?How Steadicams Work

Most people who own a camcorder also own a stack of tapes with hours of shaky, jarring video footage. And if you take videos with your smartphone, mostly likely they shake, rattle and roll

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To the typical amateur, the wobbles are an inevitable part of hand-held video or film. When you move while you’re shooting, the camera seems to pick up every jolt and shake of your body, no matter how hard you try to keep it level.
But in TV shows and professional movies (read: not that one you shot of your cat playing the keyboard)

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, you see lots of long, moving hand-held shots that have no jolts and shakes at all

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. Camera operators often achieve this remarkable effect using a device called a Steadicam.
Since their introduction in 1976, Steadicams and other camera stabilization systems have become one of the most important tools in the filmmaking and sports’ world. They’ve expanded the cinematographer’s palette considerably and arguably have made watching a football game or skiing competition as enjoyable as playing a video game.
In this article

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, we’ll find out what a Steadicam is and see how it can eliminate shaking and rolling. We’ll also look at the history of Steadicams and explore how they’re used in movies.

?Jerry Rice

Jerry Rice and the San Francisco 49ers were heavy favorites to defeat the Cincinnati Bengals in Super Bowl XXIII. But as the fourth quarter began, they were trailing 13-6. It began to look as though the Bengals were about to pull off a huge upset. But then Jerry Rice, the 49ers wide receiver, took over.
On the fourth play of the 49ers’ first drive of the final quarter, Rice leaped high into the air to snag a Joe Montana pass.
As he came down, he stretched his 6’2” frame forward just enough to cross the Cincinnati goal line for the tying score

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. But the determined Bengals answered with a field goal to take the lead 16-13.
Rice went back to work. This time, with just 1:15 remaining, he turned a short Montana toss into a 27-yard gain to the Cincinnati 18-yard line.
Two plays later, he streaked across the middle of the field. The Bengals secondary, fearing his speed and athletic ability, adjusted and double-teamed him.
This left John Taylor wide open for the touchdown throw. Respect for Rice had thus set up the game-winning touchdown pass. His 11 catches for a Super Bowl-record 215 yards earned him MVP honors.
Rice (born 1962) was the 49ers’ No. 1 draft choice in 1985. He had attended tiny Mississippi Valley State, where he established 18 NCAA Division II records. Named to the NFL’s 75th Anniversary All-Time Team, he holds virtually every meaningful NFL receiving mark.
Many experts contend that Rice is the greatest receiver the game has produced. His impressive credentials include 13 Pro Bowl selections, 14 1,000-yard receiving seasons, and 17 50-catch seasons.
A virtual scoring machine

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, he caught an NFL-record 22 touchdown passes in the strike-shortened l987 season and a career-record 197 in his 20 seasons.
To put some of Rice’s career marks in perspective, consider how high he has set the bar

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,549 receptions are 448 more than second-place wide receiver Cris Carter, and Rice’s 197 touchdown catches outpace Carter by 67.
Rice’s 22

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,895 receiving yards are 7,961 more than runner-up Tim Brown. And Rice’s 207 total touchdowns are 32 more than the next-most, by running back Emmitt Smith.
Perhaps most incredibly, Rice missed only 17 regular season games in 20 years, and only three games if you disregard 1997, when Rice was sidelined with torn knee ligaments. His 303 games are the most ever by an NFL receiver and rank only 51 games off the overall league record for games played.
To learn more about football greats, see:

Football Jersey Number Significance

The NFL requires that players at certain positions be restricted to a range of numbers. This tradition trickled down to the college and high school levels, though no specific rules limit numbers to certain positions. Some high-profile exceptions have existed to the standard numbering system, but fans can generally get an idea what position a player plays just by looking at his jersey number.
The NFL rule calls for punters

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, kickers and quarterbacks to use numbers 1 through 19. The most famous number 19 is perhaps Baltimore Colts legend and Hall of Fame quarterback Johnny Unitas. Wide receivers can also use numbers 10 through 19, under certain circumstances. In college, it is considered an honor to wear No

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. 1, and often the flashiest or highest-profile players wear that number, whether a quarterback, running back or wide receiver.
Wide receivers and tight ends are assigned numbers 80 through 89, though if those numbers are all assigned, a receiver or tight end can use numbers 10 through 19. While most of the all-time best receivers wore numbers in the 80s, such as Jerry Rice, Kellen Winslow, John Mackey and Lynn Swann, several others went the low-number route, including Fred Biletnikoff, No

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. 25, and Lance Alworth, No. 19.
Offensive and defensive linemen usually share most of the same numbering system. Centers, though, are supposed to be numbered in the 50s, which is the same as linebackers. Offensive guards and tackles are supposed to have jersey numbers in the 60s and 70s. Defensive linemen are also supposed to have jerseys that fall between 60 and 79

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, though they can have numbers from 90 through 99 if the 60s and 70s are all taken.
Running backs and defensive backs have the widest range, with options ranging from 20 to 49. Linebackers are supposed to stick with numbers in the 50s, though 90 through 99 are available if the 50s are all taken. Defensive backs tend to go with jersey numbers in the 20s and 40s, while running backs tend to have numbers in the 30s and 40s.
The jersey system has notable exceptions. Raiders’ center Jim Otto wore No. 00, a reference to his last name. Viking defensive lineman and Hall of Famer Carl Eller wore No. 81. And countless college football stars have gone against tradition in their jersey assignments. Michigan wide receiver Anthony Carter wore No. 1, while Florida State defensive back Deion Sanders wore No. 2.
Many rookies in the NFL want to wear the numbers they wore in college, but that isn’t always possible. USC running back Reggie Bush wanted to continue wearing No. 5 when was drafted by New Orleans in 2006. The NFL however, stood firm in its rules and wouldn’t let the running back have the number. He opted for No. 25 when he came into the league. Other players come into the pros also wanted to wear their college numbers or a different number for a specific reason, only to find that the number has already been assigned or has been retired by the team. So, don’t look for a rookie to wear No. 16 for the San Francisco 49ers. That’s the number of Hall of Fame 49ers quarterback Joe Montana.

The Fundamental Skills Used in Playing Volleyball

Volleyball is a sport that requires you to master a complex skill set. Because you rotate from playing front line positions to back line positions

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, you constantly are shifting from setting up offensive plays to completing offensive plays. You also must shift quickly from offense to defense. During any given sequence in volleyball, a player must be prepared to execute a variety of skills

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A properly executed serve provides the serving team with a significant advantage over the receiving team. A serve that is properly placed can cause players on the receiving team to get out of position or attempt awkward returns. The server must stand behind the service line at the end of the court. There are three serving styles in volleyball. The underhand serve, the overhand serve and the jump serve. The underhand serve generally is a relatively slow serve that travels high in the air toward the rear of the court

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. Both the overhand serve and the jump serve are fast serves frequently struck with top spin.
Passing also is known as “bumping” in an offensive sequence and “digging” when used to defend an offensive shot

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. Passing is executed by interlocking your fingers, holding your arms straight and away from your body. Make contact with the ball on your forearms and follow through to your target. The only allowable service return is a pass, so it is frequently the first shot in a three-shot sequence.
Setting

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, or overhead passing, typically is the second shot in a three-shot sequence. A properly executed set is placed close and above the net. You want to place the ball about four feet from the net so on the third shot, typically a spike, your teammate won’t hit the net on her follow through.
Generally, you want to hit the ball with the greatest force possible on the third shot of a sequence. When the ball is struck forcefully downward, above the height of the net, it is referred to as a “spike” or “kill” shot. To execute a kill shot, a player may use either a two- or three-step approach. Strike the ball at the top of your vertical leap, using the heel of your palm, followed by wrapping your hand on the ball with your fingers and snapping your wrist.
Blocking is a defensive play made close to the net. The object of a block is to deflect an offensive shot directly back toward your opponent. Block attempts can be made by individual players or pairs of players. Blocking is not allowed on serves. Blocks often are utilized as a defense against “kill” shots.

?How Air Traffic Control Works

Durin?g peak air travel times in the United States, there are about 5,000 airplanes in the sky every hour. This translates to approximately 50,000 aircraft operating in our skies each day. How do these aircraft keep from colliding with each other? How does air traffic move into and out of an airport or across the country?
The task of ensuring safe operations of commercial and private aircraft falls on air traffic controllers. They must coordinate the movements of thousands of aircraft, keep them at ?safe distances from each other

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, direct them during takeoff and landing from airports, direct them around bad weather and ensure that traffic flows smoothly with minimal delays.
When you think about air traffic control

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, the image of men and women in the tower of an airport probably comes to mind. However, the air traffic control system is much more complex than that. In this article, we will examine air traffic control in the United States. We’ll follow a flight from departure to arrival, looking at the various controllers involved, what each one does, the equipment they use and how they are trained.
?The United States airspace is divided into 21 zones (centers), and each zone is divided into sectors. Also within each zone are portions of airspace, about 50 miles (80.5 km) in diameter

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, called TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol) airspaces. Within each TRACON airspace are a number of airports, each of which has its own airspace with a 5-mile (8-km) radius.
?The air traffic control system, which is run by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), has been designed around these airspace divisions. The air traffic control system divisions are:
The movement of aircraft through the various airspace divisions is much like players moving through a “zone” defense that a basketball or football team might use. As an aircraft travels through a given airspace division, it is monitored by the one or more air traffic controllers responsible for that division. The controllers monitor this plane and give instructions to the pilot

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. As the plane leaves that airspace division and enters another, the air traffic controller passes it off to the controllers responsible for the new airspace division.
Some pilots of small aircraft fly by vision only (visual flight rules, or VFR). These pilots are not required by the FAA to file flight plans and, except for FSS and local towers, are not serviced by the mainstream air traffic control system. Pilots of large commercial flights use instruments to fly (instrument flight rules, or IFR), so they can fly in all sorts of weather. They must file flight plans and are serviced by the mainstream air traffic control system
Up next, we’ll?check in with?a commercial airline flight before it takes off.

Do Receiving Gloves Help You Catch a Football?

Receiving gloves give football receivers an edge when it comes to catching the ball. The gloves aren’t magic, so they won’t help you much if you’re not already well-versed in the receiver’s role. However, technology continues to improve the gloves to give them better grip while allowing for a natural feel when a receiver catches the football.
The main benefit receiving gloves offer is a better grip when you’re trying to make the catch. The gripping surface varies; some have small, rubberized bumps, while others have silicone patches on the palm. Others include chemical substances that make the glove palms tacky, which helps make those amazing one-arm catches possible. Many of the gloves are thin, at least on the palm, so you can feel the ball and know where to grip it while the glove provides traction to keep you from dropping the ball

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When your hands and the ball get slick in wet and snowy weather

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, receiving gloves help give you traction on the ball to keep it in your hands. Even those chemically treated to feel slightly sticky maintain their tackiness in wet and cold weather. Typical thin receiver gloves don’t offer much protection from the cold

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, but thicker varieties exist to help keep your hands warm in addition to improving your grip. The downside is that you won’t have the same feel on the ball when it comes your way.
As the receiver, you’re in charge of making the money catches. This can happen only if your hands are injury-free. The padded backs of most receiver gloves help keep your hands and fingers safe when you jam your hands against an opponent’s pads or when someone steps on your hands

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. They can’t prevent all injuries, but they help reduce the chance of injury.
Receivers aren’t the only players who benefit from gloves. The gloves improve your grip, and not just on the football. Any player who needs to hold onto something, such as an offensive lineman keeping a defensive tackle at bay, can benefit from the textured or tacky surfaces of football gloves. These players often opt for thicker gloves to help reduce finger and hand injuries often caused with close contact.

super-bowl-commercial

The Super Bowl has become much more than a sporting event and the culmination of the NFL season. It’s become a cultural phenomenon, a pop culture bellwether that more than 111 million Americans watched in 2011[source: Klayman]. That’s more than one third of all the people living in the U.S

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. at the time. If you have a message you want to get across to America, there’s no bigger stage. Run your commercial during the big game and you’ll access not only all the sets of eyes watching, but all the Monday morning water cooler (or YouTube) talk that a creative ad can generate. Ask a non-football fan how they’ll be spending Super Bowl Sunday and you’re likely to hear, “I’ll be watching it for the commercials.”
How did this happen? How did commercials, relegated 364 days of the year to mere irritants, excuses to head for the kitchen and make a snack or fast-forward the DVR, transform into must-see-TV

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? That’s what we’re going to explore in this article. In 1967, the first Super Bowl commercials cost $40,000 for a 30-second spot. That’s about $261,000 when adjusted for inflation [source: Baumer]. 2011’s ads cost roughly $3 million each — and that’s just the cost of the ad time itself. Add in the cost of the advertising agency and the production cost of filming the commercial, plus the overall advertising campaign (which might include magazine ads, billboards, or other commercials run before or after the Super Bowl), and you’re looking at one very expensive message.
Let’s break down Super Bowl commercials one piece at a time. How much do they cost, and why do they cost that much? Where does the money go? After that, we’ll look at the cultural impact of Super Bowl commercials. Which ones are the most famous? Which are the best and worst? How has watching the Super Bowl (and its commercials) changed over the years

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olympic-pictures

Olympic swimmers compete in the 400m Freestyle final

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. Check out another Olympic event that takes place at the pool on the next page.

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Variadische Funktion

Als variadische Funktion bezeichnet man in Programmiersprachen Funktionen, Prozeduren oder Methoden mit unbestimmter Arität, also solche, deren Parameteranzahl nicht bereits in ihrer Deklaration festgelegt ist. In einigen Sprachen wie C, C++, Java und Lua wird dies in der Funktionsdeklaration mit Auslassungspunkten angezeigt, der sogenannten Ellipse. An Stelle der Ellipse können beliebig viele Argumente (oder auch keine) übergeben werden. Nützlich sind variadische Funktionen beispielsweise bei der Verknüpfung mehrerer Zeichenketten oder beim Aufsummieren von Zahlenreihen und generell bei Operationen, die prinzipiell auf eine beliebige Anzahl Operanden angewandt werden können.

Der Zugriff auf variadische Parameter erfolgt hier über spezielle Makros. Einige Bibliotheksfunktionen von C sind mit Ellipse deklariert, da es in C keine Möglichkeit der Funktionsüberladung gibt, Beispiele sind die Bibliotheksfunktionen printf und scanf zur formatierten Aus- beziehungsweise Eingabe. Ein grundlegendes Problem bei diesem Mechanismus ist, dass der aufgerufenen Funktion keine Information über Anzahl und Typ der übergebenen Argumente zur Verfügung steht. Der Programmierer muss also durch zusätzliche Maßnahmen (wie etwa mit dem format string bei printf) sicherstellen, dass die Argumente richtig interpretiert werden und nicht mehr Argumente verarbeitet werden, als tatsächlich vorhanden waren. Außerdem muss mindestens ein fester Parameter vor der Ellipse angegeben werden.

Die Funktionsparameter werden, bevor sie an die Funktion übergeben werden, automatisch nach folgendem Schema in größere Typen umgewandelt:

Alle anderen Typen bleiben erhalten.

Beispielsweise könnte man in C den Mittelwert von beliebig vielen Ganzzahlen über folgende Funktion errechnen lassen:

In C++ gelten Ellipsen heutzutage als überholt, da C++ elegantere Möglichkeiten zur Funktionsüberladung und das Konzept der Defaultargumente bietet, und als schlechter Stil, da sie keine Typsicherheit bieten. Sie sind jedoch die einzige Möglichkeit, eine nahezu unbegrenzte Anzahl an Argumenten zu übergeben.

In C++ gibt es zusätzlich noch die Möglichkeit, variadische Funktionstemplates zu benutzen. Diese sind typsicher, aber aufwändiger zu benutzen, da man die sogenannten “template parameter packs” rekursiv auflösen muss:

In C# wird in der Deklaration das Schlüsselwort “params” verwendet. Auch der Typ wird mitangegeben. Einer solchen Methode kann eine durch Kommas getrennte Liste übergeben werden (diese Liste kann auch leer sein). Nach dem “params” Schlüsselwort sind keine weiteren Parameter mehr zulässig. Zudem darf das “params” Schlüsselwort nur einmal in der Methodendeklaration vorkommen.

Die Sprache Go erlaubt die Deklaration variadischer Funktionen über den Anhang einer Ellipse ... an den Namen des letzten Parameters. Es können dann beliebig viele Parameter des angegebenen Types übergeben werden, diese sind dann über ein Slice in der aufgerufenen Funktion verfügbar. Ferner ist es möglich durch Anhängen einer Ellipse an den letzten Parameter im Aufruf einer variadischen Funktion, direkt ein Slice an Stelle einzelner Parameter zu übergeben. Es folgt ein Beispiel analog zu obigem C#-Beispiel.

Auch in Java verwendet man in der Deklaration die Ellipse. Hier spricht man von Methoden mit variabler Argumentanzahl, oder kurz Varargs. Im Gegensatz zu C und C++ wird aber der Typ mit angegeben. Im Hintergrund wird die Parameterliste in ein Array übersetzt, so dass auch innerhalb des Funktionsrumpfes der Parameter wie ein Array behandelt werden muss.

In JavaScript werden die beliebig vielen Funktionsargumente dem arguments-Objekt übergeben, das ein Array-artiges Objekt mit den zusätzlichen Eigenschaften arguments.length und arguments.callee ist. Mit dem arguments-Objekt können sogar die Funktionsparameter überschrieben werden, wie das nachfolgende Beispiel zeigt.

In Lua kann in der Parameterdeklaration einer Funktion als letztes (auch einziges) Argument die Ellipse ... angegeben werden. Diese kann dann an andere Funktionen weitergereicht werden

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, wodurch sie sich nach Länge (Anzahl) und einzelnen Elementen analysieren lässt, namentlich mittels select().

Da in Perl 5 die Argumente ohne Rücksicht auf ihren Typ im Spezialarray @_ landen, sind alle Subroutinen immer variadisch, so lange es kein Prototyp explizit verhindert. Die mit 5.20 eingeführten, optionalen Signaturen prüfen die Arität. Damit sind nur solche Routinen variadisch, deren letzter Parameter ein Array oder Hash (verlangt gerade Anzahl von Werten) ist.

In Perl 6 kann man als letzten Parameter einen slurpy Array angeben, welches mit dem Präfix * gekennzeichnet ist und alle zusätzlichen Argumente „aufsaugt“

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PHP unterstützt erst ab Version 4 variadische Funktionen. Bis Version 5.5 wird kein besonderes Kennzeichen in der Funktionsdeklaration verwendet; die Argumente können mit Hilfe spezieller Funktionen ausgewertet werden. Ab Version 5.6 stehen variadische Funktionen als natives Sprachfeature über die Ellipse zur Verfügung.

In Ruby werden variable Argumentanzahlen durch einen Stern vor dem Parameternamen gekennzeichnet. Auch hier wird dieser Parameter als ein Array behandelt, in dem alle Argumente gesammelt werden, die der vorgegeben Anzahl an Argumenten folgen.

Python bietet dieselbe Funktionalität wie Ruby. Darüber hinaus kann man überzählige Argumente benennen und deren Namen zusammen mit dem Wert in einer Tabelle („Wörterbuch“ im Python-Jargon) speichern, wenn Parameternamen zwei Sterne vorangestellt sind.

Haskell erlaubt es nicht direkt, variable Argumentanzahlen zu verwenden, allerdings kann man dies über trickreiche Verwendung von Typklassen nahezu beliebig nachbilden. (So sind mit einer entsprechenden Implementation z. B. auch typsichere variadische Funktionen mit verschiedenen Argumenttypen möglich).

Lange Gasse 26 (Quedlinburg)

Das Anwesen Lange Gasse 26 ist eine denkmalgeschützte Hofanlage in Quedlinburg in Sachsen-Anhalt.

Der im Quedlinburger Denkmalverzeichnis als Kaufmannshof eingetragene Hof befindet sich im Quedlinburger Stadtteil Westendorf an einer Straßeneinengung der Langen Gasse und gehört zum UNESCO-Weltkulturerbe. Östlich grenzt das gleichfalls denkmalgeschützte Haus Lange Gasse 25, westlich der Vitzthum von Eckstedtsche Freihof an.

Der heutige dreigeschossige Bau entstand um 1800 vermutlich unter Einhaltung mittelalterlicher Grundstücksgrenzen. Möglicherweise verfügte die vorhergehende Bebauung über eine Eigenbefestigung. Am Ostende der straßenseitigen Bebauung befindet sich eine im 17./18. Jahrhundert errichtete steinerne als Rundbogen angelegte Hofeinfahrt sowie eine kleine Pforte. Auf die Einfahrt wurde ein Fachwerkgeschoss aufgesetzt. Das untere Geschoss ist in massiver Bauweise aus Sandsteinquadern ausgeführt. Die oberen Stockwerke entstanden in Fachwerkbauweise

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. Bedeckt ist das Gebäude durch ein hohes Satteldach. Die Fassade des Hauses folgt der Straßeneinengung und ragt so in die Straßenflucht hinein.

Koordinaten:

Lange Gasse 2–4 | Lange Gasse 7 | Lange Gasse 8 | Lange Gasse 9 | Lange Gasse 10 | Lange Gasse 11 | Lange Gasse 12 | Lange Gasse 13 | Lange Gasse 14 (Propsteivorwerk) | Lange Gasse 16 | Lange Gasse 17 | Lange Gasse 20 | Lange Gasse 21 | Lange Gasse 22 | Lange Gasse 23 | Lange Gasse 24 | Lange Gasse 25 | Lange Gasse&nbsp

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;26 | Lange Gasse 26a (Vitzthum von Eckstedtscher Freihof) | Lange Gasse 27 | Lange Gasse 28 | Lange Gasse 29 | Lange Gasse 30 | Lange Gasse 31 | Lange Gasse 32 | Lange Gasse 33 (Weißer Engel)

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