# Mathieu group M23

In the area of modern algebra known as group theory

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, the Mathieu group M23 is a sporadic simple group of order

M23 is one of the 26 sporadic groups and was introduced by Mathieu (1861, 1873). It is a 4-fold transitive permutation group on 23 objects. The Schur multiplier and the outer automorphism group are both trivial.
Milgram (2000) calculated the integral cohomology, and showed in particular that M23 has the unusual property that the first 4 integral homology groups all vanish.
The inverse Galois problem seems to be unsolved for M23. In other words no polynomial in Z[x] seems to be known to have M23 as its Galois group. The inverse Galois problem is solved for all other sporadic simple groups.
M23 is the point stabilizer of the action of the Mathieu group M24 on 24 points, giving it a 4-transitive permutation representation on 23 points with point stabilizer the Mathieu group M22

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.
M23 has 2 different rank 3 actions on 253 points . One is the action on unordered pairs with orbit sizes 1+42+210 and point stabilizer M21.2, and the other is the action on heptads with orbit sizes 1+112+140 and point stabilizer 24.A7.
The integral representation corresponding to the permutation action on 23 points decomposes into the trivial representation and a 22-dimensional representation. The 23 dimensional representation gives an irreducible representation over any field of characteristic not 2 or 23.
Over the field of order 2, it has 2 11-dimensional representations, the restrictions of the corresponding representations of the Mathieu group M24.
There are 7 conjugacy classes of maximal subgroups of M23 as follows:

# Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age (2012) is a non-fiction book published in 2012 by American best-selling author Steven Berlin Johnson. In this book, Johnson presents a new political worldview he names “peer progressivism.” This idea promotes collaboration amongst peers and the development of peer networks for the purpose of accomplishing large undertakings and ultimately helping society grow and change for the better.

The main idea that Johnson promotes in Future Perfect is that productivity and innovation are best achieved through the collaborative efforts of a peer network rather than the restrictive structure of a hierarchical system. In a peer network, individuals aren’t as interested in competition or profit. Johnson presents his idea as a new political movement, with its followers referring to themselves as “peer progressives”. This new political view avoids the traditional ideas of both big government and also big markets.
Future Perfect is characterized by applicable anecdotes that aid in giving deeper explanations of his ideas Women Sandro. Johnson uses stories that highlight successful peer networks, such as the 3-1-1 call system, a program used in New York City that allows residents to call in issues that need to be addressed throughout the city, or also the story of a prize-based system developed by a small group of men in 18th century Britain that offered incentives to citizens who could help foster innovation in manufacturing and the arts. Johnson also uses examples of failed systems and projects, and then he analyzes the cause the failure to determine how to learn from their mistakes. In a hierarchical organization, all of the intelligence is kept in the center of the network, leading to the decision-making being non-inclusive and stifling the flow of information. The story of the Legrand Star, the inefficiently-designed French railway system that uses Paris as a central hub for all passenger trains Discount Bogner outlet 2016, is Johnson’s main illustration of a failed system. These stories all promote Johnson’s idea of a decentralized peer network, one where there isn’t a clear group or location that has more power or control than another. Johnson argues that a large, diverse group of non-experts will generally make larger leaps in innovation than a small group of experts.
Future Perfect has been received very positively overall. The Boston Globe praises the book as being “buoyant and hopeful”. The Wall Street Journal states that Future Perfect brings optimism about the future to a nation of pessimism. It praises Johnson for pointing out the amazing accomplishments humanity has made in the past century, the past 50 years, and especially in the past 20 years. Publishers Weekly praises the book by saying of Future Perfect, “Stimulating and challenging

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, Johnson’s thought-provoking ideas steer us steadily into the future.” Amongst the praise

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, there were a handful of reviews that criticized Johnson’s ideas as being overly optimistic and “cyber-utopian”. The Guardian addresses this criticism and explains that Johnson refutes this opinion by clarifying that he thinks of the Internet as being one example of a generally-successful peer network, but he does not see it as a “cure-all”. The Boston Globe argues that Johnson is not attempting to be original in his promotion of peer progressivism, rather he is reminding society to continue practicing communal decision-making as we advance in the digital age.

# Filmworks VIII: 1997

Filmworks VIII: 1997 features two scores for film by John Zorn released on Zorn’s own label, Tzadik Records, in 1998. It features the music that Zorn wrote and recorded for The Port of Last Resort (1998), a documentary directed by Joan Grossman and Paul Rosdy examining the experiences of Jewish refugees in Shanghai and Latin Boys Go to Hell (1997) which was directed by Ela Troyano

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The tracks for Port of Last Resort are performed by the Masada String Trio with the addition of Min Xiao-Fen (pipa) , Marc Ribot (guitar) and Anthony Coleman (piano)

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. Tracks for Latin Boys Go to Hell feature the percussion of Cyro Baptista and Kenny Wollesen.
The Allmusic review by Joslyn Layne awarded the album 4½ stars noting that “The sophisticated music of Film Works 8 stands apart for its cosmopolitan assuredness, high level of musicianship, and beauty”.
1. “Teqiah” – 3:07 2. “Shanghai” – 2:35 3. “Emunim” – 3:32 4. “Ruan (guitar version)” – 4:37 5. “Ebionim” – 3:00 6. “Ahavah” – 3:42 7. “Ruan (pipa version)” – 3:37 8. “Livant” – 1:54 9. “Or Ne’erav” – 6:58 10. “Shanim” – 2:03 11. “Ruan (solo piano)” – 3:42
12. “Deseo” – 2:28 13. “Mentiras” – 2:15 14. “Ansiedad” – 2:55 15. “Locura” – 2:47 16. “Sangre” – 1:02 17. “Olvido” – 2:21 18. “Engano” – 2:25 19. “Traicion” – 2:25 20. “Ilusion” – 2:43 21

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. “Lagrimas” – 4:14

# Pandora’s box

Pandora’s box is an artifact in Greek mythology, taken from the myth of Pandora’s creation in Hesiod’s Works and Days. The “box” was actually a large jar (πίθος pithos) given to Pandora (Πανδώρα, “all-gifted”, “all-giving”), which contained all the evils of the world. Pandora opened the jar and all the evils flew out

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, leaving only “Hope” inside once she had closed it again.
Today the phrase “to open Pandora’s box” means to perform an action that may seem small or innocent, but that turns out to have severely detrimental and far-reaching negative consequences.

In classical Greek mythology, Pandora was the first woman on Earth. Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create her. So he did, using water and earth. The gods endowed her with many gifts: Athena clothed her, Aphrodite gave her beauty, Apollo gave her musical ability, and Hermes gave her speech.
According to Hesiod, when Prometheus stole fire from heaven, Zeus took vengeance by presenting Pandora to Prometheus’ brother Epimetheus. Pandora opens a jar containing death and many other evils which were released into the world. She hastened to close the container, but the whole contents had escaped except for one thing that lay at the bottom – Elpis (usually translated “Hope”, though it could also mean “Expectation”).
The original Greek word was ‘pithos’, which is a large jar, sometimes as large as a small person (Diogenes of Sinope was said to have slept in one). It was used for storage of wine, oil, grain or other provisions, or, ritually, as a container for a human body for burying. In the case of Pandora, this jar may have been made of clay for use as storage as in the usual sense karen millen ireland outlet, or of metal, such as bronze, as an unbreakable prison.
The mistranslation of pithos is usually attributed to the 16th century humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam who translated Hesiod’s tale of Pandora into Latin. Erasmus rendered pithos as the Greek pyxis, meaning “box”. The phrase “Pandora’s box” has endured ever since. This misconception was further reinforced by Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s painting Pandora.[citation needed]
Rosetti’s Pandora (1879)
Waterhouse’s

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, Pandora, 1896)
Jean Alaux, Pandora carried off by Mercury, 18th or 19th century
Political cartoon by by James Gillray, employing the image of Pandora Bogner Outlet bijn.

# Endocrine disruptor

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that, at certain doses, can interfere with the endocrine (or hormone) system in mammals. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors. Specifically, endocrine disruptors may be associated with the development of learning disabilities, severe attention deficit disorder, cognitive and brain development problems; deformations of the body (including limbs); breast cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid and other cancers; sexual development problems such as feminizing of males or masculinizing effects on females, etc.[citation needed] Recently The Endocrine Society released a statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) specifically listing obesity, diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer in males, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems as being affected biological aspects of being exposed to EDCs. The critical period of development for most organisms is between the transition from a fertilized egg into a fully formed infant. As the cells begin to grow and differentiate, there are critical balances of hormones and protein changes that must occur. Therefore, a dose of disrupting chemicals may do substantial damage to a developing fetus. The same dose may not significantly affect adult mothers.
There has been controversy over endocrine disruptors, with some groups calling for swift action by regulators to remove them from the market, and regulators and other scientists calling for further study. Some endocrine disruptors have been identified and removed from the market (for example, a drug called diethylstilbestrol), but it is uncertain whether some endocrine disruptors on the market actually harm humans and wildlife at the doses to which wildlife and humans are exposed. Additionally, a key scientific paper, published in the journal Science, which helped launch the movement of those opposed to endocrine disruptors, was retracted and its author found to have committed scientific misconduct.
Found in many household and industrial products, endocrine disruptors are substances that “interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body that are responsible for development, behavior, fertility, and maintenance of homeostasis (normal cell metabolism).” They are sometimes also referred to as hormonally active agents, endocrine disrupting chemicals, or endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs).
Studies in cells and laboratory animals have shown that EDs [?] can cause adverse biological effects in animals, and low-level exposures may also cause similar effects in human beings. The term endocrine disruptor is often used as synonym for xenohormone although the latter can mean any naturally occurring or artificially produced compound showing hormone-like properties (usually binding to certain hormonal receptors). EDCs in the environment may also be related to reproductive and infertility problems in wildlife and bans and restrictions on their use has been associated with a reduction in health problems and the recovery of some wildlife populations.

The term endocrine disruptor was coined at the Wingspread Conference Centre in Wisconsin, in 1991. One of the early papers on the phenomenon was by Theo Colborn in 1993. In this paper, she stated that environmental chemicals disrupt the development of the endocrine system, and that effects of exposure during development are often permanent. Although the endocrine disruption has been disputed by some, work sessions from 1992 to 1999 have generated consensus statements from scientists regarding the hazard from endocrine disruptors, particularly in wildlife and also in humans. The Endocrine Society released a scientific statement outlining mechanisms and effects of endocrine disruptors on “male and female reproduction, breast development and cancer, prostate cancer, neuroendocrinology, thyroid, metabolism and obesity, and cardiovascular endocrinology,” and showing how experimental and epidemiological studies converge with human clinical observations “to implicate EDCs as a significant concern to public health.” The statement noted that it is difficult to show that endocrine disruptors cause human diseases, and it recommended that the precautionary principle should be followed. A concurrent statement expresses policy concerns.
Endocrine disrupting compounds encompass a variety of chemical classes, including drugs, pesticides, compounds used in the plastics industry and in consumer products, industrial by-products and pollutants, and even some naturally produced botanical chemicals. Some are pervasive and widely dispersed in the environment and may bio-accumulate. Some are persistent organic pollutants (POP’s), and can be transported long distances across national boundaries and have been found in virtually all regions of the world, and may even concentrate near the North Pole, due to weather patterns and cold conditions. Others are rapidly degraded in the environment or human body or may be present for only short periods of time. Health effects attributed to endocrine disrupting compounds include a range of reproductive problems (reduced fertility, male and female reproductive tract abnormalities, and skewed male/female sex ratios, loss of fetus, menstrual problems); changes in hormone levels; early puberty; brain and behavior problems; impaired immune functions; and various cancers.
One example of the consequences of the exposure of developing animals, including humans, to hormonally active agents is the case of the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES), a non-steroidal estrogen and not an environmental pollutant. Prior to its ban in the early 1970s, doctors prescribed DES to as many as five million pregnant women to block spontaneous abortion, an off-label use of this medication prior to 1947. It was discovered after the children went through puberty that DES affected the development of the reproductive system and caused vaginal cancer. The relevance of the DES saga to the risks of exposure to endocrine disruptors is questionable, as the doses involved are much higher in these individuals than in those due to environmental exposures.
Aquatic life subjected to endocrine disruptors in an urban effluent have experienced decreased levels of serotonin and increased feminization.
In 2013 the WHO and the United Nations Environment Programme released a study, the most comprehensive report on EDCs to date, calling for more research to fully understand the associations between EDCs and the risks to health of human and animal life. The team pointed to wide gaps in knowledge and called for more research to obtain a fuller picture of the health and environmental impacts of endocrine disruptors. To improve global knowledge the team has recommended:
Endocrine systems are found in most varieties of animals. The endocrine system consists of glands that secrete hormones, and receptors that detect and react to the hormones.
Hormones travel throughout the body and act as chemical messengers. Hormones interface with cells that contain matching receptors in or on their surfaces. The hormone binds with the receptor, much like a key would fit into a lock. The endocrine system regulates adjustments through slower internal processes, using hormones as messengers. The endocrine system secretes hormones in response to environmental stimuli and to orchestrate developmental and reproductive changes. The adjustments brought on by the endocrine system are biochemical, changing the cell’s internal and external chemistry to bring about a long term change in the body. These systems work together to maintain the proper functioning of the body through its entire life cycle. Sex steroids such as estrogens and androgens, as well as thyroid hormones, are subject to feedback regulation, which tends to limit the sensitivity of these glands.
Hormones work at very small doses (part per billion ranges). Endocrine disruption can thereby also occur from low-dose exposure to exogenous hormones or hormonally active chemicals that can interfere with receptors for other hormonally mediated processes. Furthermore, since endogenous hormones are already present in the body in biologically active concentrations, additional exposure to relatively small amounts of exogenous hormonally active substances can disrupt the proper functioning of the body’s endocrine system. Thus, an endocrine disruptor can elicit adverse effects at much lower doses than a toxicity, acting through a different mechanism.
The timing of exposure is also critical. Most critical stages of development occur in utero, where the fertilized egg divides, rapidly developing every structure of a fully formed baby, including much of the wiring in the brain. Interfering with the hormonal communication in utero can have profound effects both structurally and toward brain development. Depending on the stage of reproductive development, interference with hormonal signaling can result in irreversible effects not seen in adults exposed to the same dose for the same length of time. Experiments with animals have identified critical developmental time points in utero and days after birth when exposure to chemicals that interfere with or mimic hormones have adverse effects that persist into adulthood. Disruption of thyroid function early in development may be the cause of abnormal sexual development in both males and females early motor development impairment, and learning disabilities.
There are studies of cell cultures, laboratory animals, wildlife, and accidentally exposed humans that show that environmental chemicals cause a wide range of reproductive, developmental, growth, and behavior effects, and so while “endocrine disruption in humans by pollutant chemicals remains largely undemonstrated, the underlying science is sound and the potential for such effects is real.” While compounds that produce estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions have been studied, less is known about interactions with other hormones.
The interrelationship between exposures to chemicals and health effects are rather complex. It is hard to definitively link a particular chemical with a specific health effect, and exposed adults may not show any ill effects. But, fetuses and embryos, whose growth and development are highly controlled by the endocrine system, are more vulnerable to exposure and may suffer overt or subtle lifelong health and/or reproductive abnormalities. Prebirth exposure, in some cases, can lead to permanent alterations and adult diseases.
Some in the scientific community are concerned that exposure to endocrine disruptors in the womb or early in life may be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including reduced IQ, ADHD, and autism. Certain cancers and uterine abnormalities in women are associated with exposure to Diethylstilbestrol (DES) in the womb due to DES used as a medical treatment.
In another case, phthalates in pregnant women’s urine was linked to subtle, but specific, genital changes in their male infants – a shorter, more female-like anogenital distance and associated incomplete descent of testes and a smaller scrotum and penis. The science behind this study has been questioned by phthalate industry consultants. As of June 2008, there are only five studies of anogenital distance in humans, and one researcher has stated “Whether AGD measures in humans relate to clinically important outcomes, however, remains to be determined, as does its utility as a measure of androgen action in epidemiologic studies.”
Most toxicants, including endocrine disruptors, follow a U-shaped dose response curve. This means that very low and very high levels have more effects than mid-level exposure to a toxicant. Endocrine disrupting effects have been noted in animals exposed to environmentally relevant levels of some chemicals. For example, a common flame retardant, BDE-47, affects the reproductive system and thyroid gland of female rats in doses of the order of those to which humans are exposed. Low concentrations of endocrine disruptors can also have synergistic effects in amphibians, but it is not clear that this is an effect mediated through the endocrine system.
Critics have argued that data suggest that the amounts of chemicals in the environment are too low to cause an effect. A consensus statement by the Learning and Developmental Disabilities Initiative argued that “The very low-dose effects of endocrine disruptors cannot be predicted from high-dose studies, which contradicts the standard ‘dose makes the poison’ rule of toxicology. Nontraditional dose-response curves are referred to as nonmonotonic dose response curves.”
The dosage objection could also be overcome if low concentrations of different endocrine disruptors are synergistic. This paper was published in Science in June 1996, and was one reason for the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. The results could not be confirmed with the same and alternative methodologies, and the original paper was retracted, with Arnold found to have committed scientific misconduct by the United States Office of Research Integrity.
It has been claimed that Tamoxifen and some phthalates have fundamentally different (and harmful) effects on the body at low doses than at high doses.
Food is a major mechanism by which people are exposed to pollutants. Diet is thought to account for up to 90% of a person’s PCB and DDT body burden. In a study of 32 different common food products from three grocery stores in Dallas

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, fish and other animal products were found to be contaminated with PBDE. Since these compounds are fat soluble, it is likely they are accumulating from the environment in the fatty tissue of animals we eat. Some suspect fish consumption is a major source of many environmental contaminates. Indeed, both wild and farmed salmon from all over the world have been shown to contain a variety of man-made organic compounds.
With the increase in household products containing pollutants and the decrease in the quality of building ventilation, indoor air has become a significant source of pollutant exposure. Residents living in homes with wood floors treated in the 1960s with PCB-based wood finish have a much higher body burden than the general population. A study of indoor house dust and dryer lint of 16 homes found high levels of all 22 different PBDE congeners tested for in all samples. Recent studies suggest that contaminated house dust, not food, may be the major source of PBDE in our bodies. One study estimated that ingestion of house dust accounts for up to 82% of our PBDE body burden.
Research conducted by the Environmental Working Group found that 19 out of 20 children tested had levels of PBDE in their blood 3.5 times higher than the amount in their mothers’ blood. It has been shown that contaminated housedust is a primary source of lead in young children’s bodies. It may be that babies and toddlers ingest more contaminated housedust than the adults they live with, and therefore have much higher levels of pollutants in their systems.
Consumer goods are another potential source of exposure to endocrine disruptors. An analysis of the composition of 42 household cleaning and personal care products versus 43 “chemical free” products has been performed. The products contained 55 different chemical compounds: 50 were found in the 42 conventional samples representing 170 product types, while 41 were detected in 43 “chemical free” samples representing 39 product types. Parabens, a class of chemicals that has been associated with reproductive-tract issues, were detected in seven of the “chemical free” products, including three sunscreens that did not list parabens on the label. Vinyl products such as shower curtains were found to contain more than 10% by weight of the compound DEHP, which when present in dust has been associated with asthma and wheezing in children. The risk of exposure to EDCs increases as products, both conventional and “chemical free,” are used in combination. “If a consumer used the alternative surface cleaner, tub and tile cleaner, laundry detergent, bar soap, shampoo and conditioner, facial cleanser and lotion, and toothpaste [he or she] would potentially be exposed to at least 19 compounds: 2 parabens, 3 phthalates, MEA, DEA, 5 alkylphenols, and 7 fragrances.”
An analysis of the endocrine disrupting chemicals in Old Order Mennonite women in mid-pregnancy determined that they have much lower levels in their systems than the general population. Mennonites eat mostly fresh, unprocessed foods, farm without pesticides, and use few or no cosmetics or personal care products. One woman who had reported using hairspray and perfume had high levels of monoethyl phthalate, while the other women all had levels below detection. Three women who reported being in a car or truck within 48 hours of providing a urine sample had higher levels of diethylhexyl phthalate which is found in polyvinyl chloride, and is used in car interiors.
Additives added to plastics during manufacturing may leach into the environment after the plastic item is discarded; additives in microplastics in the ocean leach into ocean water and in plastics in landfills may escape and leach into the soil and then into groundwater.
All people are exposed to chemicals with estrogenic effects in their everyday life, because endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in low doses in thousands of products. Chemicals commonly detected in people include DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE’s), and a variety of phthalates. In fact, almost all plastic products, including those advertised as “BPA free”, have been found to leach endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In a 2011, study it was found that some “BPA-free” products released more endocrine active chemicals than the BPA-containing products.
There is some dispute in the scientific community surrounding the claim that these chemicals actually disrupt the endocrine system. Many believe that there is little evidence that the degree of exposure in humans is enough to warrant concern, while many others believe there is evidence that these chemicals pose some risk to human health.
Other forms of endocrine disruptors are phytoestrogens (plant hormones).
Some researchers are investigating the health risks to children of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Bisphenol A, until 2010 a common component in the plastic used to manufacture plastic baby bottles, has been banned in most countries. In 2010, despite strong industry opposition, Canada was the first to ban BPA’s use in baby bottles. Australia and the European Union followed in 2011. Several states in the United States had banned its use by 2011, and in 2012 a nationwide ban was put in place.
Xenoestrogens are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen. Synthetic xenoestrogens include widely used industrial compounds, such as PCBs, BPA and phthalates, which have estrogenic effects on a living organism.
Alkylphenols are xenoestrogens. The European Union has implemented sales and use restrictions on certain applications in which nonylphenols are used because of their alleged “toxicity, persistence, and the liability to bioaccumulate” but the United States EPA has taken a slower approach to make sure that action is based on “sound science”.
Bisphenol A is commonly found in plastic bottles, plastic food containers, dental materials, and the linings of metal food and infant formula cans. Another exposure comes from receipt paper commonly used at grocery stores and restaurants, because today the paper is commonly coated with a BPA containing clay for printing purposes.
BPA is a known endocrine disruptor, and numerous studies have found that laboratory animals exposed to low levels of it have elevated rates of diabetes, mammary and prostate cancers, decreased sperm count, reproductive problems, early puberty, obesity, and neurological problems. Early developmental stages appear to be the period of greatest sensitivity to its effects, and some studies have linked prenatal exposure to later physical and neurological difficulties. Regulatory bodies have determined safety levels for humans, but those safety levels are currently being questioned or are under review as a result of new scientific studies. A 2011 study that investigated the number of chemicals pregnant women are exposed to in the U.S. found BPA in 96% of women.
In 2010 the World Health Organization expert panel recommended no new regulations limiting or banning the use of Bisphenol-A, stating that “initiation of public health measures would be premature.”
In August 2008, the U.S. FDA issued a draft reassessment, reconfirming their initial opinion that, based on scientific evidence, it is safe. However, in October 2008, FDA’s advisory Science Board concluded that the Agency’s assessment was “flawed” and hadn’t proven the chemical to be safe for formula-fed infants. In January 2010, the FDA issued a report indicating that, due to findings of recent studies that used novel approaches in testing for subtle effects, both the National Toxicology Program at the National Institutes of Health as well as the FDA have some level of concern regarding the possible effects of BPA on the brain and behavior of fetuses, infants and younger children. In 2012 the FDA did ban the use of BPA in baby bottles, however the Environmental Working Group called the ban “purely cosmetic”. In a statement they said,“If the agency truly wants to prevent people from being exposed to this toxic chemical associated with a variety of serious and chronic conditions it should ban its use in cans of infant formula, food and beverages.” The Natural Resources Defense Council called the move inadequate saying, the FDA needs to ban BPA from all food packaging. In a statement a FDA spokesman said the agency’s action was not based on safety concerns and that “the agency continues to support the safety of BPA for use in products that hold food.”
Bisphenol S is an analog of Bisphenol A. It is commonly found in thermal receipts, plastics, and household dust. Traces of BPS have also been found in personal care products. It is more presently being used because of the ban of BPA. BPS is used in place of BPA in “BPA free” items. However BPS has been shown to be as much of an endocrine disruptor as BPA.
The long-chain alkylphenols are used extensively as precursors to the detergents, as additives for fuels and lubricants, polymers, and as components in phenolic resins. These compounds are also used as building block chemicals that are also used in making fragrances, thermoplastic elastomers, antioxidants, oil field chemicals and fire retardant materials. Through the downstream use in making alkylphenolic resins, alkylphenols are also found in tires, adhesives, coatings bogner online, carbonless copypaper and high performance rubber products. They have been used in industry for over 40 years.
Certain alkylphenols are degradation products from nonionic detergents. Nonylphenol is considered to be a low-level endocrine disruptor owing to its tendency to mimic estrogen.
Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was first used as a pesticide against Colorado potato beetles on crops beginning in 1936. An increase in the incidence of malaria, epidemic typhus, dysentery, and typhoid fever led to its use against the mosquitoes, lice, and houseflies that carried these diseases. Before World War II, pyrethrum, an extract of a flower from Japan, had been used to control these insects and the diseases they can spread. During World War II, Japan stopped exporting pyrethrum, forcing the search for an alternative. Fearing an epidemic outbreak of typhus, every British and American soldier was issued DDT, who used it to routinely dust beds, tents, and barracks all over the world.
DDT was approved for general, non-military use after the war ended. It became used worldwide to increase monoculture crop yields that were threatened by pest infestation, and to reduce the spread of malaria which had a high mortality rate in many parts of the world. Its use for agricultural purposes has since been prohibited by national legislation of most countries, while its use as a control against malaria vectors is permitted, as specifically stated by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
As early as 1946, the harmful effects of DDT on bird, beneficial insects, fish, and marine invertebrates were seen in the environment. The most infamous example of these effects were seen in the eggshells of large predatory birds, which did not develop to be thick enough to support the adult bird sitting on them. Further studies found DDT in high concentrations in carnivores all over the world, the result of biomagnification through the food chain. Twenty years after its widespread use, DDT was found trapped in ice samples taken from Antarctic snow, suggesting wind and water are another means of environmental transport. Recent studies show the historical record of DDT deposition on remote glaciers in the Himalayas.
More than sixty years ago when biologists began to study the effects of DDT on laboratory animals, it was discovered that DDT interfered with reproductive development. Recent studies suggest DDT may inhibit the proper development of female reproductive organs that adversely affects reproduction into maturity. Additional studies suggest that a marked decrease in fertility in adult males may be due to DDT exposure. Most recently, it has been suggested that exposure to DDT in utero can increase a child’s risk of childhood obesity. DDT is still used as anti-malarial insecticide in Africa and parts of Southeast Asia in limited quantities.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of chlorinated compounds used as industrial coolants and lubricants. PCBs are created by heating benzene, a byproduct of gasoline refining, with chlorine. They were first manufactured commercially by the Swann Chemical Company in 1927. In 1933, the health effects of direct PCB exposure was seen in those who worked with the chemicals at the manufacturing facility in Alabama. In 1935, Monsanto acquired the company, taking over US production and licensing PCB manufacturing technology internationally.
General Electric was one of the largest US companies to incorporate PCBs into manufactured equipment. Between 1952 and 1977, the New York GE plant had dumped more than 500,000 pounds of PCB waste into the Hudson River. PCBs were first discovered in the environment far from its industrial use by scientists in Sweden studying DDT.
The effects of acute exposure to PCBs were well known within the companies who used Monsanto’s PCB formulation who saw the effects on their workers who came into contact with it regularly. Direct skin contact results in a severe acne-like condition called chloracne. Exposure increases the risk of skin cancer, liver cancer, and brain cancer. Monsanto tried for years to downplay the health problems related to PCB exposure in order to continue sales.
The detrimental health effects of PCB exposure to humans became undeniable when two separate incidents of contaminated cooking oil poisoned thousands of residents in Japan (Yushō disease, 1968) and Taiwan (Yu-cheng disease, 1979), leading to a worldwide ban on PCB use in 1977. Recent studies show the endocrine interference of certain PCB congeners is toxic to the liver and thyroid, increases childhood obesity in children exposed prenatally, and may increase the risk of developing diabetes.
PCBs in the environment may also be related to reproductive and infertility problems in wildlife. In Alaska it is thought that they may contribute to reproductive defects, infertility and antler malformation in some deer populations. Declines in the populations of otters and sea lions may also be partially due to their exposure to PCBs

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, the insecticide DDT, other persistent organic pollutants. Bans and restrictions on the use of EDCs have been associated with a reduction in health problems and the recovery of some wildlife populations.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of compounds found in flame retardants used in plastic cases of televisions and computers, electronics, carpets, lighting, bedding, clothing, car components, foam cushions and other textiles. Potential health concern: PBDE’s are structurally very similar to Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and have similar neurotoxic effects. Research has correlated halogenated hydrocarbons, such as PCBs, with neurotoxicity. PBDEs are similar in chemical structure to PCBs, and it has been suggested that PBDEs act by the same mechanism as PCBs.
In the 1930s and 1940s, the plastics industry developed technologies to create a variety of plastics with broad applications. Once World War II began, the US military used these new plastic materials to improve weapons, protect equipment, and to replace heavy components in aircraft and vehicles. After WWII, manufacturers saw the potential plastics could have in many industries, and plastics were incorporated into new consumer product designs. Plastics began to replace wood and metal in existing products as well, and today plastics are the most widely used manufacturing materials.
By the 1960s, all homes were wired with electricity and had numerous electrical appliances. Cotton had been the dominant textile used to produce home furnishings, but now home furnishings were composed of mostly synthetic materials. More than 500 billion cigarettes were consumed each year in the 1960s, as compared to less than 3 billion per year in the beginning of the twentieth century. When combined with high density living, the potential for home fires was higher in the 1960s than it had ever been in the US. By the late 1970s, approximately 6000 people in the US died each year in home fires.
In 1972, in response to this situation, the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control was created to study the fire problem in the US. In 1973 they published their findings in America Burning, a 192-page report that made recommendations to increase fire prevention. Most of the recommendations dealt with fire prevention education and improved building engineering, such as the installation of fire sprinklers and smoke detectors. The Commission expected that with the recommendations

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, a 5% reduction in fire losses could be expected each year, halving the annual losses within 14 years.
Historically, treatments with alum and borax were used to reduce the flammability of fabric and wood, as far back as Roman times. Since it is a non-absorbent material once created, flame retardant chemicals are added to plastic during the polymerization reaction when it is formed. Organic compounds based on halogens like bromine and chlorine are used as the flame retardant additive in plastics, and in fabric based textiles as well. The widespread use of brominated flame retardants may be due to the push from Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (GLCC) to profit from its huge investment in bromine. In 1992, the world market consumed approximately 150,000 tonnes of bromine-based flame retardants, and GLCC produced 30% of the world supply.
PBDEs have the potential to disrupt thyroid hormone balance and contribute to a variety of neurological and developmental deficits, including low intelligence and learning disabilities. Many of the most common PBDE’s were banned in the European Union in 2006. Studies with rodents have suggested that even brief exposure to PBDEs can cause developmental and behavior problems in juvenile rodents and exposure interferes with proper thyroid hormone regulation.
Phthalates are found in some soft toys, flooring, medical equipment, cosmetics and air fresheners. They are of potential health concern because they are known to disrupt the endocrine system of animals, and some research has implicated them in the rise of birth defects of the male reproductive system.
Although an expert panel has concluded that there is “insufficient evidence” that they can harm the reproductive system of infants, California and Europe have banned them from toys. One phthalate, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), used in medical tubing, catheters and blood bags, may harm sexual development in male infants. In 2002, the Food and Drug Administration released a public report which cautioned against exposing male babies to DEHP. Although there are no direct human studies the FDA report states: “Exposure to DEHP has produced a range of adverse effects in laboratory animals, but of greatest concern are effects on the development of the male reproductive system and production of normal sperm in young animals. In view of the available animal data, precautions should be taken to limit the exposure of the developing male to DEHP”. Similarly, phthalates may play a causal role in disrupting masculine neurological development when exposed prenatally.
PFOA exerts hormonal effects including alteration of thyroid hormone levels. Blood serum levels of PFOA were associated with an increased time to pregnancy — or “infertility” — in a 2009 study. PFOA exposure is associated with decreased semen quality. PFOA appeared to act as an endocrine disruptor by a potential mechanism on breast maturation in young girls. A C8 Science Panel status report noted an association between exposure in girls and a later onset of puberty.
Some other examples of putative EDCs are polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs) and -furans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenol derivatives and a number of pesticides (most prominent being organochlorine insecticides like endosulfan, Kepone(chlordecone) and DDT and its derivatives, the herbicide atrazine, and the fungicide vinclozolin), the contraceptive 17-alpha ethinylestradiol, as well as naturally occurring phytoestrogens such as genistein and mycoestrogens such as zearalenone.
The molting in crustaceans is an endocrine-controlled process. In the marine penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, exposure to endosulfan resulted increased susceptibility to acute toxicity and increased mortalities in the postmolt stage of the shrimp.
Many sunscreens contain oxybenzone, a chemical blocker that provides broad-spectrum UV coverage, yet is subject to a lot of controversy due its potential estrogenic effect in humans.
Tributyltin (TBT) are organotin compounds that for 40 years TBT was used as a biocide in anti-fouling paint, commonly known as bottom paint. TBT has been shown to impact invertebrate and vertebrate development, disrupting the endorcrine system, resulting in masculinization, lower survival rates,as well as many health problems in mammals.
Since being banned, the average human body burdens of DDT and PCB have been declining. Since their ban in 1972, the PCB body burden is 1/100 of what it was in the early 1980s (Weschler 2009). Monitoring programs of European breast milk samples have shown that PBDE levels are increasing. An analysis of PBDE content in breast milk samples from Europe, Canada, and the US shows that levels are 40 times higher for North American women than for Swedish women, and that levels in North America are doubling every two to six years.
The multitude of possible endocrine disruptors are technically regulated in the United States by many laws, including: the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Clean Air Act.
The Congress of the United States has improved the evaluation and regulation process of drugs and other chemicals. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 simultaneously provided the first legislative direction requiring the EPA to address endocrine disruption through establishment of a program for screening and testing of chemical substances.
In 1998 the EPA announced the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program by establishment of a framework for priority setting, screening and testing more than 85,000 chemicals in commerce. The basic concept behind the program is that prioritization will be based on existing information about chemical uses, production volume, structure-activity and toxicity. Screening is done by use of in vitro test systems (by examining, for instance, if an agent interacts with the estrogen receptor or the androgen receptor) and via the use of in animal models, such as development of tadpoles and uterine growth in prepubertal rodents. Full scale testing will examine effects not only in mammals (rats) but also in a number of other species (frogs, fish, birds and invertebrates). Since the theory involves the effects of these substances on a functioning system, animal testing is essential for scientific validity, but has been opposed by animal rights groups. Similarly, proof that these effects occur in humans would require human testing, and such testing also has opposition.
After failing to meet several deadlines to begin testing, the EPA finally announced that they were ready to begin the process of testing dozens of chemical entities that are suspected endocrine disruptors early in 2007, eleven years after the program was announced. When the final structure of the tests was announced there was objection to their design. Critics have charged that the entire process has been compromised by chemical company interference. In 2005, the EPA appointed a panel of experts to conduct an open peer-review of the program and its orientation. Their results found that “the long-term goals and science questions in the EDC program are appropriate”, however this study was conducted over a year before the EPA announced the final structure of the screening program.
In 2013, a number of pesticides containing endocrine disrupting chemicals were in draft EU criteria to be banned. On the 2nd May, US TTIP negotiators insisted the EU drop the criteria. They stated that a risk-based approach should be taken on regulation. Later the same day Catherine Day wrote to Karl Falkenberg asking for the criteria to be removed.
The European Commission had been to set criteria by December 2013 identifying endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in thousands of products — including disinfectants, pesticides and toiletries — that have been linked to cancers, birth defects and development disorders in children. However, the body delayed the process, prompting Sweden to state that it would sue the commission in May 2014 — blaming chemical industry lobbying for the disruption.
“This delay is due to the European chemical lobby, which put pressure again on different commissioners. Hormone disrupters are becoming a huge problem. In some places in Sweden we see double-sexed fish. We have scientific reports on how this affects fertility of young boys and girls, and other serious effects,” Swedish Environment Minister Lena Ek told the AFP, noting that Denmark had also demanded action.
In November 2014, the Copenhagen-based Nordic Council of Ministers released its own independent report that estimated the impact of environmental EDCs on male reproductive health, and the resulting cost to public health systems. It concluded that EDCs likely cost health systems across the EU anywhere from 59 million to 1.18 billion Euros a year, noting that even this represented only “a fraction of the endocrine related diseases”.
There is evidence that once a pollutant is no longer in use, or once its use is heavily restricted, the human body burden of that pollutant declines. Through the efforts of several large-scale monitoring programs, the most prevalent pollutants in the human population are fairly well known. The first step in reducing the body burden of these pollutants is eliminating or phasing out their production.
The second step toward lowering human body burden is awareness of and potentially labeling foods that are likely to contain high amounts of pollutants. This strategy has worked in the past – pregnant and nursing women are cautioned against eating seafood that is known to accumulate high levels of mercury. Ideally,[according to whom?] a certification process should be in place to routinely test animal products for POP concentrations. This would help the consumer identify which foods have the highest levels of pollutants.
The most challenging aspect[citation needed] of this problem is discovering how to eliminate these compounds from the environment and where to focus remediation efforts. Even pollutants no longer in production persist in the environment, and bio-accumulate in the food chain. An understanding of how these chemicals, once in the environment, move through ecosystems, is essential to designing ways to isolate and remove them. Working backwards through the food chain may help to identify areas to prioritize for remediation efforts. This may be extremely challenging for contaminated fish and marine mammals that have a large habitat and who consume fish from many different areas throughout their lives.
Many persistent organic compounds, PCB, DDT and PBDE included, accumulate in river and marine sediments. Several processes are currently being used by the EPA to clean up heavily polluted areas, as outlined in their Green Remediation program.
One of the most interesting ways is the utilization of naturally occurring microbes that degrade PCB congeners to remediate contaminated areas.
There are many success stories of cleanup efforts of large heavily contaminated Superfund sites. A 10-acre (40,000 m2) landfill in Austin, Texas contaminated with illegally dumped VOCs was restored in a year to a wetland and educational park.
A US uranium enrichment site that was contaminated with uranium and PCBs was cleaned up with high tech equipment used to find the pollutants within the soil. The soil and water at a polluted wetlands site were cleaned of VOCs, PCBs and lead, native plants were installed as biological filters, and a community program was implemented to ensure ongoing monitoring of pollutant concentrations in the area. These case studies are encouraging due to the short amount of time needed to remediate the site and the high level of success achieved.
Studies suggest that bisphenol A, certain PCBs, and phthalate compounds are preferentially eliminated from the human body through sweat.
Human exposure may cause some health effects, such as lower IQ and adult obesity. These effects may lead to lost productivity, disability, or premature death in some people. One source estimated that, within the European Union, this economic effect might have about twice the economic impact as the effects caused by mercury and lead contamination.

# Middlesbrough F.C.

Middlesbrough Football Club (/ˈmɪdəlzbrə/), also known as Boro, is an English football club based in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, that competes in the Football League Championship. Formed in 1876, they have played at the Riverside Stadium since August 1995, their third ground since turning professional in 1889. Their longest-serving home was Ayresome Park, where they played for 92 years, from 1903 to 1995.
They were one of the founding members of the Premier League in 1992. The club’s main rivals are Sunderland and Newcastle United. There is also a rivalry with Yorkshire club Leeds United.
The club’s highest league finish to date was third in the 1913–14 season and they have only spent two seasons outside of the Football League’s top two divisions. The club came close to folding in 1986 after experiencing severe financial difficulties before the club was saved by a consortium led by then board member and later chairman Steve Gibson. Middlesbrough were controversially deducted three points for failing to fulfil a fixture against Blackburn Rovers during the 1996–97 Premier League season and were subsequently relegated. They were promoted the following season and spent eleven consecutive seasons in the top division before relegation. Middlesbrough won the League Cup in 2004, the club’s first and only major trophy. They reached the 2006 UEFA Cup Final in May 2006 but were beaten by Spanish side Sevilla. On 24 May 2009, Middlesbrough were relegated to the Championship, ending their 11-year stay in the Premier League.
The club’s traditional kit is red with white detailing. The various crests throughout the club’s history, the most recent of which was adopted in May 2007, incorporate a lion rampant.

They won the FA Amateur Cup in 1895 and again in 1898. The club turned professional in 1889, but reverted to amateur status in 1892. They turned professional permanently in 1899. After three seasons, they won promotion to the First Division, where they would remain for the next 22 years.
In 1903, the club moved to Ayresome Park, their home for the next 92 years. In 1905, the club sanctioned the transfer of Alf Common for £1,000, a record fee. Over the next few years, their form fluctuated greatly, rising to sixth in 1907–08 before dropping to seventeenth two seasons later. The club rose to their highest league finish to date, third, in 1913–14. The First World War soon intervened and football was suspended. Before league football resumed, Middlesbrough won the Northern Victory League, but the team were unable to maintain their previous form and finished the 1919–20 season in mid-table. They remained in the First Division for the next few seasons, but were relegated in 1923–24 after finishing bottom, ten points adrift of their nearest rivals. Three seasons later, they won the Division Two title. During that season, debutant George Camsell, who had signed from Third Division North side Durham City the previous season, finished with a record 59 league goals, which included nine hat tricks. He would continue as top scorer for each of the next ten seasons. Their tenure back in the top flight lasted only one season, and the club were relegated. They were promoted at the first attempt in 1928–29, winning another Second Division title. The club remained in the First Division until 1954.
The decade before the war saw the emergence of Wilf Mannion and George Hardwick, both of whom would go on to become England internationals in the years ahead. Middlesbrough climbed to fourth in the last full season before the Second World War and were expected to challenge for the title next season, but the war intervened

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. After the war, the club was unable to recover the form of the previous seasons and hovered around mid-table and exited in the early rounds of the FA Cup. Soon afterwards the team began to falter, eventually suffering relegation in 1953–54. This was the start of a 20-year spell outside the top division, but saw the emergence of one of the club’s top goalscorers, Brian Clough, who scored 204 goals in 222 games, before he left for Sunderland. Over that period, Middlesbrough maintained reasonable progress in the Second Division but were never serious contenders for promotion. After a fourth-place finish in 1962–63, the club endured a steady decline and were relegated to the Third Division for the first time in their history in 1966.
New manager Stan Anderson returned the club to the second flight at the first attempt. Middlesbrough would not finish below ninth during the next eight seasons. By 1974, Jack Charlton had taken over as manager and guided the team back to the top flight. They ensured promotion as early as 23 March, and with eight games of the season left, they became runaway champions, finishing with a record 65 points. Middlesbrough won their first silverware as a professional side in the 1975–76 season, lifting the Anglo-Scottish Cup in its inaugural season after a two-legged final win over Fulham.
The club experienced severe financial difficulties during the mid-1980s. Middlesbrough were dropping down the table, and finished nineteenth in the 1984–85 season. In April 1986 the club had to borrow £30,000 from the PFA to pay wages. The final game of the season saw Middlesbrough relegated to the Third Division again. That summer, the club called in the Provisional Liquidator and shortly afterwards, the club was wound up and the gates to Ayresome Park were padlocked. Without the £350,000 capital required for Football League registration, a new rule, it seemed inevitable that the club would fold permanently. However, Steve Gibson, a member of the board at the time, brought together a consortium and with ten minutes to spare before the deadline, they completed their registration with the Football League for the 1986–87 season. Following the registration came both a change of club crest and a change of the official company name to Middlesbrough Football and Athletic Club (1986) Ltd.
Over the next two seasons, Middlesbrough gained successive promotions into Division Two and then into Division One. The next season though, they came straight back down to Division Two, and with it came the then British transfer record move of Gary Pallister to Manchester United for £2.3 million. Despite constant promotion and relegation, Middlesbrough were founding members of the FA Premier League for the 1992–93 season.
Player-manager Bryan Robson, from Manchester United, took charge in 1994 and Middlesbrough were brought back into national attention. Following promotion to the Premier League and high-profile purchases like diminutive Brazilian Juninho

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, many considered Middlesbrough were on the way up. However, a difficult 1996–97 season was compounded by a deduction of three points imposed just after Christmas, as punishment for the club’s failure to fulfil a fixture against Blackburn, which ultimately resulted in relegation. Without the points deduction, the club would have had enough points to avoid relegation. At the same time, the club managed to reach both the League and FA Cup finals for the first time, but lost out in both. Despite being in the second tier they were again runners up in the League Cup final the next year.
Despite losing high profile players Fabrizio Ravanelli and Juninho due to relegation, Middlesbrough were promoted back to the Premiership at the first attempt in 1998. The following season saw them settle well and they enjoyed a 12-game unbeaten run midway through 1998–99, including a 3–2 win at Old Trafford in January during which they took a 3–0 lead. It was United’s only home defeat during their treble winning season. They continued to stay secure in mid-table the following season, thanks mainly to the goals of Hamilton Ricard and the signings of big name players such as Paul Ince and Christian Ziege. In 2000–01 they had a brief relegation scare that was solved with the arrival of Terry Venables as co-manager, and a 3–0 win away at Arsenal in April was the team’s best result. The trend of buying European stars continued with the acquisitions of Christian Karembeu and Alen Bokšić.
Bryan Robson left the club before the start of 2001–02 season, having served as manager for 7 years, and was replaced by Manchester United assistant coach Steve McClaren. The following seasons saw Premiership security maintained as Middlesbrough slowly improved and were seen as a tough side to beat when playing at the Riverside Stadium. During McClaren’s reign, Middlesbrough achieved their highest Premier league placing of 7th in the 2004–05 season.
The 2003–04 season was the most successful in the club’s history as they finally won a major trophy after beating Bolton 2–1 in the League Cup final under manager Steve McClaren. This success also ensured that Middlesbrough would qualify for Europe – the UEFA Cup – for the first time, in which they reached the last 16. UEFA cup qualification was achieved for the second consecutive year after a dramatic 1–1 away draw with Manchester City thanks to a late penalty save from Mark Schwarzer in the last game of the season.
Middlesbrough reached the 2006 UEFA Cup Final in Eindhoven, following two comebacks from 3–0 down in the rounds preceding it, but lost 4–0 to Sevilla. Following the cup final, McClaren left to head up the England team, and captain Gareth Southgate took over. Despite not having the coaching qualifications, he was allowed to continue after receiving special dispensation. During the 2007–08 season, Southgate broke Middlesbrough’s record transfer fee, paying £13.6 million for Brazilian striker Afonso Alves. Southgate’s first two seasons saw the club finish in 12th and 13th places. He oversaw the club reaching the quarter finals of the FA Cup for three seasons, but the club was relegated to the Football League Championship on the last day of the 2008–09 season. Southgate was sacked in October 2009, and replaced by Gordon Strachan. At the time of Southgate’s dismissal, Boro were fourth in the Championship and only one point away from the automatic promotion spot, but their form under Strachan was significantly worse and they finished mid-table.
Despite starting the 2010–11 campaign as promotion favourites, the club endured a disappointing start to the season securing only 1-point in 5 away games. Having slipped to 20th in the Championship following a home defeat to rivals Leeds, Strachan resigned on 18 October. A week later, Tony Mowbray was confirmed as the new manager. Having staved off the threat of relegation, Mowbray successfully transformed Boro’s fortunes, eventually guiding them to a top-half finish. Boro ended the season top of the form table after four consecutive league wins, the first such run since 1998. However, despite a magnificent first half of the season, Boro failed to capitalise, and finished 7th in the League, missing out on the play-offs by 5 points and 1 position.
Following a poor run of form of 2 wins in 12 games in the 2013–14 campaign, on 21 October 2013, nearly 3 years after his arrival, Tony Mowbray left the club with immediate effect. Aitor Karanka, a former Spanish defender and assistant coach at Real Madrid to José Mourinho became the new Middlesbrough manager on 13 November 2013, signing a two-year contract. He became the first non-British manager at the club.The club finished the season twelfth in the final league standings.
In his first full season in charge the club finished fourth and thus qualified for the 2015 Football League play-offs. After seeing off Brentford F.C. 5–1 on aggregate in the semi-final, the club lost 0–2 to Norwich City at the Wembley Stadium in the final. Under Karanka’s tutelage Patrick Bamford, on loan from Chelsea F.C., won the Championship Player of the Year award for the 2014–15 Football League Championship.
As of season 2014/15.
Middlesbrough’s original home kit upon election to the Football League in 1899 was a white home shirt with blue shorts and they did not adopt their colours of red and white until later that season. Previous kits included a white shirt with a blue and white polka dotted collar from around 1889. The Middlesbrough kit has remained broadly the same over the years with a red shirt and socks and either red or white shorts. The distinctive broad white stripe across the chest was introduced by Jack Charlton in 1973 (following an attempt to change the home shirt to a Leeds United-style white shirt) and brought back for a one-off in 1997–98 and then again for the 2000–01 and 2004–05 seasons due to popular demand. The club subsequently announced in December 2007 that the club would allow the fans to decide via an online and text vote whether the white band should return for the following season. On 8 January 2008 the club announced that the white band was to return, with 77.4% of voters voting in its favour, with the fans to choose the final shirt design from a selection of three designs, of which the winner was announced on 7 May 2008.
The Middlesbrough crest has gone through four changes since the formation of the club. Initially, the badge was simply the town of Middlesbrough’s crest with a red lion instead of a blue lion in order to fit in with the club’s colours. Following the adoption of the white band on the shirts in 1973, only the red lion remained with the letters “M.F.C” underneath in red. This was further adapted following the reformation of the club in 1986 to a circular crest with the lion in the middle and the words “Middlesbrough Football Club 1986” around the circle in order to reflect this new era. In 2007, Middlesbrough changed their crest again, this time with the lion inside a shield and the words “Middlesbrough Football Club 1876” underneath. The club stated that this was to reflect the club’s long history and not just their post-liquidation status.
After formation in 1876, and with the club still amateurs, Middlesbrough’s first two years of football were played at Albert Park in Middlesbrough. After seeing the damage being caused by players and supporters, the Park Committee ordered the club to find an alternate venue. The club moved to Breckon Hill, behind the former Middlesbrough College longlands site, after agreeing to rent the land from its owner. However, two years later in 1880, the owner increased the rent and the club decided to move. They moved into the Linthorpe Road Ground in 1882, home at the time of Middlesbrough Cricket Club. The cricket club departed in 1893–94 to move to the Breckon Hill field, and Middlesbrough Football Club became sole users of the ground.
With the club’s growing size, and entry to the Football League, they had to move to a new ground in 1903, Ayresome Park. It was designed by Archibald Leitch and would be the club’s home for the next 92 years. Following the Taylor Report in 1990, the ground either needed modernising or the club needed a new stadium. The club decided on the latter, and moved out at the end of the 1994–95 season. It was used as a training ground during 1995–96, before it was demolished in 1997 and a housing estate built in its place. The club now trains at a £7 million complex at Rockliffe Park, in Hurworth, on the outskirts of Darlington.

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, named by the supporters of the club after a vote, became the club’s home in 1995. It was the first stadium to be built in line with the Taylor Report’s recommendations on all-seater stadia for clubs in the top two divisions of the English football league system. It was originally a 30,000 seater stadium, constructed at a cost of £16 million, before it was expanded in 1998 to a capacity of 35,100 for an extra £5 million.
Average attendances at Middlesbrough matches have fluctuated over the past several years, moving from a 2004–05 high average of 32,012 to a low of 26,092 in 2006–07, then up again to 28,428 in 2008–09. Following relegation to the Championship attendances have dipped, although the crowd of 23,451 which saw Middlesbrough’s first Championship game against Sheffield United represents far higher gates than is usual for the division, and indeed larger than those of some Premier League clubs.
A reorganisation of the Riverside Stadium occurred at the start of the 2013–14 season. Away fans were moved from behind the goal in the South stand to the South East corner, whilst home fans now sit behind both goals to help create a better atmosphere inside the stadium. Also, a giant TV screen was installed at the back of the South-East corner, replacing the older style scoreboards attached to the North and South stand roofs. Reorganisation of the stadium has resulted in the capacity being reduced slightly to 34,988 in June 2008 and then to 34,742 for the start of the 2013–14 season.
Traditionally supporters come from Middlesbrough itself and towns in the immediate area. Middlesbrough have one of the highest proportions in Britain of locally born season ticket holders at 80%, and one of the highest proportions of female fans at 20%. A survey at the start of the 2007–08 season found Middlesbrough supporters were the seventh loudest set of fans in the Premier League.
Middlesbrough Official Supporters Club, which features their own team in the local football league, has links with supporters’ clubs across the globe. The largest supporters’ clubs include the Official Supporters’ Club, the Middlesbrough Disabled Supporters’ Association, Yarm Reds, Red Faction and Middlesbrough Supporters South.
Middlesbrough supporters’ main rivals are Sunderland (with whom they contest the Tees–Wear derby), Newcastle United (with whom they contest the Tyne–Tees derby), and Leeds United, a fact confirmed by planetfootball.com’s 2004 survey,. Carlisle United see Middlesbrough as their biggest rivals, but Middlesbrough supporters have not reciprocated, as they do not see Carlisle as a top three rival.
The nickname Smoggies was first used as a derogatory term by opposing supporters; it relates to the industrial air pollution (smog) that used to hang over the town, but it was later used by Middlesbrough fans in a somewhat self-deprecating manner before finally being adopted as a badge of pride by supporters of the club. An example of this can be seen on the banners carried to away games stating “Smoggies on Tour”. Middlesbrough fans were notably praised by UEFA Chief Executive Lars-Christer Olsson after their behaviour during the 2005–06 UEFA Cup campaign. He commended that:
You have the satisfaction of knowing that, although your team did not win the game, your supporters present in Eindhoven proved to the world that football fans can turn a match into a friendly, violence-free celebration.
Middlesbrough fans had also been praised by Cleveland Police for their behaviour in previous rounds, particularly in the light of aggravation prior to and during the match at Roma.
Middlesbrough were the first football club in the world to launch its own TV channel – “Boro TV”. The first broadcasts were tied to the club’s first ever major cup final appearance in 1997, a full year ahead of Manchester United’s MUTV, which still claims to be the first in the world. The channel was the brainchild of then NTL Markeking Director, Peter Wilcock. Its programmes were not ‘live’ initially but were pre-recorded and hosted by local radio/TV broadcaster & Boro fan, Dave Roberts. Boro TV went on to claim another ‘first’ when in August 2001 it become the first English football club to broadcast time-delayed full-match footage of their league games on their own channel. Boro TV ran through NTL cable television until July 2005. The club now show match highlights through a subscription-based scheme on their official website.
Middlesbrough’s official matchday programme, Redsquare, was Programme Monthly’s 2006–07 Programme of the Year. There are numerous other fanzines available, most notably Fly Me to the Moon, formed in September 1988 following Bruce Rioch’s quote to Tony Mowbray, stating “If I had to go to the moon I’d want him by my side”.
Middlesbrough Football Club in the Community (MFCIC) was founded in 1995 by club chairman Steve Gibson and is the largest community-based football scheme in the United Kingdom. It is run separately from the football club but receives support from both the club in terms of providing players, staff, stadium facilities and PR in the matchday programme and other publications, as well as support from other local organisations.
Since 2002, the club and MFCIC have also run the Middlesbrough Enterprise Academy, a scheme which helps local children improve their entrepreneurial skills and increase their awareness of business planning and finance. In March 2008, plans were announced by the Premier League to roll out the scheme nationally amongst all Premier League clubs.
It was announced in December 2007 that Middlesbrough football club had carried out more community work during 2006–07 than any other Premier League club, rising from second place the previous year, with the club making 318 appearances – almost twice the Premier League average of 162. They were in the top two for community appearances again in 2007–08, with 374 – a 17% increase on the previous season.
Middlesbrough’s mascot is Roary the Lion. The club runs Roary’s Children’s Charity Fund which purchases items for local children’s charities.
In 2009 , steel producer Corus Group announced the possibility that it would mothball its Teesside plant, with up to 4,000 employees and contractors facing redundancy, after a consortium of steel magnates walked away from a 10-year deal. Middlesbrough Football Club helped with the “Save Our Steel” campaign by hosting dozens of steel workers and their families as they marched around the ground, promoted the campaign via the stadium’s PA system, scoreboards and in match day programmes, while players wore T-shirts during warm-ups promoting the campaign. Chairman Steve Gibson said:
“Middlesbrough Football Club exists for the community, for the people of Teesside—and the closure of the steel plants threatens to rip the heart out of our community. We cannot stand by and allow that to happen. We want the steelworkers and their families to know that we are behind them and will help their campaign in any way we can … We like to think that the football club is the flagship of Teesside. Well this is our town and these are our people and we have to do what we can to help them.”
As of 21 December 2015[update]
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
These ten players were voted for by fans as part of a campaign with the Evening Gazette.
These players made more than 430 appearances during their time at the club. The number in brackets indicates the number of appearances in all competitions.
These players scored more than 140 goals during their time with the club. The number in brackets indicates the number of goals scored in all competitions.
The Football League 100 Legends is a list of “100 legendary football players” produced by The Football League in 1998, to celebrate the 100th season of League football.
The English Football Hall of Fame is housed at The National Football Museum in Preston, England. The Hall aims to celebrate and highlight the achievements of top English Footballers and Footballers who have played in England. These players appeared for or managed Middlesbrough at some point in their careers.
The following former Middlesbrough players and managers have been inducted into the Scottish Football Hall of Fame.
The following are all the full-time Middlesbrough managers since the club turned professional in 1899.

# The Cleanists

The Cleanists is a short-form Australian comedy television and web series created by Tristram Baumber that premiered on 8 December 2013 on Showcase TV in the United Kingdom. The series follows four partners in a house-cleaning company as they face various crises and embark on surreal adventures.

Each five-minute episode of The Cleanists brings a new house to clean and a new and bizarre adventure for the characters to navigate. The dramatic centre of the show is everyman Gregg’s struggle to work with insane business partners Magda and Philip. The main emotional focus of the series is an ongoing love triangle between Philip, Gregg and Gregg’s long-time friend Libby.
The series is created by Tristram Baumber and was developed out of an early pilot called Ultra Clean. Baumber penned the ten scripts and then held auditions in Newcastle, New South Wales to find the actors who would bring his characters to life.
The ten episodes of the first season were filmed in and around Newcastle in June 2013. The cast and crew worked long days and were able to shoot at a rate of two episodes per day. Baumber, who directed all ten episodes, said of the shoot ” It all came down to planning the schedules meticulously in advance. We overran our schedules slightly every day, but at least that meant finishing by 6pm, rather than 11pm

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The four main cast members appear in every episode of The Cleanists. The first season features guest appearances from Anne Rzechowicz as a tax officer

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, Peter Oliver as an annoying client, Corinne Lavis as a government safety inspector, Owen Sparnon and Diley Alanca as homicide detectives and Duncan Gordon as a mysterious “ghoulish figure”.

All ten episodes of The Cleanists season 1 debuted on the official Cleanists Channel on YouTube on 3 December 2013. The series was made available globally, with no regional lockout. The crowdfunded Season 2 debuted on YouTube on 14 December 2014.
The first season of The Cleanists premiered on 8 December 2013 on UK broadcaster Showcase TV. Creator Baumber said of the broadcast “Getting the green light from Showcase TV in the UK was huge for us. We’re very excited about people across Great Britain and Ireland seeing our show. It just goes to demonstrate how truly global the TV business is now.” The entire first season was aired in compendium form by Showcase Free People Thermal, with repeat broadcasts following. The second season began airing in early 2015, following the same format.
The Cleanists was web TV aggregator SideReel’s “Featured Series” in December 2013

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. SideReel’s Leah Friedman said of the series “Think It’s Always Sunny crossed with the sweetness of Flight of the Conchords, but with Australian accents.” Sam Gutelle from Tubefilter said “By the second episode, multiple plots twist out of each house visit, with ten installments representing the series’ complete run. Ultimately, there are few web comedies of higher quality; The Cleanists‘ execution is fittingly tidy.”
Splitsider’s Luke Kelly-Clyne gave the show a positive review, saying “Creating a series concept that’s repeatable, low-cost, and interesting is like solving a complex math equation. Baumber Good Will Hunting’d the shit out of this web chalkboard.” Snobby Robot’s Chris Hadley was similarly positive: “In addition to the hilarious stories in each episode, THE CLEANISTS features great characters that will also keep viewers coming back for more; characters that viewers will get to know and understand as each episode progresses.”

# Agnetha Fältskog Vol. 2

Agnetha Fältskog Vol Replica Bogner sale. 2 is the second solo album by the Swedish pop singer and ABBA member Agnetha Fältskog. It was recorded and released in 1969 through Cupol Records.

“Zigenarvän” was the biggest hit

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, but its overly romantic lyrics about a young girl attending a Gypsy wedding and falling in love with the bride’s brother became the source of controversy. Its release coincided with a heated debate about Gypsies in the Swedish media

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, and Fältskog was accused of deliberately trying to make money out of the situation by writing the song.
Other tracks entering the Svensktoppen chart were “Framför Svenska Sommaren” and “En Gång Fanns Bara Vi Två”

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.
A large part of the songs on this album were written by Agnetha’s fiancé at the time, West German record producer Dieter Zimmermann who tried to launch her career in German-speaking countries like West Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Fältskog released a total of eight singles in the German language between the years 1969 and 1972, but her success was fairly limited. Tracks originally recorded in German on this album include “Señor Gonzales”, “Som en vind kom du till mej” (Wie der Wind) and “Det handlar om kärlek” (Concerto d’Amore).
The album has been re-issued both on CD and iTunes. The Dutch label Royal Records re-released the album on CD for the very first time in 2000. Next to the 12 original tracks the release also featured three bonus tracks taken from the Swedish TV series Räkna de lyckliga stunderna blott.
During the year of 1969, three singles were released off of Fältskog’s second studio album. None of them charted on the official Swedish sales chart Kvällstoppen.
Two tracks from Agnetha Fältskog Vol. 2 appeared on the important Swedish radio chart Svensktoppen.

# Menteith

Coordinates: 56°10′30″N 4°03′25″W﻿ / ﻿56.175°N 4.057°W﻿ / 56.175; -4.057
Menteith or Monteith (Scottish Gaelic: Tèadhaich), a district of south Perthshire, Scotland, roughly comprises the territory between the Teith and the Forth. The region is named for the river Teith, but the exact sense is unclear, early forms including Meneted, Maneteth and Meneteth. The area between Callander and Dunblane was historically known as the Vale of Menteith.
In medieval Scotland, Menteith formed an earldom

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, ruled by the Earls of Menteith. Gilchrist is the first known earl. The lands and the earldom passed to Walter Comyn (d. 1258) in right of his wife Isabella, and then through Isabella’s sister Mary to Stewarts, and finally to the Grahams, becoming extinct in 1694.
The Lake of Menteith, situated 24 miles south of Loch Venachar, measures 14 miles long by 1 mile broad, and contains three islands. On Inchmahome (Innis MoCholmaig, island of St Colmaig) stand the ruins of Inchmahome Priory Free People Daisy Dress, an Augustinian priory founded in 1238 by Walter Comyn, and built in the Early English style, with an ornate western doorway. Mary, Queen of Scots

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, when a child of four

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, lived on the island for a few weeks before her departure to Dumbarton Castle, and on to France in 1548. On Inch Talla stands the ruined tower of the earls of Menteith, dating from 1428.
The village of Port of Menteith stands on the north shore of the lake.
In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Menteith is “a noblemen of Scotland,” appearing in Act V, allied with Malcolm et al. to oppose Macbeth’s usurpation.