Waiting for Tonight

Waiting for Tonight” is a song written by Maria Christensen, Michael Garvin, and Phil Temple. It was originally written and recorded for American girl group 3rd Party’s debut studio album, Alive (1997). Two years after the group disbanded, American singer Jennifer Lopez recorded her own version of the song for her debut studio album, On the 6 (1999). Ric Wake and Richie Jones provided production for Lopez’s dance-pop version of “Waiting for Tonight” baby football socks, which differs from the German-sounding Europop version that was recorded by 3rd Party. A Spanish version of the song, entitled “Una Noche Más”, was adapted by Manny Benito and also recorded for the album. “Waiting for Tonight” was released on November 1, 1999, by the Work Group, as the third single from On the 6.

“Waiting for Tonight” is considered by various publications, such as Entertainment Weekly and the Chicago Tribune, to be the best song of Lopez’s career. Contemporary music critics have also credited the song with making her a leading artist in the dance-pop movement. It was used frequently as a celebratory anthem in anticipation for the dawn of the new millennium. The single was a commercial success, reaching the top ten in Australia, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. “Waiting for Tonight” became Lopez’s first song to top the US Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs chart. The song earned her a nomination for Best Dance Recording at the 42nd Annual Grammy Awards in 2000.

The accompanying music video for “Waiting for Tonight” was directed by Francis Lawrence and depicts a Y2K dance party. The video was widely popular, receiving heavy rotation on MTV, and its emphasis on Lopez’s body led to increased media attention surrounding the entertainer. It was nominated for numerous awards, including two at the 2000 MTV Video Music Awards, where it received the MTV Video Music Award for Best Dance Video. The video has influenced subsequent music videos by Adam Lambert, Rihanna, Britney Spears, Beyoncé, FKA twigs, and Selena Gomez. Lopez has performed “Waiting for Tonight” on various television programs, such as Dick Clark’s New Year’s Rockin’ Eve, at various award ceremonies, such as the 11th Billboard Music Awards, and in two of her concert tours, with the most recent being the Dance Again World Tour.

The song was originally written and recorded for 3rd Party’s debut studio album, Alive (1997). Lopez recorded her own version of “Waiting for Tonight” three years after the group’s break-up for her debut studio album, On the 6 (1999). The song was first presented to Lopez and her producer Cory Rooney by Ric Wake. Lopez “hated the song” in its early demo format saying “I never want to hear that song again. It’s horrible and so cheesy”, while Rooney believed it had potential. Rooney said: “I begged [Ric] and said, ‘Look, please we need to go back on this song. We need to work on this song and really produce it out.'” Wake informed Rooney that it would cost too much to rework the song, and Rooney subsequently paid $50,000, stating: “That’s how much I believe the record is gonna be a hit for her.” Upon hearing the new version, Lopez loved it, and wanted to record it right away.

“Waiting for Tonight” was written by Maria Christiansen, Michael Garvin, and Phil Temple. Ric Wake provided the production for Lopez’s version, which according to Garvin, differs from the “very German-sounding” Europop version that was recorded by 3rd Party. Additional production was provided by Richie Jones, who arranged the song alongside Wake. Additional programming and arranging was provided by Jones and “Young” Dave Scheuer. Background vocals were performed by Christensen, Jane Barrett, and Margaret Dorn. Eric Kupper played the keyboards, while Jones played the drums and percussion. Scheuer, Franklyn Grant, and Thomas R. Yezzi provided engineering for the song, with assistance from Juan Bohorquez and Robb Williams, while the production was coordinated by David Barrett. The song was recorded at various recording locations in New York City, including Cove City Sound Studios, The Dream Factory, Hit Factory, and Sony Music Studios. The song was later mixed by Dan Hetzel at Cove City Sound Studios.

“Waiting for Tonight” is an uptempo dance-pop song with a length of four minutes and six seconds (4:06). According to the digital music sheet published at Musicnotes.com, the song is written in the key of B♭ minor. It follows a chord progression B♭m–A♭6–Fm7–G♭maj7. The instrumentation of “Waiting for Tonight” consists of a piano and guitar. The song has a tempo of 125 beats per minute. The song has a slightly salsa-influenced opening, with PopCrush describing its percussion as “tropical” and Latin waist bag for running. Aaron Beierle of DVD Talk commented that “Waiting for Tonight” hits a “rich groove.” BET called the song a “club banger”. “Waiting for Tonight” has sensual lyrics, with Lopez comparing her sex life to a movie scene.

“Waiting for Tonight” is considered by various sources to be the best song of Lopez’s career, including Entertainment Weekly, the Chicago Tribune, Slant Magazine, and Idolator, among others. MTV described the song as “classic Lopez”. “Waiting for Tonight” was used frequently as a celebratory anthem, used in anticipation for the dawn of the new millennium. People magazine stated that it became the “turn-of-the-millennium” club anthem. Lauren Zupkus of The Huffington Post praised it as an “epic dance hit”, which was the “perfect anthem for all of our anxiety about Y2K”. Los Angeles Times writer Gerrick D. Kennedy stated that “we can all admit that “Waiting for Tonight” played at our respective millennium celebrations”, while PopSugar wrote: “No 1999 New Year’s Eve bash was complete without J Lo’s big party song.” Dee Lockett, writing for the Chicago Tribune, stated that songs such as “Waiting for Tonight” made Lopez “arguably the leading artist in the dance-pop movement at the time”. Andrew Barker of Variety magazine called the song her breakout club hit, and wrote that it “seemed to anticipate the rise of Euro-centric dance pop a decade before EDM became a buzz term”.

VH1’s Stacy Lambe ranked “Waiting for Tonight” as Lopez’s best single, speaking favorably of her “focused” vocals and writing that the track “quickly became a staple for the singer. Infused with the anticipation of the millennium, “Waiting for Tonight” became an anthem for the end of an era. It simultaneously built up the excitement for the New Year while kissing off the fears and drama of the past. It was 1999 after all, and anything could happen.” WatchMojo.com ranked it atop their list of “Top 10 Jennifer Lopez Songs”, writing: “While many were contemplating a Y2K disaster, Lopez transformed fear to excitement with this Billboard hit and ushered in a new musical era.”

Rolling Stone described it as “music worth getting lost in”. David Browne of Entertainment Weekly, in a review of On the 6, gave a positive review of the song, stating that “[from On the 6] At least one track, the club-hopping ‘Waiting for Tonight,’ is worthy of a dance-floor diva, and the inevitable remix should sound even better”. Matthew Turner of Crosswalk.com called “Waiting for Tonight” an “infectious tune.” Richard Harrington from The Washington Post was unfavorable of the song, calling it a “generic” dance track. Deseret News described Lopez’s vocals as “sultry” but thin, whilst noting that she finds a “nice ring” in songs such as “Waiting for Tonight”. Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine agreed, observing that her vocals were best-suited for dance-pop songs such as “Waiting for Tonight”. Allmusic’s Heather Phares praised the Spanish version of the song, “Una Noche Más”, for emphasizing Lopez’s “distinctive heritage”, stating that it elevated the song’s parent album On the 6 from “a star’s vanity project to an individual but accessible work of pop songcraft by a widely talented performer”. “Waiting for Tonight” earned Lopez her first Grammy Award nomination, for Best Dance Recording. Max TV listed “Waiting for Tonight” as one of their “Top 1000 Greatest Songs of All Time”.

British dance music duo Phats & Small’s 2004 song “Maybe Tonight” heavily samples “Waiting for Tonight”. British record producer Joker sampled the song for his single “Midnight”, released in 2014. “Waiting for Tonight” was also sampled by Australian electronic music band Cut Copy, in their song “Hearts on Fire”. MTV’s Nicole James likened the chorus of singer Lady Gaga’s song “Marry the Night” to “Waiting for Tonight”.

“Waiting for Tonight” debuted on the Australian Singles Chart at number 35 on October 31, 1999. In its eleventh week on the chart, it reached a peak of number four. Overall, it spent six weeks in the top ten and was certified platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association for shipments of 70,000 units. In Belgium, the song peaked at number four in Wallonia and fifteen in Flanders. After entering the Official New Zealand Music Chart at number 42 for the week ending October 31, 1999, the song peaked at number five one month later, and was later certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand for shipment of 7,500 units. In Finland, “Waiting for Tonight” charted for three weeks, peaking at number eight. The single also peaked at number nine in Canada, and number ten in France. It was later certified silver in France by the Syndicat National de l’Édition Phonographique, marking shipments of 50,000 units.

For the week ending October 16, 1999, “Waiting for Tonight” entered the US Billboard Hot 100 at number 56 as the “Hot Shot Debut of the Week.” Airplay and sales increased, with the song steadily rising to number 37 in its second week, garnering the “Greatest Gainer in Airplay” title. In its third week, it jumped to number 25 on the Hot 100, while topping the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play chart. “Waiting for Tonight” entered the top ten of the Hot 100 on the week ending November 27, 1999, reaching number nine. The following week, the song peaked at number eight on the Hot 100. It also peaked at number five on the US Hot 100 Airplay Chart. It is her ninth biggest hit on Billboard charts. In August 2002, the song received a BDS Certified Spin Award for receiving 200,000 radio spins in the United States.

The music video for “Waiting for Tonight” was filmed in Los Angeles over three days from August 2–4, 1999. Part of it was shot at the Los Angeles Arboretum. Lopez took time off from filming The Cell (2000) to complete the music video. It was directed by Francis Lawrence, whose work Lopez had admired. Speaking of the video’s concept, Lopez said: “I wanted it to be fun and have a certain type of energy and he came back with the treatment of the video where it was this millennium party in the jungle. Just the way he described it, it sounded perfect, the kind of thing I really wanted to do so we just went with it.” When casting extras for the music video, Lopez stressed that she wanted those appearing around her to look like “real people”. For “Waiting for Tonight”, she worked with choreographer Tina Landon, who previously hired Lopez as a backup dancer for Janet Jackson in the early stages of her career. Landon also made an appearance in the clip as an extra. During filming, Lopez was burnt on her shoulder by one of the green lasers used. Two versions of the music video were released, the original and one featuring the Hex Hector remix of the song. The creation of “Waiting for Tonight” was documented and aired by MTV in Making the Video. Cheryl Lu-Lien Tan of The Baltimore Sun stated that it revealed the “death-defying dance stunts” which Lopez undertook, “donning stiletto heels and a micro-mini to perform elaborate footwork on a narrow, 6-foot-high Plexiglas platform while cameras caught her from every possible provocative angle”. The music video premiered directly after the Making the Video special on MTV, on August 23, 1999.

The clip begins with an image of the sun setting. Lopez and her female friends are at a house preparing for a New Year’s Eve party. Inter-cut are scenes of Lopez dancing in a jungle, where green lasers are flashing behind her. Later, another scene features Lopez covered with sparking crystals on her face and body. The females later canoe over a river and travel to a Rave party which is being held in a rainforest. Towards the end of the song’s bridge, the music briefly stops, as the party-goers stare up at a large clock and count down to the year 2000. There is a six-second power outage (A reference to the Y2K problem). The power returns, and the party celebrates the new year. This is inter-cut with scenes of Lopez dancing on top of the crowd, as well as frolicking in a Hawaiian river wearing a black bikini. In the Hex Hector remix version, the original video intercuts new scenes of Lopez dancing in a jungle with green lasers flashing behind her with the original footage. The video also incorporates a green laser strobe effect.

The music video was widely popular, receiving heavy rotation on MTV, and establishing Lopez as a “dance princess”. Its emphasis on Lopez’s body, much like her previous music video for “If You Had My Love”, led to increased media attention, with Lopez being recognized for her curvaceous figure and buttocks. The music video was famed for its thematic depiction of a Y2K dance party. Carsianny Osias from the magazine New York observed that the video served as a “fun distraction as the world began to worry about Y2K and the possibility of living in a state of computer-driven chaos”, and also noted that its theme helped “Waiting for Tonight” become an “official party starter for years to come (…) We’ve come a long way since the year 2000, but it’s safe to say that ‘Waiting for Tonight’ isn’t going anywhere.” Author Dominic Pettman observed that the music video captured an “orgasmic anticipation” for the new millennium. Fuse ranked the clip at number 30 on their list of the “Top 100 Sexiest Music Videos of All Time” in 2011. Entertainment Weekly regarded it as the best music video of Lopez’s career.

“Lasers in the jungle and the Y2K vibe of that years New Years Eve celebrations are unforgettable images that helped catapult JLo to international success.”

Yahoo!

The visuals of “Waiting for Tonight” became distinctive, particularly the green lasers appearing in the background, and the crystals Lopez wore on her body. Lopez said in 2014, “[Green lasers] just became so signature to that song and that time. I think that was the first time anyone had used them in a video that way.” Maitri Mehta of Bustle magazine wrote that she was “mesmerized by a vision of a bronze J. Lo gettin’ life from those green lasers. In almost all of her music videos, J. Lo is extremely, overtly sexy but that’s the point.” American Idol alumnus Adam Lambert revealed electric sweater, “I remember when I was a kid graduating high school and ‘Waiting for Tonight’ came out (…) And she had all the rhinestones on her face and she just looked like just dewy and stunning and amazing.” Fashion magazine Styleite wrote that Lopez continues to “inspire innumerable, ill-advised body glitter purchases around the world thanks to the steamy rave of “Waiting For Tonight””. Diane Cho of VH1 noted that Lopez “trademarked” the glitter-look in “Waiting for Tonight”, which was adapted by Britney Spears in “Toxic” and Beyoncé in “1+1”.

Monica Herrera of Billboard stated that Adam Lambert’s music video for the song “If I Had You” took the “late-night wilderness party motif of Jennifer Lopez’s classic “Waiting for Tonight” clip” and added “more lasers, guyliner, thrashy dance moves, silver top hats and outrageously spiky shoulder pads”. MTV’s Nicole James compared Rihanna’s “Where Have You Been” music video to “Waiting for Tonight”. Tiffany Lee of Yahoo! stated that Selena Gomez was “channeling” an early Lopez in her song “Slow Down”, drawing comparisons between both songs and videos, observing that “the premise for both music videos are almost identical”, with “dancing in front of flashing lights and sweating in dance floor crowds”. Pitchfork Media’s Lindsay Zoladz stated that English singer FKA twigs’ music video for the song “Papi Pacify” features “perhaps the most dazzling use of body glitter in a music video since J. Lo’s ‘Waiting for Tonight'”. Slant Magazine’s Ed Gonzalez likened the plot of the film The Matrix Reloaded (2003) to the music video. Hunter Schwarz of the website BuzzFeed humorously compared the music video to a 2013 Egyptian protest, where thousands of demonstrators flashed green lasers.

The music video received several award nominations, including four wins meat tenderizer brands. At the 2000 MTV Video Music Awards, “Waiting for Tonight” was nominated in the Best Choreography and Best Dance Video categories, winning for Best Dance Video. It also won for Best Pop Video Clip at the Billboard Music Awards, and Best Dance Video at the International Dance Music Awards. At the Billboard Music Video Awards, “Waiting for Tonight” received two nominations for Best Video and Best New-Artist Video. It received multiple MVPA Award nominations, including for Pop Video of the Year, and won for Best Hair.

Lopez performed “Waiting for Tonight” for the first time on the British music chart television program Top of the Pops, on the episode that aired November 12, 1999 on BBC. Weeks later, she performed the song at the 11th Billboard Music Awards on December 8, 1999, where she opened the show. Billboard praised the performance as a “galvanizing” opening to the ceremony. She also sang the song along with “Feelin’ So Good” during an appearance at Saturday Night Live on May 2, 2000. She also sang the song at her set of Let’s Get Loud Concerts in Puerto Rico; a performance in which she got down on “all fours” while singing. The performance was televised on NBC on November 20, 2001. On September 6, 2007, she performed a remixed version of the song at Fashion Rocks, a charity fundraiser event, along with the single “Do It Well”, with Newsday writer Glenn Gamboa stating that the performance “seemed built for the runway with all the wind machines and strutting models”. The event aired on CBS, the following day. Lopez included “Waiting for Tonight” on her set list during her 2007 co-headlining concert tour with then-husband Marc Anthony. This was her first tour. In 2009, Lopez performed it at Dick Clark’s New Year’s Rockin’ Eve in a “revealing” catsuit. The catsuit provoked a mixed reaction from the public; The host of the show Ryan Seacrest praised the outfit, saying that it “made my year”—while others weren’t so admirable. Alicia Lundgren, a 24-year-old dancer from Philadelphia, told the New York Daily News: “There’s too many wrinkles. It looks like elephant skin.” Months later in February 2010, Lopez performed “Waiting for Tonight” as part of a medley of her hits at the Sanremo Music Festival, wearing a “skintight, studded leather black catsuit”. At the Summertime Ball festival hosted by Capital Radio at Wembley Stadium on June 12, 2011, Lopez opened her headlining performance with “Waiting for Tonight”, in front of an audience of 75,000 people.

Lopez wore a glittery bodysuit for her performance of the song at Mohegan Sun’s 15th anniversary celebration concert; green lasers swept across the arena ceiling as her dancers “whirled” around her. It was included on the setlist for her Dance Again World Tour in 2012. She performed the song while dancing on a white moving platform. During her European leg at her concert in Italy, Lopez supposedly had a wardrobe malfunction according to various sources during her performance of “Waiting for Tonight”. She was wearing a “plunging skintight cat suit”. Lopez performed the track along with several other hits during a July 2013 concert in Hyde Park, London. In March 2014, she sang “Waiting for Tonight” during her concert at the Dubai World Cup. In June of that year, Lopez performed the song during a concert in The Bronx which marked fifteen years since the release of On the 6; Andrew Hampp from Billboard wrote that the “laser-drenched” performance reached “World Cup levels of euphoria for a large swath of fans”. Three months later, performed the song again at the 2014 Singapore Grand Prix, as part of a 90-minute set. She was clothed in a “sexy tasselled black bodice with a nude-coloured underlay”. At her “The Best Is Yet To Come” concert which took place on New Year’s Eve 2014 in Caesars Palace, Lopez included “Waiting for Tonight” on her setlist; during the performance, she wore a red-sequined costume and performed a striptease on a couch. Lopez opened her performance at the American Music Awards of 2015 (where she also hosted the ceremony) with a “slower, sultrier” rendition of “Waiting for Tonight”. She was clothed in a tribal-print body stocking.

During Lopez’s guest appearance on the sixth season of the NBC sitcom Will & Grace, she performed “Waiting for Tonight”. The episode aired on April 29, 2004 as the season’s finale.

Credits adapted from the liner notes of On the 6.

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone

Emma Jauch

Emma Isabel Jauch Jelves (Constitución, 11 de agosto de 1915 — Linares, 24 de octubre de 1998) fue una escritora y pintora chilena. Se tituló en Pedagogía en Artes Plásticas de la Universidad de Chile en 1969, y en Técnicas Gráficas en la Escuela de Artes Aplicadas de Santiago. Tuvo considerable participación por medio de su labor en la localidad de Linares, donde fue fundadora en 1966 del Museo de Arte y Artesanía, e integrante de la Academia Chilena de la Lengua para dicho lugar en 1984 green goalkeeper gloves. En 1971 ganó el primer premio en el Concurso de Cuentos de la Municipalidad de Chillán, obteniendo similar resultado en el Concurso Internacional de Poesía AZOR que se celebró en España en 1981. En reconocimiento a su trayectoria, fue condecorada con el Premio de Arte de la Municipalidad de Linares y el Premio Pablo Neruda, este último entregado por la Sociedad de Escritores Chilenos del Maule (SECH Maule). Finalmente, le nombraron “Hija Ilustre de Empedrado” y “Ciudadana Ilustre de Constitución”, ambas distinciones en 1993 y 1994 respectivamente seattle football jersey.

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Cassina Ferrara

Cassina Ferrara è una frazione geografica del comune italiano di Saronno in provincia di Varese, posta a nordest del centro abitato verso Rovello Porro, e pienamente inglobata dal nucleo urbano.

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Registrato agli atti del 1751 come un borgo di 329 abitanti, nel 1786 Cassina Ferrara entrò per un quinquennio a far parte dell’effimera Provincia di Varese, per poi cambiare continuamente i riferimenti amministrativi nel 1791, nel 1798 e nel 1799. Alla proclamazione del Regno d’Italia nel 1805 risultava avere 364 abitanti e cambiò nuovamente capoluogo, stavolta passando in provincia di Como. Nel 1812 fu soppresso con regio decreto di Napoleone ed annesso a Rovello college football shirts. Il Comune di Cassina Ferrara fu quindi ripristinato con il ritorno degli austriaci, che provvedettero anche a riportarlo in Provincia di Milano best fabric defuzzer. Il borgo raggiunse le 542 anime nel 1853, salite a 609 nel 1859 e a 677 nel 1861. La soppressione dell’autonomia comunale giunse infine nel 1869 su regio decreto di Vittorio Emanuele II, che definì l’unione perpetua con Saronno, sebbene non ci fossero stati mai in precedenza legami amministrativi fra i due centri abitati.

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Кратер Карлини (лат white socks wholesaleCarlini) —маленький ударный кратер в центральной части Моря Дождей на видимой стороне Луны. Название присвоено в честь итальянского астронома Франческо Карлини (1783—1862) и утверждено Международным астрономическим союзом в 1935 г.

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Äppelviksskolan

Äppelviksskolan är en kommunal grundskola i stadsdelen Äppelviken alldeles vid gränsen till Smedslätten i Bromma i västra Stockholm. Skolan ligger på Alviksvägen 97 i Bromma.

Äppelviksskolan har undervisning i årskurserna 6, 7, 8 och 9. Äppelviksskolan är en “fortsättningsskola” för de elever som tidigare har gått i Smedslättsskolan, eller någon annan grundskola, och där har fått undervisning i årskurserna 1-5. Skolbyggnaden är ritad av arkitekt Paul Hedqvist 1941. I aulan finns en fresk av konstnären Tage Hedqvist målad 1943. Åren 1995-1999 genomgick Äppelviksskolan en ombyggnad och renovering bottled water in glass.

Äppelviksskolan på Alviksvägen 97 i Bromma ritades av arkitekt Paul Hedqvist i början av 1940-talet. En del av den äldre folkskolan från 1924, ritad av Georg A Nilsson, byggdes in i skolan från 1940-talet. Byggherre var Folkskoledirektionen. Konstruktör var Stig Ödeen och byggmästare var Carl Zetterberg. Hedqvists skola uppfördes som Bromma kommunala flickskola och hette så fram till 1968, då den anpassades till kommunal grundskola dispenser toothpaste, Äppelviksskolan.

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Den röda stugan på skoltomten i kvarteret Gamla vägen 8 på Alviksvägen uppfördes som vaktmästarbostad på 1920-talet, det är ett enfamiljshus i en våning med inredd vind. År 1942, ett par år efter flickskolans flyttning till Alviksvägen, byggdes Äppelviksskolan (Bromma kommunala flickskola) ut.

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Badmintonklubben abc Aalborg

Badmintonklubben abc Aalborg (abc Aalborg) er en badmintonklub hjemmehørende i den nordøstlige del af Aalborg. Klubben benytter Mellervanghallen ved Mellervangskolen og er med sine omkring 300 medlemmer en af Aalborgs største Badmintonklubben

abc’s førstehold spiller i 3. division og har desuden seniorhold i bl.a. Kredsserien og serie 1.

Klubben er en sammenslutning af de to klubber Idrætsforeningen Skjold og Aalborg Badminton Klub, som fusionerede til abc i oktober 1958.

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1998/99 Aase Ott, MD, 65+

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2010/11 Thomas Nielsen, HS, 35+

2012/13 Victor Bendsen, HD, U13

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Preben Ott, Aase Ott, Jørn Møller Jørgensen og Erik Nielsen.

3 Words

Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (, comment ajouter mes sources ?).

Albums de Cheryl Cole

Singles

3 Words est le premier album solo de Cheryl Cole, membre des Girls Aloud gel belt running. Il est sorti le au Royaume-Uni.

L’album s’est écoulé à 900 000 exemplaires.

Il comprend 11 titres dont 4 featurings avec Will.i.am et un duo avec Taio Cruz what does meat tenderizer do.

Plusieurs extraits ont servi de singles: Fight for This Love, 3 Words et Parachute.

Le titre de l’album peut faire référence aux phrases “I Love You” et “Yes, I Do”.

Yellowmead Down

Der konzentrische Steinkreis von Yellowmead Down ist eine außergewöhnliche multiple Steinanordnung am Westrand eines kleinen Plateaus im Dartmoor National Park zwischen den Weilern Sheepstor und „Ditsworthy Warren“ in Devon, in England. Das größte der vier Ovale hat etwa 20 m und der kleine innere Ring 6,7 m Durchmesser. Steinkreise dieser Art sind gewöhnlich bronzezeitlich.

Die Anordnung, zu der eine eng benachbarte Steinreihe gehört, besteht aus vier ineinander liegenden Steinkreisen, allerdings haben die drei äußeren eine ovale Form und sind weder zum Innenkreis noch zueinander tatsächlich konzentrisch angeordnet, wie es bei konzentrischen Kreisen oft der Fall ist.

Das Zentrum bildet ein kaum mehr wahrnehmbarer Steinhügel von etwa vier Metern Durchmesser, der zentrisch von den rechteckigen Platten des Innenkreises umgeben wird. Der Innenring von 6 running water belt reviews,7 m Durchmesser ist als einziger rund und besteht aus 22 Steinen von fast einem Meter Höhe. Der zweite Ring besteht aus 32 in der Regel weniger als 0,25 m hohen Steinen, die ein schwaches Oval von etwa 11&nbsp remington bikini shaver;m × 12 m bilden. Der dritte Ring wird ebenfalls aus niedrigen Steinen gebildet, wobei mehrere seiner 27 erhaltenen Steine im südlichen Bereich des Ovals von etwa 14-15 m ein wenig größer sind. Das äußere Oval aus 24 Steinen hat 19-20 m Durchmesser. Es weist im Nordosten größere Lücken auf, wo Steine anscheinend für eine Clapper bridge entfernt wurden. Es enthält die größten Steine von Yellowmead Down, die im Südosten etwas mehr als einen Meter messen. Einer davon besitzt mindestens zwei Schälchen. Im Westen der Ringe stehen Steine, die einen ungenauen Kreisbogen bilden. Sie könnten zu einem weitgehend zerstörten fünften Ring gehören.

Zum südwestlichen Rand des Plateaus von Yellowmead Down hin liegt eine kleine Ansammlung von niedrigen Steinen, die die Reste einer Steinreihe oder Allee bilden.

Die Anlage wurde 1921 von Reverend Hugh Breton ausgegraben und restauriert. Dies wurde im Jahre 2008 geophysikalisch überprüft. Um festzustellen ob die Restaurierung von 1921 genau genug war, erfolgten Sondierungen, wobei weitere Steine gefunden wurden.

Koordinaten:

Pomacos

Los pomacos (en búlgaro: Помаци; en griego: Pomáki; en turco: Pomaklar) son un grupo étnico cuya religión es musulmana y que se localiza esencialmente en Bulgaria, Grecia y Turquía, entre otros países balcánicos. Su origen es discutido y las diversas teorías tienen todas tintes nacionalistas. Para los estudiosos griegos son descendientes de los habitantes originarios de Tracia, lo que se apoyaría en la originalidad del ADN compartido por todos ellos, prueba de muchos siglos de aislamiento. Historiadores turcos defienden que descienden directamente de tres tribus turcas (pechenegos, ávaros, cumanos) asentadas en la región al comienzo de la conquista otomana. En Bulgaria la teoría más extendida es que se trata de búlgaros que se convirtieron al islam en el período otomano para librarse así de la djiziya, una impuesto cobrado por los gobernantes turcos a los no musulmanes en todos los Balcanes short football socks.

Los tres grupos de población establecidos en cada uno de los países colindantes han seguido caminos muy diferentes a lo largo del siglo XX, hasta el punto de haberse diluido en gran medida su conciencia nacional.

En Bulgaria se concentra la mayor población (más de 130.000 según el censo de 2001 ). Habitan esencialmente en las montañas de Ródope, las provincias de Smolyan, Kardzhali, Pazardzhik y Blagoevgrad. Allí se les conoce oficialmente como musulmanes búlgaros. Desde 1948 las autoridades han mantenido una intensa campaña de asimilación, que ha llevado en gran parte a la pérdida de su identidad nacional. Su dialecto se ha adecuado al búlgaro normalizado; hay una fuerte tendencia a la eslavización de los nombres musulmanes y se han denunciado frecuentes hostigamientos y presiones para su conversión a la Iglesia Ortodoxa. En 1989 Turquía abrió su frontera a la minoría musulmana de Bulgaria y los datos del Gobierno turco hablan de más de 300.000 personas desplazadas. La mayoría de las personas que fueron expulsados ​​por los comunistas búlgaros en 1989 eran étnico turcos no pomacos.

En Grecia se han censado unos 30 electric shaver for clothes.000 pomacos, concentrados en algunos valles de Tracia, en especial alrededor de la ciudad de Xanti (también en las provincias de Ródope y, en menor medida, Evros). En algunas ciudades pequeñas, como Ehinos, son absolutamente mayoritarios. Tradicionalmente se dedicaban a la agricultura extensiva y la pequeña ganadería, pero en la época moderna la mayoría de los pomacos se especializaron en oficios relacionados con las minas y la construcción.

El hecho de sus creencias religiosas musulmanas ha supuesto siempre su marginación en la Grecia contemporánea, lo que ha conllevado un proceso de fuerte turquificación. De conformidad con el Tratado de Lausana, los pomacos tienen la consideración legal de minoría religiosa en Grecia (1923)

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, pero a lo largo del último siglo han sido a menudo tratados más como turcos que como pomacos. Todos los pomacos de fuera de Tracia fueron deportados a Turquía, mezclados con la minoría turca, tras los acuerdos de 1923. A pesar de los derechos que se reconocían en dicho tratado, a los pomacos nunca se les permitió que utilizaran su lengua para la enseñanza más allá del jardín de infancia. En 1953, en plena guerra fría, el Estado griego decidió impartir la educación en las zonas pomacas en turco, para alejarlos de la influencia búlgara. En la actualidad la mayoría utiliza habitualmente el turco y de hecho incluso hay emisiones de la televisión turca especialmente dirigidas a ellos national football shirts.

Hasta 1995 los pomacos griegos vivían en zona militar donde el acceso a los extranjeros estaba prohibido, tenían un carnet de identidad propio y diferente del del resto de los griegos y se les prohibía alejarse más de 30 km de su localidad de origen sin un permiso especial de las autoridades.

En Turquía los pomacos están hoy presentes tanto en sus territorios tradicionales de la Tracia oriental como en Anatolia, adonde empezaron a emigrar a partir de la independencia de Bulgaria en 1878. Los que se han ido asentando en Anatolia, casi siempre en ciudades grandes, prácticamente han perdido su lengua y se han asimilado a los turcos. Mantienen parte de su identidad gracias, esencialmente, a asociaciones de emigrantes del Ródope que a menudo tienen lazos con los pueblos búlgaros donde vivían sus antepasados y conservan aún familiares. En el último censo de idiomas realizado en Turquía, en 1965 se contaban más de 27.000 personas con lengua materna búlgara, pero parece evidente que es una cifra calculada muy a la baja y desfasada especialmente con la gran emigración de 1989.

Los pomacos (inglés – macedonio – turco – búlgaro)

2. kinesisk-japanske krig

2. kinesisk-japanske krig (7 gold necklace. juli 1937 – 9. september 1945) var en større krig mellem Republikken Kina og Kejserriget Japan både før og under 2. verdenskrig. Krigen sluttede med Japans totale kapitulation til De Allierede anført af USA i 1945. Den japanske invasion var den japanske hærs strategiske plan som en del af dens omfattende plan om at kontrollere hele Sydøstasien. De første manifestationer af denne plan var kendt som “kinesiske episoder” og blev af datidens japanske propaganda kaldt “episoder” fremprovokeret af Kina for at nedtone ulovlighederne i de japanske angreb. Den japanske invasion af Manchuriet i 1931 blev således kendt som Mukden Episoden. Den sidste af disse var Episoden på Marco-Polo-Broen i 1937, der markerede starten på den egentlige krig imellem de to lande. I perioden 1937–41 kæmpede Republikken Kina alene mod Japan, men efter angrebet på Pearl Harbor blev konflikten en del af 2. verdenskrig.

De fleste historikere anser indledningen af den anden kinesisk-japanske kriget til incidenten ved Marco Polo-broen/Slaget ved Lugoubroen den 7. juli 1937. Efter slaget ved Lugoubroen i 1937 besatte japanerne Shanghai, Nanjing og det sydlige Shanxi som del af kampagner, hvori omkring 200.000 japanske og betydeligt flere kinesiske soldater deltog.

Incidenten ved Marco Polo-broen markerede ikke alene begyndelsen på en åben men ikke-erklæret krig mellem Kina og Japan, men bidrog tillige til dannelsen af den anden forenede front mellem Kuomintang og det kinesiske kommunistparti (KKP) vendt mod japanerne. Dette samarbejde fik størst betydning for det belejrede KKP. Misligholdelser fra de to, formelt allierede kinesiske parter viste sig ofte. Deres alliance var bogstaveligt talt blevet fremtvunget ved hjælp af våbenmagt, idet Chiang Kai-shek blev kidnappet i Xi’anincidenten og tvunget til at alliere sig med KKP for at slippe fri. Den svage alliance begyndte atter at gå i opløsning allerede i slutningen af 1938 til trods for Japans fortsatte fremgange i det nordlige Kina, i kystområderne og i den rige Yangtzefloddalen i det centrale Kina. Konflikter mellem nationalisterne og kommunisterne blev stadigt mere hyppige i de områder, som lå uden for japansk kontrol år 1940. Kommunisterne udvidede deres indflydelse ved enhver given lejlighed ved hjælp af masseorganisationer, administrative reformer, jord- og skattereformer, som favoriserede bønderne, mens nationalisterne på deres side forsøgte at forhindre spredningen af den kommunistiske indflydelse.

Japanerne havde ikke som mål eller overhovedet reel mulighed for at direkte administrere Kina gennem besættelse. Deres mål var i stedet at sikre sig, at Kina fik en japanvenlig regering. En række af de tiltag, som foretoges af de af japanerne støttede regeringer, gjorde disse upopulære, og japanerne nægtede at forhandle med både Kuomintang og det kinesiske kommunistparti, hvilket måske kunne have medført større popularitet. Japanerne tvang blandt andet den kinesiske befolkning i japansk kontrollerede områder til at veksle deres penge med militære pengesedler, som skiftende japanske regeringer siden nægtede at tilbageveksle.

I sammenligning med Japan var Kina dårligere forberedt på krigen, og den kinesiske regering havde kun en beskeden militær industriel styrke, få mekaniserede divisioner og så godt som intet panserværn. Frem til midten af 1930-tallet håbede Kina, at Folkeforbundet ville skride effektivt ind mod den japanske ekspansion. Men størst betydning havde det, at Kuomintang-regeringen var optaget af borgerkrigen mod kommunisterne. Et berømt citat af Chiang Kai-shek lyder:

I og med, at kommunisterne dannede den nye fjerde armé og den åttende ruttfront, som nominelt var underlagt kommandøren for den Nationale revolutionære armé, var en kinesisk enhedsfront aldrig rigtigt forenet, efter som begge de to kinesiske parter forberedte sig på en konfrontation med den anden part efter, at japanerne var blevet trængt ud. Alle disse negative forhold tvang Kina at anlægge en strategi, hvis primære mål var at bibeholde sin militære styrke, efter som et fuldt frontalangreb mod japanerne kunne blive fatalt og for derved at bevare flest mulige styrker til den midlertidigt udsatte borgerkrig. Modstandslommer skulle fortsætte med at kæmpe mod hver fjende og forpeste dennes liv i de besatte områder og gøre japanernes administrationsmuligheder i det store Kina små. Som resultat heraf ledte denne strategi til, at japanerne egentlig kun kontrollerede stæderne og jernbanerne, mens landdistrikterne næsten altid prægedes af partisanaktiviteter.

Chiang indså, at for at vinde støtte fra USA og andre nationer, måtte Kina vise sig kampdueligt. En hastig tilbagetrækning ville afskrække udenlandsk støtte. Derfor besluttede Chiang at udse slaget om Shanghai til et hovedslag. Chiang sendte sine elitetropper, som var blevet trænet af tyskerne, til at forsvare Kinas største og mest kommercialiserede stad mod japanerne. Slaget resulterede i store tab for begge sider og endte med en kinesisk retræte. Selv, om slaget militært var et tilbageslag for kineserne, så viste det, at kineserne ikke var beredte til at se sig besejrede, og det signalerede kinesisk beslutsomhed over for omverdenen. Slaget, som tog over tre måneder, viste sig at medføre en stor moralhøjnende effekt, efter som det effektivt satte stop for den japanske propaganda, som havde lovet et erobret Shanghai inden for tre dage og et erobret Kina inden for tre måneder.

Det store antal konfrontationer, som tabtes i forhold til det beskedne antal, som blev vundet, ledte til en kinesisk strategi, som sigtede til at opnå standsning i den japanske offensiv. Store kinesiske områder erobredes hurtigt under krigets tidlige stade, men snart begyndte fremstødene at gå langsommere. Den kinesiske strategi gik nu ud på at holde japanerne så langt fra sig som muligt, så at tilstrækkelig udenlandsk hjælp skulle nå frem, for at man der efter skulle kunne slå japanerne tilbage. Man benyttede blandt andet den brændte jords taktik for at forsøge at bremse japanerne. Opdæmninger blev saboteret, hvilket resulterede i Huang He-oversvømningen 1938. I 1940 nåede krigen et dødleje, hvor begge sider kun gjorde minimale vindinger. Kineserne havde forsvaret deres resterende land med store framgang ved flere tilfælde, mens en stærk modstandsrørelse i de japansk kontrollerede områder sikrede, at en sejr syntes umulig for japanerne. Dette bragte japanerne til et punkt, hvor man begyndte at anvende en taktik, som kaldtes “brænd alt, slå alt ihjel, ødelæg alt” (三光政策).

År 1941 angreb japanerne Pearl Harbor, hvilket førte til, at USA sluttede sig til krigen mod Japan. Kina erklærede officielt krig mod Japan den 8. december. Landet havde tidligere undladt at erklære krig, efter som modtagelse af militær hjælp under krig ville bryde mod donationsstatens neutralitetsstatus. Fra denne tid ændredes strategien fra at opnå overlevelse til at opnå en minimering af krigførelsen glass bpa free water bottles. Chiang indså, at amerikanerne ville påtage sig hovedparten af krigsførelsen og at de også var bedre udrustede til at slås mod japanerne. Han besluttede derfor at neddrage sin armés aktiviteter således, at han kunne fokusere på den forestående borgerkrig opblussen efter, at krigen mod japanerne var afsluttet. I 1945 kunne det forudses, at Japan snart ville kapitulere, hvorfor mindre anfald foretoges af den kinesiske armé.

Den kinesiske strategi under krigen kan deles i tre perioder:

Den Nationale revolutionære armé bestod af 80 infanteridivisioner med omkring 8.000 mand hver, 9 selvstændige brigader, 9 kavaleridivisioner, 2 artilleribrigader, 16 artilleriregementer og en eller to panserdivisioner what is the best way to tenderize beef. Den kinesiske flåde opgjordes kun til 59.000 ton, og det kinesiske flyvevåben havde blot 600 flyvemasiner.

De kinesiske våben var hovedsagelig producerede i Hanyang- och Guangdongarsenalerne. Bevæbningen for de fleste tysktrænede divisioner var dog de tysk fremstillede geværer 7,92 mm Gewehr 98 og Karabiner 98k. De standardiserede lette maskingeværer var en lokal kopi af den tjekkiske 7.92 mm Brno ZB26. Der fandtes også belgiske og franske lette maskingeværer. Derimod skaffede NRA sig ingen af de berømte Maschinengewehr 34 fra Tyskland, idet man producerede egne kopier af dem. I gennemsnit var disse divisioner udrustede med et maskingevær per pluton. De tunge maskingeværer var hovedsageligt lokalt fremstillede vandafkølede Maxim-maskingeværer, som var blevet fremstillet i 1924 efter tyske tegninger. I gennemsnit fik hver bataljon et tungt maskingevær (omkring halvdelen af hvad en tysk division fik under krigen). Den standardiserade lette bevæbning var en 7,63 mm-kaliber halvautomatisk Mauser M1932-pistol, som gik under benævnelsen C96.

Visse divisioner var udrustede med 37 mm PAK 35/36 pansarværnskanoner og/eller granatkastere fra Oerlikon, Madsen og Solothurn. Hver infanteridivision havde 6 franske Brandt 81 mm granatkastere og 6 Solothurn 20 mm automatkanoner socks soccer. Visse fristående brigader og artilleriregementer var utrustede med Bofors 72 mm L/14 eller Krupps 72 mm L/29 bjergkanoner. Der fandtes desuden 24 st Rheinmetall 150 mm L/32 sFH 18 haubitsere (som var blevet indkøbt i 1934) samt 24 Rheinmetall 150 mm L/30 sFH 18 haubitsere (indkøbt år 1936).

Infanteriuniformerne var hovedsagelig omdesignede Zhongshandragter. Benbindor var standard for soldater og officerere, efter som den fortrinsvise transportmåde for NRA-tropperne var til fods. Hjelmene var den tyske M35-hjelm (tillige standardudrustning for Wehrmacht på den europæiske slagmark) fra årene 1935 og 1936. NRA importerede 315.000 af disse hjelme, hver og en på siderne forsynede med det 12-stjernede emblem, som symboliserede den kinesiske republik. Anden udrustning inkluderede tøjsko for soldater, lædersko for officerere og læderstøvler for de højere officerere. Hver soldat var udrustet med ammunition, ammunitionstaske/kampbælte, en vandflaske, stridsknive, madkasse og en gasmaske.

Skønt Japan havde en signifikant mobil operationel kapacitet, så havde det ikke evne til at føre en langstrakt krig. Ved udbruddet af den kinesisk-japanske krig bestod den japanske armé af 17 divisioner, hver og en af disse bestod af omkring 22.000 mand, 5.800 heste, 9.500 gevær og maskinpistoler, 600 tunge maskingeværer af ulige typer, 108 artilleristykker og 24 stridsvogne. Specialstyrker fandtes. Den japanske flåde opgik til totalt 1.900.000 ton, hvilket var den tredje største i verden, og Japan havde 2.700 flyvemaskiner på dette tidspunkt. Hver japansk divisions stridsstyrke modsvarede tre regulære kinesiske divisioner.