kilomètres au sud-est de Dourdan. Elle est en outre à deux cent quatorze kilomètres au sud-est de Mondeville dans le Calvados.
Aucun cours d’eau ne traverse le territoire communal.
Les altitudes minimales et maximales de Mondeville sont respectivement de 81 m et 156 m.
Mondeville, située en Île-de-France, bénéficie d’un climat océanique dégradé aux hivers frais et aux étés doux, elle est arrosée avec régularité sur l’ensemble de l’année. En moyenne annuelle, la température s’établit à 10,8 °C, avec une moyenne maximale de 15,2 °C et une moyenne minimale à 6,4 °C. Les températures réelles relevées sont de 24,5 °C en juillet au maximum et 0,7 °C en janvier au minimum, mais les records enregistrés sont de 38,2 °C le 1er juillet 1952 et -19,6 °C le 17 janvier 1985. Du fait de la moindre densité urbaine de la banlieue par rapport à Paris, une différence négative de un à deux degrés Celsius se fait sentir, surtout en fin de nuit. L’ensoleillement est comparable à la moyenne des régions du nord de la Loire avec 1 798 heures par an, toutefois un peu inférieur au nord du département par la présence plus fréquente de brume à proximité des cours d’eau et des champs. Les précipitations sont réparties également sur l’année, avec un total de 598,3 millimètres de pluie et une moyenne approximative de cinquante millimètres par mois.

Peu de réseaux de transport en commun desservent le village de Mondeville, seuls les transports scolaires qui rallie le collège Olympe de Gouge à Champcueil, le lycée Marie Laurencin à Mennecy, les lycées Louis Blériot et Geoffroy Saint Hilaire à Étampes.
Outre le bourg, Mondeville est composé du hameau de La Padole.
L’origine du nom de la commune provient de l’expression latine Munda Villa signifiant « ferme sur la colline ». La commune fut créée en 1793 avec son nom actuel, le bulletin des lois de 1801 introduisit la variante Mondeville et Padolle.
En 2013, la commune comptait 706 habitants. L’évolution du nombre d’habitants est connue à travers les recensements de la population effectués dans la commune depuis 1793. À partir du XXIe siècle, les recensements réels des communes de moins de 10 000 habitants ont lieu tous les cinq ans, contrairement aux autres communes qui ont une enquête par sondage chaque année[Note 1],[Note 2].
La commune de Mondeville est rattachée au canton de Mennecy, représenté par les conseillers départementaux Patrick Imbert (UMP) et Caroline Parâtre (UMP), à l’arrondissement d’Étampes et à la deuxième circonscription de l’Essonne, représentée par le député Franck Marlin (UMP).
L’Insee attribue à la commune le code 91 1 11 412. La commune de Mondeville est enregistrée au répertoire des entreprises sous le code SIREN 219 104 122. Son activité est enregistrée sous le code APE 8411Z.
Élections présidentielles, résultats des deuxièmes tours :
Élections législatives, résultats des deuxièmes tours :
Élections européennes, résultats des deux meilleurs scores :
Élections régionales, résultats des deux meilleurs scores :
Élections cantonales, résultats des deuxièmes tours :
Élections municipales, résultats des deuxièmes tours :
Référendums :
Les élèves de Mondeville sont rattachés à l’académie de Versailles. La commune dispose sur son territoire de l’école primaire des Frères Montgolfier.
La commune dispose sur son territoire d’un centre de secours

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La commune de Mondeville n’a développé aucune association de jumelage.
La paroisse catholique de Mondeville est rattachée au secteur pastoral de La Ferté-Alais-Val d’Essonne et au diocèse d’Évry-Corbeil-Essonnes. Elle dispose de l’église Saint-Martin.
L’hebdomadaire Le Républicain relate les informations locales. La commune est en outre dans le bassin d’émission des chaînes de télévision France 3 Paris Île-de-France Centre, IDF1 et Téléssonne intégré à Télif.
En 2006, le revenu fiscal médian par ménage était de 23 467 €, ce qui plaçait la commune au 790e rang parmi les 30 687 communes de plus de cinquante ménages que compte le pays et au soixante-huitième rang départemental.
Les bois à l’est du territoire communal ont été recensés au titre des espaces naturels sensibles par le conseil général de l’Essonne.
Abri peint des roches aux dames.
Abri du christ Mondeville.
Borne gravée Mondeville.
L’église Saint-Martin des XIIe et XIIIe siècles a été inscrite aux monuments historiques le 28 juillet 1972.
La Croix rouge, une croix de chemin a été classée aux monuments historiques le 9 octobre 1969.
Abri de carriers.
Croix rouge.
Ferme des dames de port royal.
Four a pain.
La commune de Mondeville ne dispose pas de blason. Elle s’est dotée d’un logotype.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Torque vectoring

Torque vectoring is a new technology employed in automobile differentials. A differential transfers engine torque to the wheels. Torque vectoring technology provides the differential with the ability to vary the power to each wheel. This method of power transfer has recently become popular in all-wheel drive vehicles. Some newer front-wheel drive vehicles also have a basic torque vectoring differential. As technology in the automotive industry improves, more vehicles are equipped with torque vectoring differentials. This allows for the wheels to grip the road for better launch and handling.

The torque vectoring idea builds on the basic principles of a standard differential. A torque vectoring differential performs basic differential tasks while also transmitting torque independently between wheels. This torque transferring ability improves handling and traction in almost any situation. Torque vectoring differentials were originally used in racing. Mitsubishi rally cars were some of the earliest to use the technology. The technology has slowly developed and is now being implemented in a small variety of production vehicles. The most common use of torque vectoring in automobiles today is in all-wheel drive vehicles.
The idea and implementation of torque vectoring are both complex. The main goal of torque vectoring is to independently vary torque to each wheel. Differentials generally consist of only mechanical components. A torque vectoring differential requires an electronic monitoring system in addition to standard mechanical components. This electronic system tells the differential when and how to vary the torque. Due to the number of wheels that receive power, a front or rear wheel drive differential is less complex than an all-wheel drive differential

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Torque vectoring differentials on front or rear wheel drive vehicles are less complex, yet share many of the same benefits as all-wheel drive differentials. The differential only varies torque between two wheels. The electronic monitoring system only monitors two wheels, making it less complex. A front-wheel drive differential must take into account several factors. It must monitor rotational and steering angle of the wheels. As these factors vary during driving, different forces are exerted on the wheels. The differential monitors these forces, and adjusts torque accordingly

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. Many front-wheel drive differentials can increase or decrease torque transmitted to a certain wheel. This ability improves a vehicle’s capability to maintain traction in poor weather conditions. When one wheel begins to slip, the differential can reduce the torque to that wheel, effectively braking the wheel. The differential also increases torque to the opposite wheel, helping balance the power output and keep the vehicle stable. A rear-wheel drive torque vectoring differential works the same way as a front-wheel drive differential.
Most torque vectoring differentials are on all-wheel drive vehicles. A basic torque vectoring differential varies torque between the front and rear wheels. This means that under normal driving conditions, the front wheels receive a set percentage of the engine torque, and the rear wheels receive the rest. If needed, the differential can transfer more torque between the front and rear wheels to improve vehicle performance.
For example, a vehicle might have a standard torque distribution of 90% to the front wheels and 10% to the rear. Under harsh conditions, the differential changes the distribution to 50/50. This new distribution spreads the torque more evenly between all four wheels. Having more even torque distribution increases the vehicle’s traction.
There are more advanced torque vectoring differentials as well. These differentials build on basic torque transfer between front and rear wheels. They add the capability to transfer torque between individual wheels. This provides an even more effective method of improving handling characteristics

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. The differential monitors each wheel independently, and distributes available torque to match current conditions. Acura’s Super Handling All-Wheel Drive (SH-AWD) can transfer power between front and rear and vary the amount of torque transmitted to each rear wheel. The front wheels, however, do not receive different amounts of torque. Audi produced a torque vectoring system capable of varying the torque received by any wheel of the vehicle: quattro with torque vectoring. This allows each wheel to receive independent torque amounts to increase the overall performance of the vehicle.
In an electric vehicle all-wheel drive can be implemented with two independent electric motors, one for each axle. In this case the torque vectoring between the front and rear axles is just a matter of electronically controlling the power distribution between the two motors, which can be done on a millisecond scale.
Torque vectoring is even more effective if it is actuated through two electric motor drives located on the same axle, as this configuration can be used for shaping the vehicle understeer characteristic and improving the transient response of the vehicle,. In case of electric vehicles with four electric motor drives, the same total wheel torque and yaw moment can be generated through an infinite number of wheel torque distributions. Energy efficiency can be used as a criterion for allocating the torques among the individual wheels,.
In 2012, Mercedes introduced the SLS AMG Electric Drive. Mercedes engineers were able to make the system work with a higher traction torque level on the outer wheels than on the inner wheels during cornering, in order to tighten the turning radius.

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